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立式办公桌真的能让你更健康吗?

更新时间:2015/11/10 10:35:32 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Stand More at Work, Sit More at Home
立式办公桌真的能让你更健康吗?

Using a standing desk at the office may adversely influence how much time you spend lounging in a chair at home, according to a new study of sedentary behavior. The findings subtly underscore that, when it comes to health habits and exercise, we humans have a surprising capacity to be our own worst enemies.

一项关于久坐行为的新研究表明,在办公室使用立式办公桌有可能会延长你在家赖在椅子上犯懒的时间。这一研究结果巧妙地凸显出,一旦涉及健康习惯和锻炼,我们人类总有着惊人的本事成为自己最大的敌人。

There is virtually unanimous scientific agreement that uninterrupted sitting is bad for us. Sitting for long stretches of time has been linked to markedly increased risks for obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders, heart disease and premature death.

科学界几乎一致认为,不间断地久坐有害健康。久坐与肥胖、糖尿病和其他代谢性疾病、心脏病以及过早死亡的风险显著增加相关。

But it can be difficult not to sit, especially for those of us who work in offices. Past studies of deskbound workers have shown that most of us sit for about 10 hours or more every day, with the majority of that chair time occurring at work.

但是,要我们不坐下恐怕很难,对于在办公室里工作的人尤其如此。关于伏案工作者的既往研究表明,我们大多数人每天至少要坐上大约10个小时甚至更长,其中大部分时间都是在工作。

Such statistics account for the growing popularity of sit-stand workstations, which allow people to stand up for at least part of their workday. In experiments, workers who receive sit-stand desks generally reduce the amount of time that they spend seated during office hours, at least in the short term, and often report feeling more energetic and productive.

在这些统计数据的刺激下,人们日益青睐坐立两用式办公桌,有了它们,人们就算在工作日里至少也有一部分时间可以保持站立姿势。在实验中,收到坐立两用式办公桌的工作人员至少在短期内都减少了坐着办公的时间,且常报告他们感到更有活力,工作效率也更高了。

But the ripple effect these desks have on people’s lives has not been studied. It might seem as if standing up in one arena, when we know that doing so is healthy, should inspire us to stand up in others.

但这种办公桌对人们生活产生的连锁反应尚未经过研究。照理说,如果在某一情境中站立有益于健康,这一发现应该会敦促我们在其他场合下也多多站立。

But the human body and brain are funny. They often, and rather insidiously, undermine some of our best efforts to be healthier, in an attempt to maintain our physiological status quo. The result can be that we do not benefit as much as we’d hoped from changes to our lifestyles. When we slash calories to lose weight, for instance, our bodies often lower our metabolic rate, and our weight doesn’t budge much.

可惜人的身体和大脑就是这样地难以解释。他们经常阴险地破坏我们想要变得更加健康的种种努力,企图让我们的生理现状维持不变。结果,我们可能并没能像希望的那样得益于生活方式的改变。例如,当我们限制摄入的热量想要减肥时,身体往往就会降低代谢率,让我们的体重不至于下降太多。

Similarly, studies of people who begin or greatly intensify an exercise program have shown that these exercisers often start sitting more during the hours when they are not working out, so that their overall daily energy expenditure doesn’t increase substantially and the number of hours that they spend sitting grows.

同样,研究表明,如果一个人刚刚开始或突然大大加强了锻炼计划,他在不锻炼时就会坐得更久,这样,他每天会有更多时间是坐着的,日总能量消耗也没有大幅增加。

Whether a relatively low-key intervention, however, such as providing people with sit-stand workstations would likewise cause physiological compensations away from the office remained unknown.

然而,目前尚不清楚较为低调的干预,如为人们提供坐立两用式办公桌,是否也同样会引起人在离开办公室后产生生理补偿。

So for the new study, which was published last month in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, researchers from Loughborough University in England and Victoria University in Australia recruited 40 healthy but sedentary university office workers and had them wear two types of activity monitors for 14 days. One of the monitors carefully tracked changes in posture that reveal how much someone is sitting or standing. The other monitor tracked steps and other physical activity.

