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盘点2017年16件第一次发生的事

更新时间:2017-12-10 13:04:07 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

16 Things That Happened for the First Time in 2017
盘点2017年16件第一次发生的事

1. Storing image files in living memory

1. 用活体记忆存储图像文件

Scientists have figured out a way to store moving images in the unlikeliest of places — inside living cells. Harvard Medical School researchers encoded a series of stills of a galloping horse captured in 1878 by Eadweard Muybridge, a photographer and moving-image pioneer, inside the DNA of common bacteria. The images stored in the DNA survived as the bacteria divided and multiplied, an advancement that could have far-reaching uses as the technology evolves.

科学家们找到了一种方法,在最不可思议的地方——活细胞中——储存运动影像。哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)的研究人员将摄影师、运动影像先驱爱德华·迈布里奇(Eadweard Muybridge)在1878年用系列照片拍摄的一匹奔腾的马存入了一群普通细菌的DNA中。随着这些细菌分裂、繁殖,它们DNA中储存的图像保存了下来,随着技术的发展,这一技术进步可能会产生广泛用途。

2. Brazil grapples with first strike in 20 years

2. 巴西应对20年来的首次罢工

Violence erupted in Brazil in April, when protesters and the police clashed in the country’s first general strike in two decades. Workers were angered by President Michel Temer’s calls to overhaul labor laws and trim the nation’s generous pension system.

今年4月,巴西爆发暴力事件,抗议者和警察在该国20年来的第一次大罢工中发生冲突。巴西总统米歇尔·特梅尔(Michel Temer)呼吁改革劳动法,削减该国慷慨的养老金体系,工人们为此感到愤怒。

3. British couple tie the knot in the Antarctic

3. 一对英国夫妇在南极结婚

A British couple became the first to officially wed in the British Antarctic Territory. The polar field guides, who work for the British Antarctic Survey at a research station on Adelaide Island, were married in subzero temperatures in July.

一对英国夫妇成为第一对在英属南极领地上正式结婚的夫妇。两人是在阿德莱德岛的一个研究站为英国南极考察处(British Antarctic Survey)工作的极地野外向导,于7月在零下严寒中结了婚。

4. A Holy See first for four countries

4. 四国首获枢机任命

Of five men that Pope Francis elevated to the position of cardinal in June, four are the first ever to be so named in their respective countries: El Salvador, Laos, Mali and Sweden. The pope’s picks are consistent with his mission to diversify the ranks of the cardinals, the church authorities who will choose the next pontiff.

在今年6月被教皇方济各(Pope Francis)提升至枢机主教的五人中,有四人是该国首次获此任命,分别是萨尔瓦多、老挝、马里和瑞典。教宗的选择符合他将枢机人选多元化的设想,枢机团是负责选择下一任教宗的机构。

5. In France, too-thin models are out

5. 在法国,太瘦的模特出局了

In a first for the country considered by many to be the birthplace of fashion, France has enacted a law essentially banning underweight models. The law, which took effect in May, will require doctors to vouch for the well-being of models — including having a healthy body mass index. It also requires commercial photographs of models that are retouched to say so, or the agency will be subjected to a hefty fine.

法国被很多人视为时尚的发源地。该国首次颁布了一项法律,禁止聘用体重过轻的模特。这项法律于5月生效,要求医生为模特的健康做担保,包括要有一个健康的体重指数。它还要求修图后的模特商业照片也要传达出这个信息,否则经纪公司将面临巨额罚款。

6. Facebook releases first VR film

6. Facebook推出第一部虚拟现实电影

Facebook’s virtual-reality arm, Oculus, premiered its first full-length V.R. film, “Miyubi,” at the Sundance Film Festival in January. Set in suburban America in the 1980s, the 40-minute film allows the viewer to experience life as seen through the eyes of a toy robot.

