您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

伊朗前总统拉夫桑贾尼逝世,享年82岁

更新时间:2017-1-9 18:15:23 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ayatollah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ex-President of Iran, Dies at 82
伊朗前总统拉夫桑贾尼逝世,享年82岁

Ayatollah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, a former president of Iran and a founder of the Islamic Republic, who navigated the opaque shoals of his country’s theocracy as one of its most enduring and wealthiest leaders, died Sunday in Tehran. He was 82.

伊朗前总统、这个伊斯兰共和国开国元勋阿亚图拉阿里·阿克巴尔·哈什米·拉夫桑贾尼(Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani)周日在德黑兰去世,享年82岁。作为伊朗影响力最持久、最富有的领导人之一,他领导该国度过了神权政治的诸多险滩。

His death was announced by Iran’s state television.

伊朗官方电视台宣布了他离世的消息。

As his career seesawed through periods of revolutionary zeal and confrontation with powerful conservative rivals, he was portrayed as a Machiavellian and often ruthless player in the power struggles among Iran’s elite factions, protected by his close association with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the revolutionary leader who overthrew the shah in 1979.

他的职业生涯随着革命热情的不同时期和强大保守派对手的挑战而起伏不定。在这个过程中,他被描绘成伊朗精英派中一个在权力斗争上不择手段,而且往往冷酷无情的角色。他因为与1979年推翻伊朗国王的革命领袖阿亚图拉鲁霍拉·霍梅尼(Ruhollah Khomeini)关系密切,而受到保护。

Known as a pragmatist and centrist inclined toward economic liberalism and political authoritarianism, Rafsanjani was accused by critics of corruption in amassing his fortune and of a readiness for harsh tactics to deal with dissent.

拉夫桑贾尼被认为是一名实用主义者和中间派,在经济上倾向自由主义,在政治上倾向威权主义。批评人士指控他腐败,积聚大量财富,对待异见者经常采取严酷手段。

Argentina has accused Rafsanjani and other senior Iranian figures of complicity in the 1994 bombing of a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, in which 85 people died. In 1997, a German court concluded that the highest levels of Iran’s political leadership had ordered the killing five years earlier of four exiled Iranian Kurdish dissidents in Berlin. Rafsanjani was president from 1989 to 1997.

阿根廷指控拉夫桑贾尼及其他伊朗高层领导人是1994年布宜诺斯艾利斯一个犹太人社区中心爆炸案的幕后主使,那起事件导致85人丧生。1997年,一座德国法院得出结论,称伊朗最高政治领导层在五年前下令杀害了五名流亡柏林的伊朗库尔德异见者。拉夫桑贾尼于1989年至1997年间担任伊朗总统。

Yet many Western analysts believed that he sought a less confrontational relationship with the United States than other powerful figures in the Iranian hierarchy. Rafsanjani, for instance, was credited with suggesting that “Death to America” be dropped from the litany of slogans at Tehran’s Friday prayers.

但是,许多西方分析人士认为,相比伊朗统治集团的其他权势人物,他寻求与美国达成少一些对抗的关系。比如,外界认为是拉夫桑贾尼提议将“美国灭亡”的口号从德黑兰周五的祈祷文中去除。

In the closing stages of the Iran-Iraq war, which lasted from 1980 to 1988, Rafsanjani was appointed acting commander in chief of Iranian forces and was widely credited with persuading the leadership in Tehran to accept a U.N. resolution that ended the fighting.

在1980年至1988年进行的两伊战争的最后阶段,拉夫桑贾尼被任命为伊朗部队代理总司令。外界普遍认为,是他劝说德黑兰领导层接受了联合国一项结束战斗的决议。

For much of his career, he maintained roles in parliament and on influential clerical panels.

在职业生涯的大部分时间里,他一直在议会和有影响力的神职人员专家会议里担任职位。

Rafsanjani’s clout declined sharply during the presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, from 2005 to 2013. A populist conservative, Ahmadinejad had a strong following among poor Iranians, many of whom resented the affluence that endeared Rafsanjani to his wealthier compatriots.

在马哈茂德·艾哈迈迪-内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)于2005年至2013年担任伊朗总统期间,拉夫桑贾尼的影响力急剧下降。作为一名民粹主义保守派,艾哈迈迪-内贾德在伊朗穷人中有很强的号召力,其中不少人憎恨财富,但恰恰是财富让拉夫桑贾尼深受他那些有钱同胞的喜爱。

In 2013, Rafsanjani was disqualified from standing in presidential elections and swung his political weight behind a moderate, longtime associate, Hassan Rouhani, who won the vote and went on to bring many of Rafsanjani’s supporters into his Cabinet and to negotiate the nuclear agreement with the United States in 2015.

2013年,拉夫桑贾尼被取消了总统竞选资格,他将自己的政治影响力转移到老朋友、温和派的哈桑·鲁哈尼(Hassan Rouhani)身上,后者赢得了大选,继而将拉夫桑贾尼的许多支持者召入自己的内阁,并在2015年与美国达成了核协议。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表