因此,在这项上个月发表在《运动与锻炼中的医学与科学》杂志(Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise)上的新研究中,来自英格兰罗浮堡大学(Loughborough University,又译拉夫伯勒大学、拉夫堡大学)以及澳大利亚惠灵顿维多利亚大学的研究人员招募了40名健康但经常久坐的高校办公室工作人员,并让他们持续14天穿戴两种活动监测器。其中一个监测器详细地跟踪人的姿势变化,由此可知此人有多少时间分别处于站姿和坐姿。另一个监视器则负责跟踪志愿者们的步伐和体育活动。

Then the researchers provided all of their volunteers with sit-stand workstations and asked them to don the monitors after a week of using the new desks, after six weeks and after three months. In each instance, the volunteers wore the monitors at work and at home for a week at a time.

然后,研究人员向所有志愿者提供了坐立两用式办公桌,并要求他们在使用新办公桌一周、六周和三个月后分别穿戴上监测器。每次志愿者们都需要在工作时和在家持续穿戴监测器达一周时间。

Then the researchers examined how people’s daily activity patterns changed after they began using the sit-stand desks. And they did change. Before receiving the new desks, most of the workers had spent about 10 hours each day in a chair either at the office or at home and less than five hours standing up.

其后,研究人员审查了人们在开始使用坐立两用式办公桌后日常活动模式发生了怎样的改变。事实上,它们确实发生了变化。在得到新办公桌之前,大部分工作人员每天在办公室和在家加起来约有10小时上下的时间都是坐着的,站着的时间不到5个小时。

After a week with the new desks, the workers were standing for almost 6.5 hours in total each day — between work and home — and sitting for less than 8.5 hours.

在使用新办公桌一周后,志愿者们在工作和家庭中的日总站立时间达到近6.5个小时,与此同时,他们坐着的总时间减少至不足8.5个小时。

That shift lingered throughout the three-month study period, although there was some chair-time rebound. After six weeks, the workers were standing for about six hours a day, and after three months, their daily standing time had fallen to about 5.5 hours and their sitting time had climbed back to a little over nine hours.

这一转变在三个月的研究期间始终存在,只是其间志愿者们坐着的时间有些许反弹。六周后,他们每天约站立6小时,三个月后,他们每天的站立时间下降到了约5.5小时,而坐着的时间恢复到了9小时多一点。

What’s particularly interesting and revelatory about those numbers, though, is just where they were doing that sitting and standing. When the researchers looked closely at the volunteers’ daily activity patterns, they found that while the workers were sitting less at the office, they were spending more time seated at home than they had been at the start of the experiment.

不过,这些数字中特别有趣且颇具启示性之处在于志愿者们坐和站的地点。研究人员仔细研究了志愿者们的日常活动规律后发现,虽然较之实验开始时,他们在办公室里坐得少了,但回到家后却把更多时间花在了椅子上。

“It appears that participants were compensating for sitting less at work by sitting more and moving less after work,” said Stacy Clemes, a professor of exercise science at Loughborough University who conducted the study with Maedeh Mansoubi, a graduate student, and other colleagues.

该研究由罗浮堡大学的运动科学教授斯泰茜·克莱梅斯(Stacy Clemes)、研究生梅达·曼苏比(Maedeh Mansoubi)及其他同事合作完成。克莱梅斯博士说:“看来,参与者们是在用下班后少动多坐来补偿工作时减少的那部分坐着的时间。”

The net effect of giving people sit-stand desks, in other words, was to decrease the total amount of time they sat each day but nudge them toward sitting more at home.

换句话说,给人坐立两用式办公桌的净效果是减少了他们每天坐在椅子上的总时间,但这也会导致他们回家后倾向于多坐少动。

These dynamics were evident and accelerated throughout the three months of the study. Whether they would alter for better or worse after a longer period with sit-stand desks remains unknown, although Dr. Clemes and her colleagues are studying that issue.

这些对比变化显而易见,而且在三个月的研究期间还有所加速。至于长时间使用坐立两用式办公桌后,是否还会向更好或更坏的方向变化,目前仍属未知,但克莱梅斯博士及其同事们正在研究这个问题。

For now, she said, the message of this experiment is that someone wishing to sit less should “consciously think” about his or her behavior throughout the day, especially away from the office.

她还说,至于现在嘛,本实验带给人们的信息是,如果有人希望能少坐多动的话,那就得一整天都“自觉注意”自己的行为,尤其是不在办公室的时候。

“Stand up and walk around during TV commercials,” she said. Although, to avoid undermining your other health intentions, perhaps don’t walk to the refrigerator.

“在电视放广告的时候站起来走走,”她说。不过,最好别往冰箱那边走,免得破坏了你追求健康的其他努力。

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