1月,Facebook的虚拟现实分公司Oculus在圣丹斯电影节(Sundance Film Festival)上举行了自己的第一部虚拟现实长电影《Miyubi》的首映。这部时长40分钟的电影以20世纪80年代的美国郊区为背景,观众可以透过玩具机器人的眼睛体验当时的生活。

7. U.S. scientists repair DNA in human embryo

7. 美国科学家修复人类胚胎中的DNA

For the first time in the United States, scientists have successfully edited out a dangerous mutation in human embryos, according to a study published in Nature in August. Using a tool called Crispr, scientists managed to erase genes that cause a heart condition that can lead to sudden death later in life.

8月发表在《自然》(Nature)杂志上的一项研究报告表明,美国的科学家们首次成功地删除了人类胚胎中的一个危险突变。科学家们使用一个名为Crispr的工具,成功地清除了会导致心脏疾病的基因,这种心脏病可能会在以后导致突然死亡。

8. Advances in Chinese industries

8. 中国工业的进步

China’s first homemade aircraft carrier was launched in April. The still-unnamed ship, which was built in less than four years, will be ready for combat by 2020. And less than a month later, China’s first domestically manufactured passenger jet took off from Shanghai’s Pudong International Airport for its maiden voyage. The country hopes to enter the international aviation market with the C919 plane.

中国的第一艘国产航母于今年4月下水。这艘仍未命名的军舰在不到四年的时间内建成,将于2020年开始服役。不到一个月后,中国的首架国产客机从上海浦东国际机场起飞,进行处女航。中国希望凭借C919飞机打入国际航空市场。

9. Canadian mint releases luminescent coin

9. 加拿大铸币厂发行发光硬币

In commemoration of its 150th anniversary, Canada released a glow-in-the-dark coin into circulation, a first for the country. The $2 coin, which Canadians call a “toonie,” features a lake scene with a sky that glows blue-green, in honor of the aurora borealis.

为了纪念建国150周年,加拿大发行的一种能在黑暗中发光的硬币进入了流通,这在该国尚属首例。这种两加元硬币被加拿大人称为toonie,上面有一个湖景,天空闪烁着蓝绿色的光,以纪念北极光。

10. A cancer drug breakthrough

10. 抗癌药物的突破

For the first time, the Food and Drug Administration has approved a drug to treat any tumor sharing certain genetic characteristics — regardless of cancer type. For years, doctors focused on treating cancer cells depending on where they were in the body. Pembrolizumab (known by its brand name Keytruda) is an immunotherapy drug that blocks the cancer cell’s ability to protect itself from the body’s immune system.

美国食品和药物管理局(Food and Drug Administration)首次批准了一种用于治疗所有具有特定基因特征的肿瘤的药物——不管是哪种癌症类型。多年来,医生们一直专注于根据癌细胞在身体里的位置对它们进行治疗。派姆单抗(Pembrolizumab,品牌名为健痊得[Keytruda])是一种免疫治疗药物,可以遏制癌细胞保护自己免受人体免疫系统攻击的能力。

11. Pinpointing baby dinosaur’s parentage

11. 确定恐龙胚胎的出身

For the first time, paleontologists have determined the species of one of the largest known dinosaur eggs, found in central China nearly 25 years ago. According to scientists, the fossilized embryo is a giant oviraptorosaur, a large feathered dinosaur that weighed up to one ton and had sharp claws and a toothless beak.

古生物学家首次确定了一枚已知最大恐龙蛋的种类,它是近25年前在中国中部发现的。据科学家称,这个化石胚胎是一只巨大的窃蛋龙。窃蛋龙是一种长有羽毛的大型恐龙,体重达一吨,有着锋利的爪子和无齿的喙。

12. India’s latest launch has the world watching

12. 印度最近的卫星发射引起全世界瞩目   

India’s space agency set a new world record when it launched 104 satellites from a single rocket in February, overtaking Russia’s previous record of 34. It is no secret that the country has made space exploration and commerce a priority, and this latest launch makes it a serious contender in the private space-travel market.

2月,印度的太空机构用一个火箭发射了104颗卫星,超过了俄罗斯此前34颗的记录,创下了新的世界纪录。该国将太空探索和太空商业作为其首要任务,这不是秘密,最近这次发射使其成为私人太空旅行市场的有力竞争者。

13. Nepal holds local elections

13. 尼泊尔举行地方选举

For the first time in two decades, millions of Nepalese voted in local elections, seen as a promising if precarious step as the country slowly transitions to a full-fledged democracy. Nepal has been plagued with years of political instability and virtually no local governance following a 10-year civil war that ended in 2006 and the abolition of the monarchy in 2008.

