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东南亚成网约车新战场,吸引全球投资者目光

更新时间:2017-12-11 18:46:37 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Southeast Asia’s Ride-Hailing War Is Being Waged on Motorbikes
东南亚成网约车新战场,吸引全球投资者目光

JAKARTA, Indonesia — On a recent morning driving his motorbike for one of Asia’s fastest-growing tech startups, Nasrun picked up and dropped off four schoolchildren, an office worker, medicine from a pharmacy, some dumplings with peanut sauce, a few documents and an order of Japanese food, the last of which he took to a woman at the Indonesia Stock Exchange.

印尼雅加达——不久前的一个早上,为亚洲一家飞速发展的创业公司工作的纳斯伦(Nasrun)骑着摩托车,接送了四个上学的孩子和一名办公室职员,给人送了从药店带的药,一些配了沙嗲酱的饺子,几份文件和一份日本料理,这份日本料理送到一位在印尼证券交易所(Indonesia Stock Exchange)工作的女人那里。

For his colleague Irawan, the workday started at midnight. He ferried someone home, then delivered an order of KFC. Around 4 a.m., he picked up a clubgoer so wobbly with drink that Irawan had to use one hand to steer and the other to keep the woman from falling off the back of his motorbike.

而对他的同事伊拉万(Irawan)来说,一天的工作从午夜开始。他把一个人送回了家,然后又送了一份肯德基的订单。凌晨4点左右,他接了一个在夜店喝得烂醉的人,伊拉万只好一只手驾驶,另一只手抓住这个女人,以免她从摩托车的后座上跌落。

The two men work for Go-Jek, a $3 billion Indonesian startup whose maximalist approach to the ride-hailing business has put rivals like Uber on notice and gotten the attention of U.S. investors and Chinese internet titans alike.

他们都在为Go-Jek工作。这个估值30亿美元的印尼创业公司把网约车业务发挥至极,引起优步(Uber)等竞争对手的关注,也引起了美国投资者和中国互联网巨头的注意。

The company’s main app lets you summon a car or motorbike driver who could just give you a lift, sure — but who could also bring you takeout, shop for groceries or deliver a present to someone across town.

该公司的主打应用可以让你约到一位能载你一程的小汽车或摩托车司机,当然——他们也能帮你带外卖、采购百货,或是替你给城市另一头的人送礼物。

With another Go-Jek app, Go-Life, you can hail someone to come cut your hair, give you a massage, clean your bathroom or change your car’s oil. And with the money you keep in Go-Jek’s digital wallet, you can pay your electricity bill, buy mobile data and book movie tickets — all within the app.

通过Go-Jek的另一款应用——Go-Life,你可以请人帮你剪头发、做按摩、打扫卫生间,或是给汽车换机油。用Go-Jek电子钱包里存的钱,你可以支付电子账单、购买手机流量,还可以预定电影票——全都可以在应用中实现。

Go-Jek, which launched its main app in 2015 and is in only Indonesia at the moment, is counting on people coming back to its services again and again as it competes against both Uber and Grab, a Singapore-based ride-hailing company operating in seven Southeast Asian countries.

在2015年推出主应用的Go-Jek目前只进入了印尼市场。面对来自优步和Grab的竞争,Go-Jek依靠的是反反复复使用它们服务的人。Grab是一家新加坡网约车公司,业务遍及东南亚七个国家。

“We have huge respect for Uber as a technology company,” said Nadiem Makarim, Go-Jek’s 33-year-old founder and chief executive. “But we just out-innovate them. We just move that much faster.”

“我们非常佩服优步这个科技公司,”Go-Jek公司33岁的创始人兼总裁纳迪姆·马卡里姆(Nadiem Makarim)说。“但我们就是比他们更会创新。我们的发展速度快得多。”

Southeast Asia, a region of 600 million people that is adding more internet users each month than anywhere else on the planet, has become a magnet for tech investment — and one of the toughest battlegrounds for Uber, which is under pressure to curb its losses around the world before a planned public offering.

