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125年的光影实录

更新时间:2013-12-28 12:38:43 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Documenting the World for 125 Years
125年的光影实录

So, you want to see the Great Sphinx, but don’t have the big bucks for an Egyptian jaunt. Easy — go to your computer, type a few words into a search engine and within seconds thousands of images pop up for your viewing pleasure. Prefer to see the timeless creature at sunset, drenched in warm orange hues? Sure. Curious to see different angles? No problem.

你想看狮身人面像,但没钱去埃及旅游?很简单——打开电脑,在搜索引擎里输入几个词,几秒钟内,成千上万的图片就会出现在你面前,让你享受视觉盛宴。更想看到这个永恒建筑浸染在橘黄色落日余光中的景象吗?可以。想从不同角度看?没问题。

Living in 1910? Big problem. With no television, Instagram or Internet, you were lucky to read adventure tales, detailed sketches and explorers’ papers.

生活在1910年能做到这些吗?这是个大问题。在没有电视、Instagram或网络的情况下,能够读到冒险故事、看到细节图及探险者的记述,那就已经非常幸运了。

That changed more than a decade later, when one of the first black-and-white photos of the Sphinx appeared in the National Geographic magazine. Next to the image, published in the October 1922 issue, Frederick Simpich wrote, “We know superficial Egypt — the donkey boys, the beggars whining for bakshish, the smirking guides … and we have been photographed astride a blasé, flea-bitten old camel standing on the sands before the Sphinx.”Since 1888, National Geographic photographers have brought the world to its global readership, offering viewers glimpses of landscapes, cultures and archaeological wonders that, before the magazine, many would never have had the opportunity to experience. Through the decades, the magazine grew a photographic archive that reflected the process of globalization, too, as travel became more available and reached remote locations. Images in the magazine of a westernized Japan in the 1960s exposed a country steadily developing after devastation from World War II. Years later, an image of a more modern Shinjuku district in Tokyo was printed in the magazine, highlighting the booming growth of the skyscraper-saturated city.

十多年后,当《国家地理》(National Geographic)杂志刊登狮身人面像最早的黑白照片中的一张时,情况发生了改变。这张图片刊登于1922年的10月刊,图片旁印有弗雷德里克·辛皮奇(Frederick Simpich)写下的“我们对埃及的了解都是表面的——赶驴的小男孩、哭求施舍的乞丐,以及洋洋得意的导游……我们跨坐在无动于衷的、有蚤咬疤痕的老骆驼身上,在狮身人面像前的沙漠中拍照。”自1888年以来,《国家地理》杂志的摄影师为全球的读者展示了世界风貌,带领读者领略各地的风景、文化和考古奇观,在这本杂志出现以前,很多人一辈子都没有机会体验这些。数十年来,随着旅游变得更加容易,人们能够到达偏远地区,《国家地理》杂志逐步建立了一个图片档案,这个图片档案也体现了全球化的进程。20世纪60年代,该杂志刊登的一张图片展示了西化的日本,一个经历二战破坏后稳步发展的国家。该杂志多年之后刊登的一张图片则展示了更加现代的东京新宿区,突显了这个满是摩天大楼的城市的蓬勃发展。

Several of these images, along with a sprawling selection spanning the magazine’s life, have been published in a three-volume set: “Around the World in 125 Years” (a nod to Jules Verne’s adventure novel, “Around the World in 80 Days”). Published by Taschen, each volume is devoted to a region, taking viewers on a photographic and historical transcontinental journey.

其中一些图片和大量出自杂志不同历史时期的精选图片被收录到了《环游世界125年》(Around the World in 125 Years,以此向儒勒·凡尔纳[Jules Verne]的《环游世界80天》[Around the World in 80 Days]致敬)中。这套图书共有三册,由Taschen出版社出版,每一册只展现一个地区,带领读者开启横贯大陆的摄影及历史之旅。

“I think it’s important to have a record and documentation of how we once were,” said Steve McCurry, a National Geographic photographer for more than 30 years. “Without it, we would never know how we were or how we looked.”

