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更新时间:2016/3/8 11:01:43 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Fighting the Incredible Shrinking Airline Seat

Can plane seats get any smaller?


Those of us who prefer not to find out were cheered when a bill that would set minimum seat size standards for commercial airlines was proposed in early February by Representative Steve Cohen of Tennessee. More recently, the issue received attention when Senator Chuck Schumer of New York said that he also wanted to set seat size standards.

2月初,田纳西州众议员史蒂夫·科恩(Steve Cohen)提出一项法案,规定商用客机上椅子的最小尺寸标准,我们这些不希望椅子更小的人太欢迎它了。前几天,纽约参议院查克·舒默(Chuck Schumer)说,他同样希望为椅子的尺寸设定标准,令个问题进一步引发人们的关注。

“People have gotten larger since seats were shrunk,” Mr. Cohen said during a February debate about his proposed amendment to the Federal Aviation Administration Reauthorization Act.


Seats were 18 inches wide before airline deregulation in the 1970s and have since been whittled to 16 and a half inches, he said, while seat pitch used to be 35 inches and has decreased to about 31 inches. At the same time, the average man is 30 pounds heavier today than he was in 1960 (196 pounds compared with 166 pounds) and the average woman is 26 pounds heavier (166 pounds, up from 140 pounds), Mr. Cohen said, citing statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smaller seats and larger passengers mean planes may not be capable of rapid evacuation in the event of an emergency, he said. “This affects safety and health.”


Representative Janice Hahn of California, a co-sponsor of the bill, added that passengers on cramped planes are getting in fights over products like the Knee Defender (about $22), the controversial clamps designed to attach to the arms of your tray table and prevent the person in front of you from reclining (possibly inciting a confrontation, though you can always hand your fellow passenger a Knee Defender Courtesy Card, which notes that you “realize that this may be an inconvenience”).

加利福尼亚州众议员詹尼斯·哈恩(Janice Hahn)也是这项法案的联名发起者,她补充说,拥挤飞机上的旅客会因为护膝器(Knee Defender,约22美元)吵起来,这种有争议的装置可以装在飞机旅客面前小桌的桌腿上,防止前面的旅客把椅子降下来(这样很可能会引起争吵,不过你可以递给前面的旅客一张“护膝器礼节卡”,上面写着“我知道这可能会为您带来不便”)。

During the debate, Representative Rick Nolan of Minnesota, among those who voted yes for the amendment, recalled seeing a man trying to squeeze into his seat and inadvertently pull the hair of the woman sitting in front of him. “And she’s screaming at him ’cause he pulled her hair, and he’s screaming at her for screaming at him and, I mean, it’s getting out of line.”

在这场争论中,明尼苏达州众议员里克·诺兰(Rick Nolan)也是这项修正案的赞同者,他记得自己曾经见过一个男人把自己挤进座位中去,还笨拙地扯了前座女人的头发。“她冲他尖叫,因为他扯了她的头发,他又冲女乘客尖叫,因为她冲他尖叫,我的意思是,一切都失控了。”

Alas, the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee voted down Mr. Cohen’s Seat Egress in Air Travel Act of 2016, 33 to 26, on Feb. 11. But I’m still holding out hope. Mr. Cohen introduced the act as a stand-alone bill on Feb. 8 and plans to introduce it again as an amendment if or when the F.A.A. Reauthorization comes to the House floor for consideration, according to a spokesman for Mr. Cohen. On Feb. 28, Senator Schumer of New York announced that he would offer an amendment to the F.A.A. Reauthorization bill that would require seat-size standards. “The average passenger feels like they’re being treated as a sardine,” he said during a news conference. “Squeezed and squeezed and squeezed.”


Whatever happens, Mr. Cohen’s bill raises important questions. Smaller seats are doubtless uncomfortable and unfair to travelers who are especially tall or heavy. But are they also unsafe?


There are two main concerns addressed by the Seat Egress in Air Travel Act: “economy class syndrome” (the condition experienced by travelers who develop deep vein thrombosis, the formation of a blood clot or clots, after long-distance flights) and the ability for passengers to safely evacuate a plane when they can barely get into their seats in the best of circumstances.


The risk of developing deep vein thrombosis or a pulmonary embolism — a potentially life-threatening condition when a clot or part of a clot travels to the lungs — as a result of flying long distances appears to be real, though small. An average of one passenger in 6,000 will suffer from deep vein thrombosis or a pulmonary embolism after a long-haul flight, according to a study by the World Health Organization.


The American College of Chest Physicians said in its most recent guidelines on the topic that developing deep vein thrombosis or a pulmonary embolism as a result of long-distance travel is unlikely for most travelers but that certain factors may increase the risk. They include having already had the conditions, having cancer, recent surgery or trauma, immobility, advanced age, using estrogen, being pregnant, being obese, and sitting in a window seat (because it can limit mobility). That said, when the American College of Chest Physicians issues guidelines it also grades them based on the quality of the evidence used to generate its recommendations. The group’s guidelines on this particular topic are graded 2C, which acknowledges that the evidence is of low quality.

美国胸内科学院就这一问题公布的最新指导文件称,大多数乘客不会因为长途飞行导致严重血栓或肺血栓,但是有些特定因素会增加风险。其中包括已经患有血栓、患癌、最近接受过外科手术或曾遭受精神创伤、瘫痪、年老、使用雌激素、怀孕、肥胖,以及坐靠窗座位(因为活动更为不便)。当美国胸内科学院公布各种指导文件时,还会根据证据的质量对之进行分级 。这一问题的指导文件分级是2C,也就是说,证据质量相当低。

It’s worth noting that deep vein thrombosis is not confined to air travel. “Anyone traveling more than four hours, whether by air, car, bus, or train, can be at risk for blood clots,” according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To help prevent clots, the C.D.C. suggests moving your legs frequently and exercising your calf muscles.


The other major safety concern Mr. Cohen raised is the ability of passengers to exit a plane in the event of an emergency.


“The F.A.A. requires that planes be capable of rapid evacuation in case of emergency,” he said in a statement when the bill was voted down, “yet they haven’t conducted emergency evacuation tests on all of today’s smaller seats. That’s unacceptable.”


At issue, Mr. Cohen said, is that the Federal Aviation Administration hasn’t conducted emergency evacuation tests on airlines with a distance between rows of less than 29 inches. And the House sets no safety standards for seat width or pitch. The consumer rights group FlyersRights.org said in late February that “it has been years since airlines have been required to conduct these tests, and back then, they used young, fit employees to conduct the tests. Any aircraft that has subsequently reduced seat width or pitch, or has added seats per row, should be required to recertify to the 90-second evacuation standard for that configuration, using volunteers from the general population, conforming to demographic standards, without prior training in aircraft evacuation, and with those tests supervised by the F.A.A.”


Since the introduction of Mr. Cohen’s bill, it has garnered a few more supporters, including Representative Charles B. Rangel of New York and Representative Eleanor Holmes Norton of the District of Columbia.

科恩提出这项法案之后赢得了若干支持者,其中包括纽约众议员查尔斯·B·兰格尔(Charles B. Rangel)和哥伦比亚特区众议员伊利诺·霍默斯·诺顿(Eleanor Holmes Norton).

Representative Adam Kinzinger of Illinois, a Republican, also signed on to the bill as a co-sponsor, joining several Democrats.

伊利诺斯共和党众议员亚当·金津格(Adam Kinzinger)也和若干民主党员一起,作为联合发起者在法案上签名。

“I hope to see this go through the House with bipartisan support,” he said in a statement.


So do thousands of fliers on both sides of the aisle.