有着6亿人口的东南亚,每个月新增的互联网用户比世界上其他任何地方都多,成了吸引科技投资的磁石——也是优步最艰难的战场之一。在计划公开募股之前的优步正面临着在全球止损的压力。

Grab, which was valued at $6 billion after its latest fundraising, recently said it had completed its 1 billionth ride. By contrast, Lyft, Uber’s largest U.S. rival, has reached half that.

在最近一次融资后,Grab的估值达到了60亿美元,该公司近期表示它已完成第10亿次出行订单。与之相比,优步在美国最大的竞争对手Lyft只达到了这个数字的一半。

“It is a super growth market,” said Brooks Entwistle, chief business officer in Asia for Uber, which on Friday announced it had agreed to form a joint venture with a Singapore taxi company to strengthen its competitiveness in the region. “There’s no question there are challenges.”

“这是一个飞速增长的市场,”优步的亚洲首席商务官布鲁克斯·恩特威斯尔(Brooks Entwistle)说道,周五,优步宣布同意与一家新加坡出租车公司组建合资企业,以加强在该地区的竞争力。“肯定是存在种种挑战的。”

China’s biggest tech companies, spying opportunity in the region, have contributed to those challenges.

中国最大的一些科技公司也觊觎着该地区的机遇,这也成为了挑战的一部分。

Go-Jek is backed by Tencent Holdings, the video game and social media behemoth. Grab this year received a combined $2 billion in investment from Didi Chuxing, the ride-hailing powerhouse that outgunned Uber in China, and the Japanese conglomerate SoftBank.

Go-Jek得到了电子游戏和社交媒体巨头——腾讯控股有限公司的投资。今年,Grab也获得了在中国超过优步的大型网约车企业滴滴出行和日本软银集团(SoftBank)共20亿美元的联合投资。

Outside of transport, the Alibaba Group, which dominates online shopping in China, controls a regional e-commerce company called Lazada and has invested in Tokopedia, an Indonesian site. Tencent is a major shareholder of Sea, a Singapore-based company that operates a video game platform, shopping site and digital payments service.

在交通行业之外,占据中国网购市场主导地位的阿里巴巴集团控股一个叫做拉扎达(Lazada)的地区性电商公司,并投资了印尼网站Tokopedia。腾讯是Sea的大股东,这个新加坡公司运营着电子游戏平台、购物网站和电子支付服务。

“We all looked to China” to learn to develop e-commerce, said Nick Nash, Sea’s president. “The playbook was clear.”

要学习电商发展,“我们都向中国看齐”,Sea公司的总裁尼克·纳什(Nick Nash)说。“剧本已经很清楚了。”

It is no accident that Jakarta has attracted so many companies that help people get around — or that help them avoid having to get around in the first place.

雅加达能吸引如此多来帮助人们出行,或是直接帮助人们避免出行的公司,绝非偶然。

The capital of the world’s fourth-most-populous nation has 10 million residents but no metro system. The traffic is so soul-crushing at all times that many residents have stopped speaking of discrete rush hours.

这个人口世界排第四的国家,首都有1000万居民,但没有地铁系统。交通从早到晚都令人痛苦,以至于很多居民都不再说早高峰晚高峰。

“In Southeast Asia, there’s little public transport, many dense cities and low car ownership,” said Ming Maa, Grab’s president. “It makes ride-sharing a much more compelling product than in India or even, frankly, China.”

“东南亚几乎没有公共交通,人口密集城市多,汽车持有率低,”Grab总裁马明(Ming Maa,音)表示。“这使共享出行在东南亚比在印度,或者甚至可以说比在中国,都是更有吸引力的产品。”

Before ride-hailing apps came along, motorcycle taxis, or “ojek” in Indonesian, plied Jakarta’s clogged streets. But getting a good price required haggling. And safety was a concern, particularly for women.

