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跟随吴哥窟的发现者游柬埔寨

In Cambodia, Along the Path to Something Profound
跟随吴哥窟的发现者游柬埔寨

I tiptoed across the wood planks of a wobbly orange boat heading from the riverside town Kampot to the Gulf of Thailand. I burned my bare feet on the shiny outdoor tiles surrounding a Buddhist stupa at Udong, the old capital of Cambodia. Across the country, at the 11th-century ruins of Phnom Banan, I spelunked through deep, damp caverns steeped in legends of magic and superstition. All the way, I followed a Frenchman named Henri. For 16 years and more than 20 trips, he has led me through the heart of this beautiful but knotty country.

我在一艘自河边小镇贡布(Kampot)出发,摇摇晃晃前往泰国湾(Gulf of Thailand)的橙色小船上,踮着脚尖走过一块块的木制船板。我在柬埔寨旧都乌栋(Udong)一座佛塔外的瓷砖路上,顶着太阳赤足环寺一周时,灼伤了我的双脚。在这个国家的另一头,我在农巴南山(Phnom Banan)的11世纪遗址中,探索了一座又一座被玄幻和迷信过度放大的深邃潮湿的洞穴。一路上,我始终追随着一位名为亨利(Henri)的法国人。在16年的时间里,他引领着我走了20多趟旅程,穿梭于这个美丽但难打交道的国家的心脏地带。

If only we had met — or even lived in the same century. Henri Mouhot, an explorer and naturalist, was born in 1826 in eastern France. He had a passion for learning and travel, beginning with Russia, where he spent time as a young man. But his name is most associated with the Angkor ruins, which he made famous in Europe after first encountering those remnants of the Khmer empire in 1860.

要是我们能够相识该有多好――哪怕只是生活在同一个国度也行。亨利·穆奥(Henri Mouhot),探险家兼博物学家,1826年出生于法国东部。他对学习和旅行有着莫大的热情,他的旅程从俄罗斯开始,并在那里度过了他的青年时期。但是最常与他的名字联系在一起的,则是吴哥窟,他在1860年首次发现了这座高棉帝国(Khmer empire)的遗迹后,令其在欧洲名声大噪。

As a diarist, Mouhot (pronounced moo-HOE) could be cantankerous (“the present state of Cambodia is deplorable and its future menacing”) and condescending (“this miserable people”), but he also revered nature (“I have never been more happy”) and loved exploring (“in truth, this life is happiness to me”). His diaries from Siam (now Thailand), Cambodia, Laos (where he is buried) and Annam (now central Vietnam), between 1858 and 1861, endure as some of the most prescient, insightful literature on the region.

作为一名喜欢记日记的人,穆奥有时说话并不中听(“柬埔寨的现状十分凄惨,未来也险境重重”),还带着一种优越感(“这些可怜的人们”),但是他也敬畏自然(“我从来没有这么开心过”),热爱探险(“说真的,这种生活对我来说太幸福了”)。他于1858年至1861年间,在暹罗(现在的泰国)、柬埔寨、老挝(他现在就葬在那里)和安南(现在的越南中部)写下的日记,作为对当地最具先见之明也最有真知灼见的一批文学作品,流传了下来。

Our odyssey together began in 1998, the year I spent in Phnom Penh, the capital, working at a newspaper; I’ve returned to Cambodia nearly every year since. I first read Mouhot for background, and quickly found parallels to the country I was experiencing. The diaries contain a black-and-white drawing based on one of his sketches of a thatch hut on wooden stilts with a longboat on shore. The image could have been sketched today. And that cantankerous comment? Sadly, it could easily apply to more recent phases of the country’s history.