“我觉得用文字和素材记录我们过去的样子非常重要,”《国家地理》杂志摄影师史蒂夫·麦柯里(Steve McCurry)说。“没有这些记录,我们永远都不会知道我们过去的生活和面貌。”麦柯里已经为该杂志工作了30多年。

Mr. McCurry — who has 11 images published in the book — said that during his travels, he had slowly witnessed the disappearance of cultures, from the way people dress, talk and celebrate traditions. Distinct features of the Kalash, a small tribe in Pakistan that he documented in the 1980s, have almost completely disappeared, said Mr. McCurry, famed for his portrait of the “Afghan Girl,” which graced the June 1985 cover. Many of the Kalash people have since migrated to the west of Pakistan, he said, slowly integrating with those of surrounding villages.Most of the images in the book were taken from the 1930s to 1960s, during the initial rise of air travel and car ownership. During this time, it also became easier for photographers to transport their gear, when the magazine began to encourage its photographers to use 35-millimeter Kodachrome film, which allowed them to capture rich color and faster motion. While photographers before were limited to presenting their subjects in staged positions to diminish traces of blur, Kodachrome made it easier to document people and animals interacting with their environments.

书中收录了麦柯里的11幅摄影作品。麦柯里表示,他在旅行期间,从人们穿衣、说话及庆祝传统节日的方式上,逐渐目睹了文化的消失。麦柯里在20世纪80年代记录了巴基斯坦的小部落卡拉什,他认为卡拉什人显著的外貌特征几乎已经完全消失。麦柯里因照片《阿富汗女孩》(Afghan Girl)而扬名世界,该照片是1985年6月刊的封面照片。他说,在那以后,许多卡拉什人都迁移到了巴基斯坦西部地区,逐渐与周围村庄的村民融合。书中的大部分照片拍摄于20世纪30年代至60年代期间,当时刚刚掀起乘飞机旅行和购买汽车的热潮。在这段时间里,对于摄影师来说,运送设备也变得更加容易,当时该杂志开始鼓励摄影师使用柯达克罗姆(Kodachrome)的35毫米胶卷,这种胶卷允许他们捕捉丰富的色彩和更快的动作。摄影师之前只能以摆拍的形式呈现主题,以便减少模糊痕迹,而柯达克鲁姆胶片使摄影师更容易记录人和动物与周围环境的互动。

“It’s not enough to just take a picture of the Taj Mahal,” Mr. McCurry said. “Fifty years ago, simply showing the Taj Mahal was great because no one had seen it before. Now we have to dig much deeper and see how people are living and changing their environments. It’s about being much more critical and observant on how we show our subjects.”

“光给泰姬陵(Taj Mahal)拍张照是不够的,”麦柯里说。“50年前,能展示泰姬陵的照片就非常棒了,因为没人见过。现在,我们得挖掘更深层的东西,观察人们如何生活,如何改变周围的环境。我们在展示拍摄对象的时候要更谨慎地判断、更仔细地观察。”

With more than 11 million images in the National Geographic archives, there is one such image that still resonates with Maura Mulvihill, senior vice president and director of the National Geographic Society’s image collection. While diving off the Auckland Islands in 2007, the photographer Brian Skerry and his assistant had a chance encounter with the nearly extinct Southern Right whale.

《国家地理》的图片档案保存了1100多万张图片,其中有一张图片依然能引起《国家地理》高级副总裁、国家地理学会(National Geographic Society)图片总监毛拉·马尔维希尔(Maura Mulvihill)的共鸣。2007年在奥克兰岛潜水的时候,摄影师布莱恩·斯科利(Brian Skerry)和助手偶然遇到了几近灭绝的南露脊鲸。

The allure of the image is in its simplicity: two subjects, one whale, one man, floating in a vastness of blue while inquisitively staring at each other face to face.

照片吸引人的地方在于它的简单之美:两个物体——一头鲸,一个人——在无尽的蓝色海洋中漂浮,两者好奇地、面对面地盯着彼此。

“We have the ability to shoot these things now because of the continuous advancement of photo technology,” she said, “specifically underwater photographs where you can catch animal behavior that you couldn’t do before.”

“由于摄影技术的不断进步,我们现在有能力拍摄这些东西,”她说,“特别是水下摄影,你可以捕捉动物的行为,而这在之前是无法做到的。”

“Here is a stranger in a strange land,” Ms. Mulvihill said, “and it’s one of those things that most of us will never see with our own eyes.”In addition to in the new books out by Taschen, images from National Geographic’s 125 years can be seen in an exhibit called “The Power of Photography,” on view at the Annenberg Space for Photography in Los Angeles through April 27, 2014.

“陌生的土地上的陌生人,”马尔维希尔说。“我们大多数人都不会亲眼看到这些。”除了由Taschen出版的新书之外,大家还可以在洛杉矶安纳伯格摄影空间(Annenberg Space for Photography)举办的“摄影的力量”(The Power of Photography)展览中看到《国家地理》杂志125年以来的摄影作品。展览将一直持续到2014年4月27日。

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