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女人为难女人是个伪命题

Sheryl Sandberg on the Myth of the Catty Woman
女人为难女人是个伪命题

AT the 2014 Winter Olympic Games, the Norwegian cross-country skier Therese Johaug was vying for her first individual gold medal. Fresh off a world championship in the 10-kilometer race, she was now competing in the 30-kilometer. More than a grueling hour later, Ms. Johaug landed the silver, finishing less than three seconds behind the gold medalist — her training partner, Marit Bjorgen.

在2014年的冬季奥运会上,挪威越野滑雪运动员特蕾泽·约豪格(Therese Johaug)在竭力赢得自己的首枚个人奥运金牌。之前她刚刚夺得了世界锦标赛10公里越野的冠军,此时是在参加奥运会的30公里比赛。经过一个多小时的激烈竞逐,约豪格获得了银牌。她到达终点线的时间比金牌得主,也就是她的训练搭档玛丽特·比约根(Marit Bjorgen)晚了不到三秒钟。

The two Norwegians are the top two female cross-country skiers in the world and fierce competitors. Instead of being bitter rivals, they are best friends.

这两位挪威人是全球最出色的女子越野滑雪选手,是彼此强有力的竞争对手。她们没有成为势不两立的对手,反倒成了最好的朋友。

Ms. Bjorgen, 36, has been the reigning queen for more than a decade. When Ms. Johaug burst onto the scene, a wunderkind eight years younger threatening to unseat her, Ms. Bjorgen took her under her wing.

现年36岁的比约根已经连续十多年蝉联该项目冠军。当约豪格作为年轻八岁、有可能取代比约根位置的天才选手突然出现时,比约根选择将约豪格置于自己的关照之下。

“She has given me an incredible amount of confidence,” Ms. Johaug said, “and because she has done that I have become the cross-country skier I am.” When Ms. Bjorgen announced last year that she was pregnant, Ms. Johaug joked that she was prepared to be the baby’s “spare aunt.”

“她给了我无比大的信心,”约豪格说。“因为她那么做,我才成为取得这样成绩的越野滑雪选手。”当比约根去年宣布自己怀孕时,约豪格开玩笑说,她已经准备好当孩子的“备用阿姨”。

This is an extreme example of something that happens every day: women helping one another, professionally and personally. Yet the popular idea is that women are not supportive of other women. At school, we call them “mean girls” and later, we call them “catty” or “queen bees.” (What’s the derogatory male equivalent? It doesn’t exist.)

这是一个极端例子,但这种事每天都在发生:女性在职业和私人层面帮助女性。然而,人们普遍的观念却是,女性不愿帮助其他女性。在学校里,我们称她们为“刻薄的女孩”,后来说她们“恶毒”,或称之为“蜂后”。(针对男性的对应贬称是什么?没有。)

The biggest enemy of women, we’re warned, is a powerful woman. Queen bees refuse to help other women. If you approach one for advice, instead of opening a door, she’ll shut the door before you can even get your foot in. We’ve often heard women lower their voices and confess, “It hurts me to say this, but the worst boss I ever had was a woman.”

我们被警告,女性最大的敌人是一个有权势的女人。蜂后拒绝帮助其他女性。如果你向某一位蜂后寻求建议,她不会为你打开一扇门,而是会在你连脚都没踏进去之前就把门关上。我们经常听到女性放低声音坦白,“尽管这么说我心里也不好受,但我遇到的最差劲的老板的确是一名女性。”

But statistically that isn’t true.

但是,从统计角度看,这并非事实。

According to the queen bee theory, a female senior manager should have a more negative impact on the other women trying to climb into professional ranks. When strategy professors studied the top management of the Standard & Poor’s 1,500 companies over 20 years, they found something that seemed to support the notion. In their study, when one woman reached senior management, it was 51 percent less likely that a second woman would make it.

依据蜂后理论,一名女性高级经理应该会对其他试图挤入晋升阶梯的女性施加更负面的影响。在对标准普尔1500家企业的高层进行长达20年的研究之后,策略领域的一些教授发现了某些似乎可以支持这种观念的东西。他们的研究显示,当一名女性晋身高层时,该公司再出现另一位女性高管的几率减少了51%。

But the person blocking the second woman’s path wasn’t usually a queen bee; it was a male chief executive. When a woman was made chief executive, the opposite was true. In those companies, a woman had a better chance of joining senior management than when the chief executive was a man.

