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招聘中使用的奇葩心理分析

更新时间:2017-11-23 19:39:03 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The peculiar psychoanalysis of job hiring
招聘中使用的奇葩心理分析

When I walked into the psychologist’s office early on a Monday morning in September last year, I was so nervous I could feel the sweat on my palms. I had just passed an interview and writing test for a copywriter role at an advertising company in Buenos Aires, but there was just one final exam: the HR department had sent me for a full physical and psychological evaluation.

去年9月,当我在周一早晨走进一位心理学家的办公室时,我紧张得手心冒汗。我当时应聘去布宜诺斯艾利斯的一家广告公司当文案,刚刚通过了面试和笔试。但还要通过最后一项考察:该公司的人力资源部门让我接受全面的身体和心理评估。

In my case, the medical procedure included blood tests (to check blood sugar and haemoglobin), a urine sample, an electrocardiogram (to test for signs of heart disease), a chest X-ray and a vision test. A physical examination is a legal requirement for candidates in Argentina, designed to protect employees from workplace accidents and illnesses.

我当时接受的体检包括验血(查看血糖和血红蛋白)、验尿、心电图(检查心脏病的迹象)、胸部X光和视力检查。体检是阿根廷对应聘者的法定要求,为的是避免员工在职场中受伤或患病。

Then it was off to the psychologist’s office, which turned out to be the living room of his small apartment, to begin the “psicotécnico” – an evaluation specifically for work purposes, usually for hiring or promotions.

之后就来到了心理学家的办公室(其实就是他公寓里的客厅)开始接受 psicotécnico——这是一种专门针对职场进行的评估,通常是为招聘或升职准备的。

With roots in psychoanalysis, the psicotécnico included a Rorschach inkblot test and what is called the “persona bajo la lluvia,” a test which involves drawing a person standing in the rain. Every aspect of the drawing is examined to create a psychological profile: size, placement on the page, pen pressure, the way the lines are drawn, even the time it takes to finish.

psicotécnico源自心理分析,包含罗夏墨迹(Rorschach Inkblot)测试,以及所谓的"雨中人"测试,后者要求受试者通过绘图来表达一个人站在雨中的场景。心理学家会对绘画的尺寸、位置、力度、线条绘制方式,甚至绘图所用的时间等各个元素进行评估,从而得出受测者的心理概况图。

A drawing that’s too small is supposed to indicate shyness and introversion; a large drawing might indicate that someone is a show-off; an oversized drawing, sometimes creeping onto a second piece of paper, could indicate megalomania and delusions of grandeur. If the rain is shaped like teardrops, it’s meant to indicate anxiety.

如果画的尺寸太小,表明受试者有些腼腆和内向;尺寸较大或许表明此人喜欢炫耀;过大的尺寸有时甚至会延伸到第二张纸上去,这可能表明受试者狂妄自大。如果雨滴的形状像眼泪,表明此人可能有些焦虑。

Friends had warned me that it was important to draw an umbrella, to make sure my character’s face was visible, and most of all to draw the ground. With my stick-figure talents I tried my best to make my character as compelling as possible, but the end result still looked like a smiling piece of spaghetti.

朋友已经警告过我,一定要画上一把伞,还要确保人物的面部清晰可见,最重要的是要画出地面。由于我的画比较粗线条,所以虽然我尽可能地提升了角色的吸引力,但最终还是感觉像一根微笑的意大利面条。

The tests continued for 45 minutes. I was asked to complete short sentences about myself, to draw abstract shapes and describe what they represented, and complete a simple maths test. The psychologist asked some very personal questions about my life and my family. I tried not to let my scepticism show, but I wasn’t sure how discussing my parents’ divorce and interpreting a few ink blots could predict my future success as a copywriter.

测试持续了45分钟。对方让我用短句描述自己,还让我画了一些抽象的形状,并阐述了它们的含义,我还进行了一个简单的数学测验。那位心理学家还询问了与我的生活和家庭有关的私人问题。我努力不让自己表现出怀疑的神情,但我的确不敢相信谈论父母的离婚情况,并解释几个墨点的意义,真的就能判断我是否能成为一个好文案吗?

I left the building with a burning curiosity to know what my doodles said about my personality. But by law my company can’t tell me my results, so my neuroses will remain a mystery to me.

我离开时满怀好奇,我很想知道我的那个面条人究竟透露出我的哪些个性。但根据法律规定,我的公司不能向我透露结果,所以这对我来说永远都是个谜。

Right as rain?

雨中人

As an expat, this was a completely foreign process. But comprehensive physical and psychological tests are standard practice during the hiring process in Argentina and in much of Latin America, even for jobs that aren’t physically demanding or for upper management positions.