在网约车应用出现之前,在印尼雅加达拥堵的街道上有“ojek”(摩的)来来往往。但要想得到一个实惠的价钱需要讲价。安全也是一个问题,尤其是对妇女来说。

Go-Jek is a “lifesaver,” said Hera Diani, a magazine editor in Jakarta. She orders food on the app, and booked a pedicure through Go-Life when she was pregnant and couldn’t walk easily.

Go-Jek可是“帮了大忙”,雅加达的杂志编辑赫拉·迪亚尼(Hera Diani)说。在她怀孕行动不便时,她用Go-Life来订餐、预定足部护理。

“The traffic jams are getting worse and worse,” she said.

“交通拥堵越来越严重了,”她说。

Both Grab and Go-Jek are making big pushes outside transportation. The companies want their app-based wallets to replace cash as the main way Indonesians pay for coffee, fried rice and everything else offline, as is commonplace in Chinese cities.

Grab和Go-Jek都在大力扩展交通以外的业务。这些公司希望自己应用内的电子钱包能在线下购买咖啡、炒饭等东西时,像中国的城市那样,取代现金,成为印尼人的主要支付方式。

It is unproven, though, that people will stick with a payment app just because they use it for rides. China’s dominant mobile payment services, AliPay and WeChat Pay, grew big because they could easily be used to buy stuff online and transfer money to friends, respectively.

人们是否会因为使用网约车出行应用,就会继续用它来进行支付,还无从证实。在中国占据主导的移动支付服务——支付宝和微信钱包——之所以能够发展壮大,是因为人们可以使用支付宝方便地在网上付款、使用微信钱包轻松地向朋友转账。

“Transport is a very, very large marketplace — I would argue, larger than e-commerce,” said Maa of Grab. “We think that creates the right ground for an amazing payments company.”

“交通是一个非常、非常大的市场——我认为,比电商市场还大,”Grab公司的马明说。“我们认为这能为一个前景大好的支付公司打下良好基础。”

Grab and Go-Jek’s breakneck growth has set off many of the frictions with regulators and drivers that Uber has encountered in wealthier countries. But one reason that ride-hailing has expanded so rapidly in Southeast Asia is that the region has had a gig economy long before anyone called it that. In countries like Indonesia, work for many people has never been anything but grueling and unregulated.

Grab和Go-Jek的飞速增长引发了监管部门和司机的许多摩擦,优步在较富裕国家中也曾有过类似经历。但网约车出行在东南亚扩张得如此迅速的原因之一在于,早在这个名词被提出之前,这个地区就有了零工经济。在印尼等国家,许多人都一直做着如此辛苦的、无人管制的工作。

Several Go-Jek and Grab drivers in Jakarta described driving both before and after a full day’s work in a factory or warehouse. Others said they saw their children only between the end of a night shift and the start of the school day. Some said they drove seven days a week.

几个雅加达的Grab和Go-Jek的司机说,他们会在工厂或仓库的工作之后或之前出来开车;还有人说他们只会在他们的夜班结束后、孩子上学前见到孩子;也有人说他们一周七天都在开车。

Their earnings can be inconsistent, too. The ride-hailing companies have repeatedly slashed fares in Indonesia to defend market share. At a recent protest in Jakarta, hundreds of drivers demanded a government-mandated price floor for motorbike rides.

他们的收入也不稳定。为了保住市场份额,网约车公司多次在印度尼西亚降低价格。近期在雅加达举行的一场抗议中,数百名司机要求政府规定一个摩托车载人的最低价格。

Makarim said that he supported a minimum fare, but that Go-Jek wouldn’t be able to employ as many people as it does — 900,000 registered car and motorbike drivers — without “flexibility” around labor standards.

马卡里姆说,他支持最低价格,但如果没有在劳工标准方面的“灵活性”,Go-Jek就无法雇佣现在这么多的员工——90万注册的汽车和摩托车司机。

“The fact of the matter is that the formal economy simply cannot contain that number of people,” he said.

“事实是,正规经济根本无法容纳这么多的人,”他说。

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