我们共同展开的奇幻之旅始于1998年,那一年我在柬埔寨的首都金边(Phnom Penh)度过,供职于当地的一家报社;在那之后,我几乎每年都会回柬埔寨一趟。我最初阅读穆奥的日记,只是为了了解一些当地的背景情况,却很快发现他的记载与我所亲身体验到的国家似乎属于两个平行世界。这些日记中附有一张黑白插图,穆奥曾为一间木脚茅屋和停在茅屋旁沙滩上的一艘大艇画了不少速写,这张插图便是根据其中的一张制成。插图本身应该是现代人重新临摹的。至于那些不中听的评语呢?令人难过的是,它们反而更容易被用来形容该国历史的近现代阶段。

The touristy scene at Angkor Wat is another story. Yet when I most recently approached it — on the back of a motorcycle, amid hundreds of other visitors — I felt the same awe he described from another age: “At first view, one is filled with profound admiration, and cannot but ask what has become of this powerful race, so civilised, so enlightened, the authors of these gigantic works?” The same questions propel me through the country year after year.

吴哥窟的旅游景点又是另一回事。然而我在最近一次去该地游览时――骑着一辆摩托车,夹杂在数百名游客当中――却感受到了他在另一个时代描绘出的同样的敬畏:“第一眼望去,你的内心会充满一股澎湃的仰慕之情,不由地想问,这个强大的民族,所有这些雄观伟业的创造者,如此文明,如此进步,一直以来究竟遭遇了些什么?”同样的问题也驱动着我,一年又一年地穿梭在这个国家的土地上。

My latest trip, last April, took me south, to Kampot (or Komput, as Mouhot spelled it). When Mouhot visited, this was Cambodia’s bustling port town. “Six or seven ships loading at one time,” he wrote. “Chinese and European vessels may be constantly seen going up and down the stream.”

我的上一次柬埔寨之行是在去年4月份,我一路南下,直达贡布(穆奥将其拼写为“Komput”)。穆奥访问此地时,这里还是柬埔寨一座繁华的口岸小镇。“一次会有六或七艘轮船同时装货,”他写道,“不时就能看到来自中国和欧洲的花瓶在水流中不断地载浮载沉。”

Today, the main port has moved west to Sihanoukville; gone are Kampot’s ships. Gone, too, is the public debauchery Mouhot depicted: “Almost every vice seemed prevalent at Komput — pride, insolence, cheating, cowardice, servility, excessive idleness.” It now boasts a reputation of beauty and calm and is a favorite among both locals and tourists who like a slower pace of life.

如今,该国的主要港口已经转移到了西边的西哈努克(Sihanoukville);贡布的轮船一去不复返。一去不复返的,还有穆奥笔下的灯红酒绿:“几乎所有的恶劣品质在贡布似乎都司空见惯――傲慢、羞辱、欺骗、怯懦、奴性、过度的懒散。”该地如今以风景秀丽、气氛沉静而著称,在当地人和喜欢慢生活节奏的游客当中均大受欢迎。

Mouhot arrived 150 years too early to stay at the lovely Mea Culpa, where, in rooms costing just $25, French doors open onto a patio with river views. He didn’t clutch a cup of coffee while watching the daily parade of fishing boats heading to sea, as I did. And he didn’t spend a morning with a boatman named Math Ly.

穆奥早去了150年,没有机会在环境趣致的餐厅Mea Culpa小住几日,那里收费25美元的客房在打开法式房门后,有一座露台可以看到河上的风景。他没有机会像我这样,手里端着一杯咖啡,观看着每天列队出海的渔船。他也没有机会与一位名叫麦斯·利(Math Ly)的船夫共同消磨一个上午。

We set out on his flame-colored longboat at 7:30 a.m. The river was mostly empty, fishermen having already gone to sea. Only a long line of skiffs sat tethered to shore. As we headed south, rows of metal shacks gave way to mangroves in a faint, salty breeze. The river widened, and the horizon opened to distant islands dotting the gulf. Water and sky were both the hazy teal of sand-etched sea glass.