作为一个外国人,我对这个过程完全陌生。但全面的身体和心理测验已经成为阿根廷和很多拉美国家的标准招聘流程,即便是那些不需要体力的工作或高级管理职位也不例外。

While there are few statistics on exactly how many companies use it, a 2011 study into the most common selection tests in Argentina found the ‘person under the rain’ test was used 24.6% of the time, and the Rorschach test 13.8%.

虽然没有多少统计数据显示,究竟有多少公司使用这种模式,但2011年对阿根廷最常见的心理测试进行的调查发现,"雨中人"使用的比例达到24.6%,罗夏墨迹测试为13.8%。

This process assesses whether you will be good at your future job and a good fit for the company, says Argentine psychologist and human resources consultant Carla Bafico.

阿根廷心理学家兼人力资源顾问卡拉·巴菲克(Carla Bafico)表示,这一过程可以评估你是否擅长未来的工作,以及是否适合这家公司。

“The ‘person in the rain’ test measures how a person deals with something unexpected,” says Bafico. “Or how they deal with the pressures in their surroundings.” The rain is meant to represent external pressure, and the way the character is drawn gives the psychologist clues on how the candidate will react when facing adversity.

"'雨中人'测试衡量的是一个人如何应对意外事件。"巴菲克说,"或者他们如何应对周围的压力。"雨代表的是外部压力,而人物的绘制方式能让心理学家了解应聘者如何面对逆境。

Bafico says such psychological evaluationsdo provide companies with useful insights into candidates’ personalities, but not all experts agree.

巴菲克表示,这类心理评估的确可以帮助企业从一定程度上了解应聘者的个性,但并非所有专家都认同这种观点。

“The problem is there have never been studies that prove that the person who will draw ground will really be a grounded person,” says Sophia Stockinger, a German occupational psychologist who has worked in recruitment across Europe and Latin America.

"问题在于,从来没有研究证明画出地面的人就真的脚踏实地。"德国职业心理学家索菲亚·斯托金格(Sophia Stockinger)说,她在欧洲和拉丁美洲参与过很多招聘活动。

Stockinger also dismisses Rorschach tests and almost every other test my psychologist gave me. “The Rorschach test has not been designed to assess people in a work context,” she says. She says most of the tests Argentina uses have not been proven effective for hiring – a fact that hasn’t stopped many Argentine recruiters.

对于罗夏墨迹测试以及那位心理学家对我进行的所有测试,斯托金格都不以为然。"罗夏墨迹测试并不是针对工作场景设计的。"她说。她表示,阿根廷使用的多数测试在招聘中的效果都没有获得证实——但这并未阻止很多阿根廷雇主继续采用这种方法。

“They’re useful,” says Regina Moirano, co-founder of recruitment firm COUL. Moirano says every client asks for psychological evaluations, and the psicotécnico is used as an additional tool at the end of the hiring process to complete the candidate’s profile. “It’s a tool that our clients value.”

"这些方法都有用。"招聘公司COUL联合创始人雷吉纳·莫伊拉诺(Regina Moirano)说。他表示,所有客户都要求进行心理评估,而psicotécnico是作为一项额外工具在招聘的最后阶段完成应聘者的心理概况图。"我们的客户都很重视这个工具。"

The popularity stems from a heavy emphasis Argentinians place on psychoanalysis, which is not used as much anymore in Europe or the US.

这种方法之所以广受欢迎,是因为阿根廷人很看重在欧美国家已经不再流行的心理分析法。

Stockinger says different countries put greater emphasis on different types of testing for their employees. Germany, the US and some Northern European countries, among others, tend to favour aptitude tests and conduct studies on whether their tests are effective, whereas many companies in Latin America, Spain, Italy, Greece and France still rely on personality tests and “soft science” assessments.

斯托金格表示,不同国家看重不同的员工测试内容。德国、美国和一些北欧国家比较偏爱性向测试,而且还通过研究来确定这些测试的效果。很多拉美国家、西班牙、意大利、希腊和法国仍然依靠人格测试和"软科学"来评估。

Argentina is far from the only country with unusual recruitment tests, however.

但阿根廷绝不是唯一一个采用这种非常规就业测试方法的国家。

The writing’s on the wall

笔迹分析

In France, handwriting experts called graphologists sometimes analyse a candidate’s handwriting.

在法国,企业有时还会聘请笔迹专家来分析应聘者的笔迹。

Sylvie Chermet-Carroy, a graphologist for more than 35 years, says “a graphological study will determine different aspects of the personality, whether it be their sociability, the type of communication they use [or] what kind of intelligence they have”. To determine this, they look at everything from handwriting pressure and writing speed to inclination and regularity.

