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新加坡引领亚洲机场扩建潮

更新时间:2014/1/1 13:17:20 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Singapore Leads Surge in Airport Construction Across Asia-Pacific
新加坡引领亚洲机场扩建潮

SINGAPORE — Travelers passing through the gigantic Changi International Airport here rarely have to wait long for bags or boarding. Unlike many other airports in this fast-growing region, Singapore’s airport can handle far more than the 53 million travelers that embarked and departed there this year.

新加坡——出入于巨大的樟宜国际机场的旅客很少需要在等行李或登机上花很长时间。和这个高速发展的地区的许多机场不一样的是,新加坡的机场处理出发和到达客流量的能力,远不止今年的5300万人次。

And even if they are delayed, the airport environment is relaxed, efficient and, with such over-the-top amenities as a free movie theater, a butterfly garden and a children’s play areas, even fun.

就算航班晚点,机场的环境也是舒适而高效的,甚至是好玩的,有免费电影院、蝴蝶花园和儿童游乐场这样慷慨的便利设施。

Despite all this, Singapore has big plans to expand the airport still further.

即便如此,新加坡还是有一项庞大的计划,要进一步扩建机场。

By the middle of the next decade, if all goes according to plan, Singapore’s airport will have a third runway and two more terminals. The first new terminal, which is scheduled to open in 2017, will have a 300-meter-long, or 328-yard-long, shopping mall and greenery galore. A large bubble-shaped glass complex will sprout in a space between the existing terminals, providing extra space for travel facilities and still more shops, as well as gardens and a waterfall.

如果一切按计划进行,五年后新加坡机场将拥有第三条跑道和两座新航站楼。第一座新航站楼定于2017年投入使用,将有一座长300米的购物中心和丰富的绿化景观。在已有航站楼之间的空间里将会有一个巨大的泡泡形玻璃综合体,为游客便利设施和更多的店铺提供额外空间,此外还有花园和一座瀑布。

Singapore is unusually forward-looking in its approach to expanding what is a lifeline for its economy. But the city-state’s ambitious plans are just the most extreme example of the huge surge in airport construction across Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Seoul, Jakarta and Delhi are adding or expanding terminals. Hong Kong is planning an additional runway. Beijing is building an entirely new airport. All are racing to stay ahead of demand that seems only to soar.

在扩建其经济生命线的问题上,新加坡的目光放的格外长远。但这个城市国家的宏伟计划,只是整个亚洲地区机场建设热潮的一个最极端的例子。吉隆坡、首尔、雅加达和德里均在增建或扩建航站楼。香港计划增加一条跑道。北京正在建设一座全新的机场。所有人都想抓紧时间赶在似乎只升不降的需求前面。

Altogether, about $115 billion has been committed to airport construction and development across the Asia-Pacific region, according to estimates from the Centre for Aviation, a research firm based in Sydney, Australia. That is about 45 percent more than either North America or Europe is spending.

据澳大利亚悉尼研究机构航空中心(Centre for Aviation)的估计,整个亚太地区总共已经计划投入1150亿美元(约合6971亿元人民币)用于机场建设和开发。这比北美或欧洲的支出要高出大约45%。

“There really is a lot going on — and there will be a lot more happening in the coming years,” said Angela Gittens, director general of the Airports Council International, a trade group for airports.

机场行业协会组织国际机场协会(Airports Council International)总干事安吉拉·吉滕斯(Angela Gittens)说,“现在确实非常热闹——接下来几年还会有很多大事发生。”

Airport authorities are reacting to the region’s sharp rise in traffic in recent years.

机场主管机构正在对近年该地区客流量的大幅上扬做出应对。

Just seven years ago, airlines in the Asia-Pacific region carried 510 million people and flew 3,270 aircraft, according to the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines. Last year, 5,600 aircraft carried nearly 950 million passengers.

据亚太航空公司协会(Association of Asia Pacific Airlines)统计,仅七年前,亚太地区航空公司的载客量是5.1亿人次,有3270架飞机。去年则是5600架飞机,运送了将近9.5亿人次。

Beijing, whose airport 10 years ago was not even among the world’s top 30, now has the second-busiest airport in the world, after Atlanta’s.