我们在早上7点半时,乘坐着他那艘刷成火焰色的大艇出发。此时的河面基本都空荡荡的,渔夫们早就已经出海去了。只有一长排的小艇停靠在河岸边。我们向南驶去,在带着咸味的醉人海风中,一排排的金属小屋逐渐被红树林的身影所取代。河面越来越宽,地平线上开始出现零星散布在海湾中的遥远小岛。海天都呈现出经过砂石磨砺后的海玻璃那种带有几分朦胧感的青绿色。

Mouhot spent time in this cacophonous town, where traders sold all manner of goods. “The dealers in fish and vegetables, and the Chinese restaurateurs, dispute the street with pigs, hungry dogs, and children of all ages.” The Kampot market today still feels clamorous and claustrophobic — a maze of low-ceilinged stalls seemingly selling everything: mangoes, rice, cabbage, watermelon, pickles, shrimp, fermented fish, flowering chives, laundry soaps and toothbrushes. But though there are children, dogs are scarce, and any pigs you encounter will be of the fried variety.

穆奥在这座嘈杂的小镇中度过了一段时光,当地的商人们出售的商品种类繁多应有尽有。“卖鱼、卖菜的小贩,还有中式餐馆老板们,在街上和猪、饿狗还有不同年龄的小孩子们吵来吵去。”如今的贡布市场,仍然给人以嘈杂和幽暗恐怖的感觉――各种屋檐低垂的摊位如迷宫一般纵横交错,里面似乎什么都卖:芒果,大米,卷心菜,西瓜,酱菜,虾,鲊鱼,韭菜花,洗衣皂,牙刷。不过这里虽然也有小孩,狗却很罕见,而你碰到的任何猪都只会是某种油炸食品。

The king, in Kampot at the time of Mouhot’s visit, advised him to escape the clamor: “Go to Udong; go about.” Udong (or Oudong, as it is also spelled) was then the capital, about 100 miles north, beyond modern-day Phnom Penh. “An eight-days’ journey travelling with oxen or buffaloes,” Mouhot wrote. “With elephants you can accomplish it in half the time.”

穆奥造访贡布期间,当时的国王建议他远离此处的喧嚣:“去乌栋吧;去吧。”乌栋(又写作Oudong)是当时的国都,位于贡布以北大约100英里的地方,在今日的柬埔寨首都金边的疆域之外。“一趟骑乘公牛或水牛需要八天的旅途,”穆奥写道,“换成大象后,只需要一半的时间就可以完成。”

My journey out of Kampot, by air-conditioned bus, took me first to Phnom Penh (or Penom-Peuh, as Mouhot spelled it), less than four hours on a paved highway (no elephants). Today’s capital of 2.2 million people, at the confluence of the Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers, was known to Mouhot as “the Great Bazaar.”

我在贡布以外地区的旅程,都是乘坐装有冷气的大巴完成的,其中我最先去的是金边(穆奥也将其拼写作Penom-Peuh),总共在沥青公路上行进了不到四个小时(我们可没有大象)。这座今日的国都共有220万人口,位于湄公河(Mekong River)和洞里萨河(Tonle Sap River)的交汇处,在穆奥的笔下被形容为“大集市”。

Phnom Penh is the seat of modern-day power. Though travelers aren’t accorded the royal audience Mouhot had, tourists can glimpse the high life with a visit to the Royal Palace. In contrast to the city around it, the compound has well-tamed gardens and an open-air gallery painted with Buddhist and Hindu legends depicting tigers, monkeys, sailors, warriors and intricate tales of honor and loss. The king’s quarters are roped off, but visitors can peek inside the Throne Hall and the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, with its floor of solid silver tiles.

金边是柬埔寨现代动力的根基所在。虽然旅行者们并不能像穆奥那样受到皇室的招待,游客们却依然可以前往参观皇宫,一窥当时的上流生活。这座建筑群与它所置身的这座城市形成了鲜明的对比,内有经过妥善打理的花园,露天的门廊,装饰着佛教和印度教的神话中所描绘的老虎、猴子、船员、勇士,还有讲述着荣耀与失败的复杂传说。国王的住处用绳索圈了起来,不过游客可以一窥金銮殿(Throne Hall)和玉佛寺(Temple of the Emerald Buddha)的内堂,还有寺内由实心银砖铺就的地板(故该寺又名银塔寺――译者注)。

From Phnom Penh, it’s an hour’s drive to Udong through congestion, then a green belt of rice farms. Mouhot wrote of cottages with fruit gardens and country houses for the aristocracy “who come here in the evening for the sake of breathing a purer air than they can find in the city.” Except Phnom Penh was just a market town, and “the city” was Udong, a spirited place of mandarins, chiefs and noisy courts of justice.