拥有超过35年从业经验的笔迹专家赛尔维·切米特-卡洛伊(Sylvie Chermet-Carroy)说:"笔迹研究可以判断不同的个性,例如某人是否喜欢社交,他们喜欢哪种沟通方式,或者拥有哪种天分。"需要综合各项因素才能判断这些内容,从书写压力和书写速度到倾向性和规律性。

It’s hard to determine exactly how many companies use graphology today – the most recent independent study was in 1991, and found 91% of public and private organisations in France had used handwriting analysis. Today, graphologists claim that 50 to 60% of French companies have used graphological testing to evaluate candidates.

很难判断究竟有多少公司使用笔记测试——最近的一次独立研究要追溯到1991年,当时的结果显示,法国91%的公有和私有公司使用笔迹分析法。如今,笔迹学家号称有50%到60%的法国公司使用这种方法来评估求职者。

It seems a lot, but Bertram Durand, director of recruitment firm CNPG Conseil, says the proportion could be higher – he estimates 70% to 80% of companies still use graphology to evaluate candidates.

看起来很多,但招聘公司CNPG Conseil经理伯特伦·杜兰(Bertram Durand)认为,比例其实还可以更高——他估计有70%到80%的公司仍在使用笔迹来评估求职者。

He says graphology is less common now because people are more likely to apply for jobs with email rather than handwritten letters, so there are fewer writing samples available.

他表示,现在使用笔迹测试的情况少了一些,原因是人们申请职位时更多地使用电子邮件,而非手写信件,所以笔迹样本也就少了很多。

"But it remains an important tool in the decision-making process."

"但这仍是决策过程中的重要工具。"

Chermet-Carroy is adamant that graphology works, but admits that to her knowledge there are no studies that prove its effectiveness. In fact, multiple studies from the 1990s onwards have found that graphology is not a reliable tool to predict job success or intuit a candidate’s personality. The French Ministry of Labour even likens graphology to astrology, and states on its website that while neither of these hiring practices is illegal, “their scientific validity is largely debated.”

切米特-卡洛伊坚持认为笔迹测试是有效的,但她也承认,就她掌握的知识来看,目前没有研究证明这种效果。事实上,1990年之后有很多研究都发现,在预测一个人的职业成功与否,或者判断求职者的个性时,笔迹并不可靠。法国劳工部甚至将笔迹比作占星术,并在其网站上表示,虽然这两种招聘行为都不违法,"但科学性还有很大争议。"

One among thousands

万里挑一

While not leaning as much on psychoanalysis, the recruitment market in China relies heavily on unique aptitude and intelligence tests, according to Vincent Van de Belt, Hong Kong-based head of third party channels at Cubiks, a global human resources company.

跨国人力资源公司Cubiks驻香港第三方渠道主管文森特·范·德·贝尔特(Vincent Van de Belt)表示,虽然中国的招聘市场不太看重心理分析,但却很重视独特的性向测试和智力测试。

China stands out for its high-volume recruitment. Thousands of people can apply for a single job, so these tests – designed to sift out all but the strongest candidates – also need to be much more difficult than in other countries, Van de Belt says.

中国的人员招聘量极大。文森特·范·德·贝尔特表示,一个职位能够吸引数以千计的应聘者,所以这些旨在筛选出最优秀求职者的测试,就会在难度上远超其他国家。

Firms can test thousands of applicants in the first hiring round, often online, allowing them to weed out unsuitable applicants without taking too much time or effort.

企业在第一轮招聘中就能测试数千名应聘者,通常在网上进行,使之可以在不耗费太多时间的情况下排除不合适的求职者。

As technology gets more sophisticated, it will begin to play a bigger role in this weeding-out process. Some companies are already exploring alternative options to select candidates: in 2015 L’Oreal China chose to forgo CVs in the first round of hiring, and instead asked candidates to answer three questions by video on their website. They used a computer program to analyse the results and select the top 500 candidates for a Skype interview.

随着科技越来越进步,今后也有望在筛选应聘者的过程中发挥重要作用。有的公司已经开始通过其他方案挑选应聘者:2015年,欧莱雅中国放弃在第一轮招聘中查看简历的做法,而是让应聘者通过他们网站上的视频回答三个问题。他们利用计算机程序对结果进行分析,然后选出500名应聘者参加Skype面试。

Testing times

缓慢转变

As research in to occupational psychology gets more sophisticated, and competition for the best talent gets fiercer, international firms are leaning towards tests backed by data and away from “soft science” personality tests.

随着职业心理学的研究逐步深入,加之对一流人才的争夺越发激烈,跨国公司也逐渐放弃性格测试这种"软科学",转而采用有数据支撑的测试方法。

But hiring practices are still very much influenced by cultural preferences, which can be slow to change. So if you’re looking for a job in Argentina, whatever you do, don’t forget to draw the ground.

但招聘方式仍会受到文化偏好的影响,而文化偏好的改变非常缓慢。所以,如果你想在阿根廷找工作,那么无论你从事哪一行,都别忘记在"雨中人"画上地面。

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