但阻碍另一名女性晋升高管职位的通常不是蜂后;而是男性首席执行官。当女性成为公司首席执行官之后,情况往往相反。相比于首席执行官为男性的企业,在这类企业里,女性加入高层的几率会更高。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

In business and in government, research supports the notion that women create opportunities for women. On corporate boards, despite having stronger qualifications than men, women are less likely to be mentored — unless there’s already a woman on the board. And when women join the board, there’s a better chance that other women will rise to top executive positions. We see a similar pattern in politics: In Latin America between 1999 and 2013, female presidents appointed 24 percent more female ministers to their cabinets than the average for their region.

在企业和政府机构里,研究结果都支持这样一种观念:女性在为女性创造机会。在企业董事会里,哪怕比男性更具资格,女性获得指导的可能性也会更低——除非董事会已经有一位女性成员。有女性加入董事会之后,其他女性晋升至高管职位的几率会更高。在政治领域也存在类似的模式:1999年至2013年间,拉丁美洲的女性总统在本国内阁中任命的女性部长人数比该区域的平均水平多了24%。

Queen bees exist, but they’re far less common than we think. Women aren’t any meaner to women than men are to one another. Women are just expected to be nicer. We stereotype men as aggressive and women as kind. When women violate those stereotypes, we judge them harshly. “A man has to be Joe McCarthy to be called ruthless,” Marlo Thomas once lamented. “All a woman has to do is put you on hold.”

的确存在蜂后这种角色,但她们比我们想象的要少见得多。女性对女性,不会比男性对男性更刻薄。只不过人们会期待女性更加和善一些。我们形成了模式化的看法,认为男性富于进取,而女性则是善良的。当有些女性动摇了这些成见,我们就会对她们做出严厉的评价。“一个男性只有到了乔·麦肯锡(Joe McCarthy)那种程度才会被称作残酷无情,”马洛·托马斯(Marlo Thomas)曾经哀叹。“而一名女性只要在你打电话的时候让你等了一会,就有可能落下这样的名声。”

In one experiment, researchers asked people to read about a workplace conflict between two women, two men, or a man and a woman. The conflict was identical, but when the case study was between two women, the participants saw it as more damaging to the relationship and expected them to be more likely to quit. When men argue, it’s a healthy debate. When women argue … meow! It’s a catfight.

在一项实验中,研究人员让受试者解读一场发生在两名女性之间、两名男性之间或一男一女之间的职场冲突。冲突都是相同的,但当研究案例涉及两名女性时,受试者会认为冲突将对两人的关系造成更大损害,并且认为两人更有可能辞职。要是男人们发生了争执,就是健康的争论。要是女人们发生了争执……喵!野猫开撕了。

Queen bees aren’t a reason for inequality but rather a result of inequality. In the past, structural disadvantages forced women to protect their fragile turf. Some of those disadvantages persist. Research shows that in male-dominated settings, token women are more likely to worry about their standing, so they’re reluctant to advocate for other women. A talented woman presents a threat if there’s only one seat for a woman at the table. A marginally qualified woman poses a different type of threat: “Hiring you will make me look bad.”

蜂后并非不平等的原因,而是不平等的结果。过去,结构性的劣势让女性不得不保护自己的地盘。有些劣势目前依然存在。研究显示,在男性主导的环境中,装点门面的女性更容易担心自己的地位,因此不愿支持其他女性。如果桌旁留给女性的位置只有一个的话,另一位才华横溢的女性会对其构成威胁。资质平平的女性则会带来另一种威胁:雇佣你会让我看起来很糟糕。

    蛐蛐英语 www.qqenglish.com

This behavior isn’t inherently female. It’s a natural way we react to discrimination when we belong to a nondominant group. Fearing that their group isn’t valued, some members distance themselves from their own kind. They internalize cultural biases and avoid affiliating with groups that are seen as having low status.

这不是女性天生的行为模式。当我们隶属于非主导群体时,面对歧视,自然而然就会如此行事。由于担心自身所在的群体不受重视,一些人会和自己的同类划清界限。他们把文化偏见融入自己的思维,避免跟被认为地位低下的群体发生关联。

As more women advance in the workplace, queen bees will go the way of the fax machine. One survey of high-potential leaders involved in mentoring showed that women were mentored by 73 percent of the women but only 30 percent of the men. And 65 percent of high-potential women who received support paid it forward by mentoring others, compared with only 56 percent of men. There is even evidence that there are concrete benefits to supporting others: Research reveals that when women negotiate on behalf of other women on their team, they are able to boost their own salaries, too.