从金边出发,驾车一个小时便可到达乌栋,途中会经过一段拥堵的交通,接着则是稻田组成的一片绿化带。穆奥笔下写到了设有果园的村舍和专供贵族居住的乡间别墅:“他们会在晚间时分抵达此处,只为了呼吸一口比他们在城市里所能享受到的更加新鲜的空气。”只不过金边曾经只是一座集镇,而当时的“城市”则是乌栋,一处盛产柑橘、部长和吵闹法院的灵性之地。

“How do you like my city?” a second king asked Mouhot. (Cambodia had a first and second king at the time.)

“你喜欢我的城市吗?”当时的一位第二国王如此向穆奥问道。(柬埔寨当时有一种第一国王和第二国王的制度。)

“Sire, it is splendid, and presents an appearance such as I have never seen elsewhere.”

“陛下,这里是在壮丽无比,让我看到了在别处从未见识过的景象。”

Little of that remains. The royals left in 1866 when the king chose Phnom Penh as a new capital. Udong suffered through decades of subsequent war, though today the remnants are slowly being rebuilt. Pilgrims now brave a constant heat to climb steps to a series of hilltop temples and shrines.

当年的壮观景象如今基本不复存在。1866年,时任国王将金边选作为新都,皇室从此离开了此处。乌栋经历了数十年连绵不断的战火洗礼,虽然因此留下的断壁残垣如今正在经历缓慢的重建。清教徒如今敢于挑战当地的持续高温,徒步攀登阶梯,朝拜一座又一座位于山顶的寺庙和神殿。

Children clung to my legs, attempting to sell me bracelets or cool me with hand-held fans. Elderly and disabled beggars lined the steps, each with a plate onto which more fortunate visitors drop 100 riel notes (less than 3 cents).

小孩子们扯着我的腿,试图向我兜售手链,或者用手持风扇为我降温。年长的乞丐和带有残疾的乞丐,在阶梯上排成一排,一人拿着一只盘子,比较富有的游客会在上面丢下面值为100瑞尔的纸币(约合不到三美分)。

At a giant golden Buddha with ruby lips and a golden sash, children occupied the entryway, guarding visitors’ shoes for tips. This temple, once in shambles, has a new roof. A child monk sat among burning incense, taking offerings and dispensing blessings. I stood in an open window, soaking in a welcome breeze and gazing upon the paddies below. A few incongruous factories are scattered among the fields, but mostly it’s a green landscape that stretches to the broad waters of the Tonle Sap River.<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

在一座嘴唇由红宝石镶成、系着黄金腰带的巨型金佛脚下,孩子们占领了入口处的通道,看护着游客们的鞋子以换取小费。这座寺庙曾经陷入过一片混乱,如今则处于新屋顶的庇护之下。一名幼年僧人坐在焚烧的香火当中,收取贡品,送出赐福。我站在一扇打开的窗前,沉浸在一阵舒爽的清风当中,凝视着山下方的稻田。几间与此间风景极不协调的工厂三三两两地坐落在田间,但是大部分的土地都是一片葱郁,一直延伸到洞里萨河的宽阔水域处。

That river is the artery of Cambodia. It is, as Mouhot wrote, the “grand and beautiful” gateway to the lake of the same name, which swells in the rains and drains each dry season. It connects the lake to the Mekong, switching directions as those waters rise and fall. “The river becomes wider and wider until at last it is four or five miles in breadth; and then you enter the immense sheet of water,” Mouhot wrote.