二十年来,数百万尼泊尔人首次在地方选举中投票,这被视为该国在转变为全面民主国家的漫长过程中充满希望而又充满危险的一步。尼泊尔经历了数年的政治动荡,在2006年结束十年内战、2008年废除君主制之后,几乎没有地方治理的存在。

14. Beware the ‘borgs?

14. 小心身体上的漏洞?

For the first time, companies are equipping their employees with technology inside their bodies. Epicenter, a company in Sweden, has given its workers the option to have radio frequency identification, or R.F.I.D., technology implanted in their hands. A U.S. company, Three Square Market, has followed suit, giving its employees the option to be “chipped,” which would allow them to open doors and log in to their computers, among other abilities. Critics, however, expressed privacy concerns.

多家公司首次将技术装备在员工的身体里。瑞典公司Epicenter允许员工选择使用植入到他们手上的射频识别技术(简称R.F.I.D.)。一家名为“三平方市场”(Three Square Market)的美国公司也紧随其后,让员工可以选择“装上芯片”,它具有开门和登录电脑等功能。不过,批评人士表达了对侵犯隐私的担忧。

15. Painting of skull smashes record for U.S. artists

15. 美国艺术家凭借头骨画打破记录

Jean-Michel Basquiat’s 1982 painting, “Untitled,” featuring a skull rendered in his distinctive street-art style, sold at auction for $110.5 million, in May, making it the most expensive painting sold by any American artist to date.

让-米切尔·巴斯奎亚特(Jean-Michel Basquiat)1982年的画作《无题》(Untitled)以他独特的街头艺术风格描绘了一个头骨。5月,该画作以1.105亿美元的价格拍出,成为迄今为止美国艺术家卖出的最昂贵的画作。

16. A major edit for anatomy books

16. 解剖学书籍的一项重要修订

Scientists have discovered a new organ in the human body. Called the mesentery, it was first thought to be a fragmented part of the digestive system. Researchers in Ireland, however, have proved that it is one organ — a set of tissues that line the abdominal cavity.

科学家们在人体中发现了一个新的器官。它被称为肠系膜,它最初被认为是消化系统的一部分。不过,爱尔兰的研究人员已经证明,它是一种器官,是腹腔内的一套组织。

Coming Up:

即将出现的重大变化:

Women to take the wheel in Saudi Arabia

沙特阿拉伯的女性将可以开车

A royal decree has lifted the ban on women driving in Saudi Arabia. The decision, which will allow more women to work and ease the financial and logistical burden of having to hire a driver, is in line with the new crown prince’s plan to stimulate the country’s stagnant economy. The kingdom will start granting women driver’s licenses in June 2018.

一项皇家法令取消了禁止女性在沙特阿拉伯开车的禁令。这项决定将使更多女性可以工作,并减轻不得不雇佣司机的经济和后勤负担,这与新王储刺激该国停滞不前的经济的计划相一致。这个王国将于2018年6月开始给女性司机颁发驾照。

Indigenous woman plans presidential bid in Mexico

墨西哥的一位原住民女性计划参加总统竞选

An indigenous woman is running for president in Mexico in 2018, making her the first in the country to do so. Maria de Jesús Patricio Martínez, also known as “Marichuy,” is a healer from Jalisco, and has the support of the Zapatistas, a left-wing group that led a 12-day uprising in the country’s south in 1994.

一名原住民女性正在为2018年的墨西哥总统竞选做准备,开该国之先河。玛丽亚·德·赫苏斯·帕特里西奥·马丁内斯(Maria de Jesús Patricio Martínez)又名Marichuy,是哈利斯科州的一名治疗师,她得到了萨帕塔民族解放军(Zapatistas)的支持。萨帕塔民族解放军是一个左翼组织,曾于1994年在该国南部领导了为期12天的起义。

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