随着更多女性在职场上取得进展,蜂后们会像传真机一样行事。一项关于高潜能领导者职场指导状况的调查显示,女性得到了73%的女性的指导,但只得到了30%的男性的指导。此外,得到过支持的高潜能女性,有65%会以指导其他人的方式做出回报;相比之下,只有56%的男性会这样做。甚至还有证据表明,支持其他人可以带来切实的好处:研究显示,当女性代表团队中的其他女性去谈判时,也可以让自己得到加薪。

Yet women can still pay a price when they advocate for other women. In a recent study of more than 300 executives, when men promoted diversity, they received slightly higher performance ratings. They were good guys who cared about breaking down the old boys’ network. When female executives promoted diversity, they were punished with significantly lower performance ratings. They were perceived as nepotistic — trying to advantage their own group.

不过,当女性支持其他女性时,还是有可能付出代价。最近的一项针对逾300名高管的研究显示,当男性致力于提高多样性的时候,外界对其表现的评价略有上升。他们被认为是想要打破老哥们关系网的好人。当女性高管致力于提高多样性时,却会受到惩罚:外界对其表现的评价大幅下降。她们被认为在搞裙带关系——想要拉拔自己人。

The same findings held true for race. White leaders got credit for championing diversity, while nonwhite leaders were penalized for it. And in a controlled experiment on hiring decisions, male leaders were not penalized for choosing a woman or nonwhite candidate over an equally qualified white man. But when female and nonwhite leaders chose the same diversity candidate, they were rated as 10 percent less effective.

种族方面的研究结果与此类似。同是致力于提高多样性,白人领导者会得到称赞,非白人领导者则会受到惩罚。此外,一项关于招聘决策的受控实验显示,男性领导者如果选择了女性或非白人候选人,而非具有同等资历的白人男性,并不会因此受到惩罚。但当女性或非白人领导者选择了同样一个有助于提高多样性的候选人时,对其工作效力的打分会下降10%。

It’s time to stop punishing women and minorities for promoting diversity. In the meantime, there are many ways that women can help one another without hurting themselves. There’s no penalty for women mentoring women — and when they do, they’re more likely to be seen by their protégés as role models. They share advice about how to break glass ceilings and escape sticky floors, which helps the group and costs them nothing but time. When a woman’s accomplishments are overlooked, other women can celebrate them, showing that they care and giving public credit where it’s due.

是时候停止因为女性或少数族裔致力于提高多样性而惩罚他们了。与此同时,有很多办法可以让女性互相帮助,又不至于伤害到自己。指导其他女性的女性不会受到惩罚——当她们这样做的时候,更有可能被其门徒视为榜样。她们可以分享关于如何打破玻璃天花板和逃离粘胶地板的建议,既能帮助女性群体,又不用付出任何代价——除了时间。当一位女性的成就被人忽视的时候,其他女性可以颂扬这些成就,表明自己对此很关心,并在合理的情况下给予公开赞誉。

And it’s time for all of us to stop judging the same behavior more harshly when it comes from a woman rather than a man. Women can disagree — even compete — and still have one another’s backs.

另外,我们所有人都是时候停止因为某种行为是由女性而非男性做出的,就对其进行更加严厉的评判了。女性可以有分歧——甚至相互竞争——但仍然相互支持。

Therese Johaug and Marit Bjorgen are competitors in each individual race; only one can win. But in the long run, training together has made them both stronger. As teammates in Sochi, they won three golds, a silver and a bronze for Norway. When a woman helps another woman, they both benefit. And when women celebrate one another’s accomplishments, we’re all lifted up.

特蕾泽·约豪格和玛丽特·比约根在每一场比赛中都是竞争对手;只有一个人能赢。但从长远来看,一同训练让两人都变得更强了。在索契冬奥会上,她们作为队友,为挪威赢得了三枚金牌、一枚银牌和一枚铜牌。当一位女性帮助另一位女性的时候,两人都会受益。当女性相互颂扬各自的成就时,我们都上了一个台阶。

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