这条大河是柬埔寨的主干道。一如穆奥所记载的,它是一条“壮观而又美丽”的河道,通向一座同名的湖泊,随着雨季与旱季的交替,湖内的湖水会上涨或枯竭。这条河道将这座湖泊与湄公河连接在一起,随着湖水的涨落转换着河流的方向。“河面会变得越来越辽阔,直到至少有四五英里宽;然后你便进入了一片一望无际的水域,”穆奥写道。

I rented a wood cruise boat and burbled up the river, hoping for a picturesque sunset. But Phnom Penh’s ever-expanding skyline only dimmed in a thickening haze, atypical of the dazzling reds and pinks that often cascade across the river as the sun falls.

我租下了一艘木制游艇,逆着河流而上,希望能够观赏到一次壮美如画的日落景观。但是金边无边无垠的天际只是在一片愈发厚重的雾气中渐渐暗了下去,炫丽的红色与粉色在河面上交织出一幅奇异的景象,就像通常会在日落时分的河面上呈现出的那样。

Mouhot found his light at Angkor Wat (Ongcor), “the most beautiful and best preserved of all the remains,” in Siem Reap. It is still the world’s largest religious structure, encompassing 401 acres — so commanding that a traveler forgets “all the fatigues of the journey.”

穆奥在吴哥窟(彼时写作Ongcor)找到了自己的曙光,称其是暹粒“所有遗迹中保存得最完整也最美丽的一处”。这里如今仍是世界上规模最大的宗教建筑群,覆盖了401英亩的面积――那种庄严感,足以令旅行者忘却“旅途中的所有疲劳”。

Angkor is a bit more boisterous now, with over two million visitors annually. And it’s lost some of its Indiana Jones appeal: The multitudes have prompted the construction of wooden steps, railings, danger signs and a litany of rules. I headed to the back of the temple, where a guide was leading foreigners to their first glimpse of the site. He’d chosen a divergent but dramatic approach, their view initially blocked by trees until the tourists came around the corner and sighed collectively. “Oh, wow, look at that!” one man shouted.

吴哥如今已经变得更为喧嚣了一些,每年都要迎接200多万名游客。这里也丧失了几分它原有的印第安纳琼斯式魅力:百姓们大力推动了木制阶梯、栏杆、危险标志的修建和冗长条例的制订。我走向寺庙的后方,那里正有一名导游带领着一队外国游客首次观赏此处的景色。他选择了一种凌乱但是富有戏剧性的介绍方式,他们的视线一开始遭到了树木的阻挡,直到这队游客走到了拐角处,开始集体发出了感叹的声音。“哦,哇,快看那里!”一名男士叫道。

Late in the day, I sought solitude. Most crowds flock to the top of Phnom Bakheng, an ancient hilltop temple, for a sunset view over Angkor Wat, but I headed instead to Ta Prohm, the overgrown temple famous for the tenacious trees that smother its stone. It was nearly closing time, and almost no one was there. There is no sunset to be viewed in these tree-wrapped grounds, as twilight is heard more than seen. The light fades, and the ruins erupt in a riot of birdsong — mynas, parrots and a hornbill with swooshing wings.

天色将晚的时候,我终于找回了清静。大部分人群都聚集到了山顶古寺巴肯寺(Phnom Bakheng)的顶层,欣赏吴哥窟上空的日落景象,只有我一人转而前往杂草丛生的塔布茏寺(Ta Prohm),这里向以布满所有石块表面的顽强树丛而著称。此时已近闭寺时间,里面已经基本没有人了。在这片被群树环抱的土地上,没有日落可看,黎明也是传言多于亲见。光线渐渐黯淡,这处遗迹在一阵此起彼伏的鸟鸣之中骚动了起来――八哥、鹦鹉,还有一只翅膀呼啦作响的犀鸟。

The Angkorian ruins extend far beyond Siem Reap. In the 12th century, under King Suryavarman II, the empire reached its apex, stretching into modern-day Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. A few sites endure, in various states of dilapidation and looting, between Siem Reap and the Thai border.

