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伊朗前总统去世打击改革派,美伊关系遇新变局

更新时间:2017-1-10 11:32:07 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Death of Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Is Blow to Iran Reform Movement
伊朗前总统去世打击改革派,美伊关系遇新变局

TEHRAN — Iran’s political hierarchy was roiled with new uncertainty on Sunday from the death of Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, a former president and influential voice who had supported improved relations with the United States and other Western powers.

德黑兰——周日,伊朗前总统阿里·阿克巴尔·哈什米·拉夫桑贾尼(Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani)的去世给该国的政治秩序带来新的不确定性。拉夫桑贾尼是一位有影响力的人物,支持改善与美国等西方大国的关系。

Mr. Rafsanjani, 82, was also regarded a protector of what was left of Iran’s marginalized reformist movement and others with more moderate views than the conservative hard-line clerics who hold sway in Iran’s security forces and judiciary.

82岁的拉夫桑贾尼被认为是处于边缘状态的伊朗改革派及其他一些群体的保护伞,这些人选择了比掌管伊朗安全部队和司法系统的强硬保守派宗教人士更温和的立场。

He supported Hassan Rouhani, the current president, who is now suddenly bereft of a powerful and influential background figure with Islamic revolutionary credentials that could not be questioned. Mr. Rafsanjani also was a longtime comrade of the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, although the two had their disagreements.

拉夫桑贾尼支持现任总统哈桑·鲁哈尼(Hassan Rouhani)。现在,鲁哈尼突然失去了一个有影响力的强大后台——他拥有不容置疑的伊斯兰革命者声望。拉夫桑贾尼也是伊朗最高领袖阿亚图拉阿里·哈梅内伊(Ayatollah Ali Khamenei)的长期战友,虽然两人也有分歧。

Mr. Rafsanjani’s death from a stroke, which was announced Sunday on state television, came as Iran is struggling to emerge from years of economic isolation and is facing new uncertainties in its estranged relations with the United States.

据国家电视台周日公布的消息,拉夫桑贾尼死于中风。此时正值伊朗在努力摆脱多年的经济孤立,面临与美国关系疏远的新不确定性。

President-elect Donald J. Trump has expressed strong disapproval of the international nuclear agreement between Iran and six major powers, including the United States, that eased sanctions on Iran in exchange for verifiable guarantees that its nuclear work remains peaceful.

美国候任总统唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)强烈反对伊朗与包括美国在内的六个大国签订的国际核协议,该协议放松了对伊朗的制裁,以换取伊朗的一个可证实的保证——其核项目将始终用于和平目的。

Mr. Rafsanjani’s absence could embolden the extreme anti-American elements of Iran’s leadership and further dampen the prospects of any improvement in relations with the United States.

拉夫桑贾尼的去世可能会令伊朗领导层的极端反美人士更为大胆,进一步降低与美国改善关系的可能性。

His death is also considered a huge blow for Iran’s reformists and moderates for whom he was a leader and figurehead.

他的去世也被认为是对伊朗改革人士和温和派的巨大打击,他是他们的领导者和灵魂人物。

“He will be missed,” said Farshad Ghorbanpour, a political analyst close to the reformists. “He was increasingly powerless, but gave us hope. Now we will have to do without him.”

“我们会怀念他的,”与改革派关系密切的政治分析人士法沙德·古尔班普尔(Farshad Ghorbanpour)说。“他的权力日益衰落,但依然给了我们希望。现在,我们将不得不承受他的离去。”

Mr. Khamenei, in a statement on his official website, said, “The loss of a comrade and ally, with whom I share a friendship that dates back to 59 years ago, is difficult and heart-rending.”

哈梅内伊在自己官方网站的一项声明中说,“他是我的战友和盟友,我们的友谊可以追溯到59年前,失去他令我痛苦、心碎。”

He praised Mr. Rafsanjani for his “high intelligence”, terming him a dependable figure “for those who worked with him, particularly me.” Mr. Khamenei also said their differences in views over the years “could never break this friendship.”

他称赞拉夫桑贾尼具有“过人的智慧”,“与他共事的人,尤其是我”,认为他值得信赖。哈梅内伊还说,这些年他们在有些观点上的分歧“绝不可能破坏这种友谊”。

Mr. Rafsanjani had a long career as a revolutionary, but was also suspected of accumulating great wealth and influence in the process. He was one of the leaders of the 1979 Islamic revolution, and an aide to the founder of the Islamic republic, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. He also played a kingmaker role in picking Ayatollah Khamenei, Ayatollah Khomeini’s successor.