北京的机场在10年前甚至排不进全球前30位,但如今已经是仅次于亚特兰大的世界第二繁忙的机场。

The growth is unlikely to fizzle any time soon. The rising affluence among the region’s four billion inhabitants and economic growth rates that, despite a slowdown in the last year or two, remain well above those seen in the United States and Europe will keep airports busy.

这样的增长短时间内不太可能慢下来。该地区的40亿居民的财富增长及经济发展速度虽然在最近一两年有所放缓,但始终比美国和欧洲的情况好很多,这会维持机场的繁忙景象。

“You have a large population that is close to entering the middle class and that has an increasing propensity to fly,” Ms. Gittens said. “It’s sheer arithmetic; that’s what’s playing out.”

“这样一个庞大的人口,即将进入中产阶级,他们正在培养乘飞机旅行的习惯,”吉滕斯说。“这是个巨大的数字;这就是即将发生的事。”

Asians travel only one-tenth as much as people in Western Europe or the United States, said Corrine Png, head of Asia transportation research at JPMorgan Chase, based in Singapore. Ms. Png forecasts that air traffic in the Asia-Pacific region will grow 6 to 7 percent a year for the next three to five years. Beyond that, the expansion is likely to moderate as the market begins to mature, to about 5 percent annually. But even that is well above the 2 percent seen in the United States and the 3.5 percent in Europe.

摩根大通(JPMorgan Chase)驻新加坡的亚洲交通研究主管方华婷(Corrine Png)说,亚洲人的出行量仅为西欧人或美国人的十分之一。她预测接下来三到五年里,亚太地区的空中交通流量每年会增长6–7%。在这之后,随着市场开始成熟,扩张的速度会放缓,达到每年约5%。而即便这个数字也比美国的2%和欧洲的3.5%要高得多。

Low-priced airlines, modeled on Southwest Airlines in the United States and EasyJet in Europe, have mushroomed in Asia, spurring air travel. Carriers like Cebu Pacific in the Philippines, Lion Air in Indonesia, VietJet Air in Vietnam, and AirAsia, which has headquarters in Malaysia and operates several subsidiaries elsewhere, now carry about one-quarter of air travelers in the region and fly to dozens of destinations that few Westerners will ever have heard of.

以美国的西南航空(Southwest Airlines)和欧洲的易捷航空(EasyJet)为模版的廉价民航在亚洲迅速崛起,促进了航空旅行。菲律宾宿务太平洋航空(Cebu Pacific)、印度尼西亚狮子航空(Lion Air)、越南喷射航空(VietJet Air)以及总部在马来西亚、在其他地方拥有多个子公司的亚洲航空(AirAsia)等航空公司,目前囊括了该地区四分之一的航空旅客的出行,他们去往的数十个目的地,多数西方人都闻所未闻。

The travel rush has generated congestion at many Asian airports, as airlines vie not just for passengers but also for landing slots, aircraft engineers, baggage handlers and check-in clerks. Unlike in Europe, where 45 percent of the routes are served by just one or two airlines, three-quarters of the routes in the region are served by at least three airlines, and more than a quarter are served by at least five, said Andrew Herdman, the director general of the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines.

出行的繁荣导致许多亚洲机场拥挤不堪,航空公司不仅要争夺乘客,还要抢升降时段、航空技师、行李搬运工和登机接待员。欧洲有45%的航线是由一两家航空公司提供服务的,在这里则不同,据亚太航空公司协会总干事安德鲁·赫德曼(Andrew Herdman)说,该地区有四分之三的航线是至少三家航空公司在服务,超过四分之一的航线有至少五家。

A result, said Ms. Png, the JPMorgan analyst, is that “air traffic has surpassed what planners originally anticipated. There are severe bottlenecks in some places.”

摩根大通分析师方华婷说,这样一来,“空中交通流量就超过了规划者一开始的预计。某些地方存在严重的瓶颈。”

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