吴哥王朝的遗址一直延伸到暹粒以外的边远地区。12世纪时,在国王苏耶跋摩二世(King Suryavarman II)的统治下,王国的发展达到了鼎盛时期,疆域向外拓展到了今日的缅甸、老挝和泰国的境内。在暹粒与泰国边境之间,依然有少数几处村落存留了下来,有的已然荒废,有的被洗劫一空,现状各不相同。

Phnom Banan (Banone), a mountaintop temple, is about 13 miles from the city Battambang, a pleasant jaunt through the countryside. It’s a near-vertical climb up laterite steps to the ruins above undulating hills. In Mouhot’s day, the temple still had eight towers connected by galleries of “fine workmanship, and great taste and skill in construction.” Now, only portions of towers remain.

矗立于农巴南山(又作Banone)山顶处的寺庙,距离马德望市(Battambang)约有13英里的距离,和适合来一次需要穿越乡郊的愉快远足。近乎垂直的红土阶梯不断向上攀升,通向坐落在连绵不断的山丘上的多处遗址。在穆奥所处的时代里,这座寺庙仍拥有八座宝塔,由“工艺精湛、品位绝佳、建筑技术高超”的数座长廊连接彼此。如今,这几座宝塔却仅有局部残存。

What I wanted most to see was down the steps, at the mountain’s base. A sandy path led to a “magic cave,” as tourists call it today, a deep cavern of stalactites in the limestone rock. “The water dropping from these is considered sacred” by pilgrims who say it can impart “knowledge of the past, present, and future,” Mouhot wrote.

我最想看到的,则要沿着阶梯一路向下,直至这座山脉的山麓处。一条沙砾小路将人引往一座现代游客口中的“神洞”,这是一座位于石灰岩中的钟乳石岩洞,又深又长。在清教徒眼中,“这些钟乳石上滴下的水滴被视为一种十分神圣的景观”,认为它能向信徒传授“有关过去、现在与未来的知识”,穆奥如此写道。

The cave is cool and dark, the soothing yin to the scorching yang outside. Inside is a maze of psychedelic rock formations. One looks like an elephant. A guide named Phuoc Ran took me to an inner room where a Buddha statue sat amid candles. Nearby, water squeezed through ceiling cracks and plopped over smooth, rounded rocks, caught by buckets and cups.

这座山洞又黑又冷,令人沉静的阴气转化为外部令人焦躁的阳气。洞内有如迷宫一般的岩层结构令人头晕目眩。其中一处形如一只大象。一位名叫福兰(Phuoc Ran,音译)的导游带我进入了洞内深处,在那里的一片烛光中,盘坐着一尊佛像。附近,水滴从山洞顶部的石缝中渗了出来,扑通地滴落在光滑无棱的岩石上,被一个个的水桶和杯子接住。

Take the water, he said, and “you will know the past, present and future.”

拿一杯水,他说,这样“你就会知晓过去、现在与未来”。

I instead listened to Phuoc Ran, who was born in Saigon but fled to the Thai border during wartime. He told me he knows about New Mexico, where I live, because the American soldiers he met during the war watched movies full of Southwestern cowboys.

这一次我倒是听从了福兰的建议,他出生在西贡(Saigon),但是在战争时期逃去了泰国边境地区。他说他对我所居住的新墨西哥州十分熟悉,因为他在战争期间遇到的美国士兵所看的影片里,到处都是美国西南地区牛仔的身影。

Mouhot, Phuoc Ran, me — we keep treading ground here because we keep finding stories to tell. That’s how we learn about past, present and future.

穆奥、福兰,还有我――我们在这片土地上反复奔走,因为我们不断地发现新的故事可以讲述。我们就这样不断地加深着对过去、现在与未来的了解。

Mouhot understood the capacity for travel to enhance insight; he devoted his life to these gifts. Before he died — brutally, from malaria — in Laos at 35, he wrote to his sister-in-law about his passions. “Seeing so much that is beautiful, grand, and new,” he wrote. “From these I draw my contentment.”

穆奥十分清楚旅行在增长见识方面所具备的作用;他将自己的一生都投入到了这些天赐之物中。在他因罹患疟疾而以区区35岁的年纪逝于老挝之前,他写信给自己的弟媳,描述了自己的激情。“看到如此之多美丽、壮观又新奇的景致,”他写道,“这一切教我心满意足。”

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