拉夫桑贾尼有过一段漫长的革命生涯,但也被人怀疑在此过程中积累了巨额财富和影响力。他是1979年伊斯兰革命的领导者之一,伊斯兰共和国创立者阿亚图拉·鲁霍拉·霍梅尼(Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini)的一名助手。他在挑选阿亚图拉霍梅尼的继任者阿亚图拉哈梅内伊的过程中扮演了拥立者的角色。

“He was one of the most influential figures before and after the revolution,” said Ali Khorram, Iran’s former ambassador to China.

“他是革命前和革命后最具影响力的人物之一,”前伊朗驻中国大使阿里·霍拉姆(Ali Khorram)说。

Mr. Rafsanjani’s death means that Mr. Rouhani is now the main leader of those calling for change in Iran.

拉夫桑贾尼的去世意味着,现在鲁哈尼是号召伊朗改革的主要领袖。

The former reformist president Mohammad Khatami has more support from ordinary Iranians, but has been nearly silenced by hard-liners, who do not allow him to appear on television or have his image published in newspapers.

前改革派总统穆罕默德·哈塔米(Mohammad Khatami)更多的是得到伊朗平民的支持,但他几乎被强硬派禁声,不允许他在电视上露面或者在报纸上公布自己的肖像。

Mr. Rafsanjani was president from 1989 to 1997. But after his presidency, political rivals, jealous of his grip on the economy, seized on his support for reformists and labeled him an “aristocrat,” a “capitalist” and a supporter of “American Islam”

拉夫桑贾尼在1989年至1997年期间任总统。但卸任后,政敌们嫉妒他对经济的控制,以支持改革派为由将他说成“贵族”、“资本家”和“美国伊斯兰”的支持者。

By 2002, his political stock had fallen so low he could not even muster the votes to win a seat in Parliament. He sustained a humiliating defeat against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the 2005 presidential election.

2002年,他的政治影响力已极大降低,他甚至无法获得足够的选票,在议会中获得一个席位。在2005年的总统大选中,他羞辱地输给了马哈茂德·艾哈迈迪-内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)。

After his election loss, Mr. Rafsanjani was propelled into the role of a critical politician, increasingly at odds with Mr. Khamenei over the direction the revolution should take. Where Iran’s supreme leader backed the continuation of a harsh, anti-Western ideological line, Mr. Rafsanjani pleaded for an update of the political system, bringing it on par with Iran’s changing society.

竞选总统失败后,他被迫转变为政治批评人士,越来越多地与哈梅内伊在革命方向上出现冲突。这位伊朗最高领袖支持继续采取强硬的反西方思想路线,而拉夫桑贾尼则呼吁改革政治系统,以便跟上伊朗不断变化的社会。

His speech in favor of greater freedom during the enormous 2009 protests that followed a presidential election in which the results were widely seen as fraudulent alienated him from Iran’s conservative clerics and military commanders.

被普遍认为存在舞弊的2009年总统大选引发了声势浩大的抗议。在抗议中,拉夫桑贾尼发表了支持更多自由的讲话,这令他与伊朗保守的宗教人士和军队指挥官更为疏远。

In 2013, attempting a political comeback at 79, he was barred from seeking the presidency by the Guardian Council, a decision that shocked Iranians. The disqualification seemed like an official repudiation of his ideas of a liberal economy and more freedoms.

2013年,他在79岁高龄试图重返政治舞台,却被宪法监督委员会(Guardian Council)禁止参与总统竞选,这项决定令伊朗人震惊。他失去竞选资格,似乎表明官方排斥他关于自由经济和更多自由权利的主张。

In 2015, his son, Mehdi Hashemi, a hated figure among Iranian hard-liners, was given a 15-year prison sentence after he was convicted of bribery and embezzlement.

他的儿子迈赫迪·哈什米(Mehdi Hashemi)是伊朗强硬派憎恨的人物,2015年被判贿赂罪和挪用公款罪,获刑15年。

In 2016, his daughter, Faezeh Hashemi, sparked a debate on religious persecution in Iran by visiting the female leader of the persecuted Bahai religious minority. The two women had met in prison, when Ms. Hashemi was serving a six-month sentence for “spreading propaganda against the system.”

2016年,他的女儿法埃泽·哈什米(Faezeh Hashemi)因看望遭迫害的巴哈伊(Bahai)宗教少数派女领袖而引发了关于宗教迫害的辩论。这两个女人是之前在监狱里认识的,当时法埃泽因“散布反体制宣传”而被判入狱10个月。

The semiofficial Fars news agency is reporting that Mr. Rafsanjani will be buried on Tuesday in a state funeral. Schools, offices and governmental organizations will be closed for several days.

半官方性质的Fars新闻社报道称,拉夫桑贾尼的国葬将于周二举行。学校、公司和政府机构将停课、停工数日。

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