您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文


更新时间:2017-12-14 19:39:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Pakistan village with a unique system of philanthropy

At 3,100m, Shimshal is the highest settlement in Pakistan’s northern Hunza region and the last village before the Chinese border. It is reachable via only one rocky, hairpin turn-laden road cut into the Distegill Sar and Karun Kuh mountains. The road, known as the Shimshal Valley Road, is considered one of the world’s most dangerous. Much of it runs along the gorge of the Shimshal River, bordered by nothing but a steep drop off without guardrails. Completed in 2003 after 18 years of construction, it is an unmarked turnoff from the Karakoram Highway, navigable only by four-wheel drive.

星峡尔(Shimshal)海拔3100米,是巴基斯坦北部罕萨(Hunza)地区最高的村庄,也是距离中国边境最近的一个村庄。只有切入底斯特吉尔山(Distegill Sar)和卡伦堀山脉(Karun Kuh)的一条多岩石和急转弯的路能到达那里。这条路就是星峡尔峡谷路(Shimshal Valley Road),被认为是世界上最危险的道路之一。道路大部分沿着星峡尔河(Shimshal River)的峡谷,外侧没有任何的护栏,只有陡峭的山崖。经过18年的修建,这条路于2003年完工。这是一条没有标志的喀喇昆仑公路(Karakoram Highway)的岔道,只能开四驱车通行。

Or, by bicycle, for the more intrepid.


In May 2017, I, along with six male cyclists, navigated the 56km road from the turnoff near Passu to Shimshal. For most of the way, I gripped my handlebars so hard my hands cramped. I prayed that my brakes wouldn’t give out. I expected my aluminium bike to shatter beneath me, or at the very least for some integral part to go flying off over a cliff.


None of these things happened. I wasn’t as fast or as confident on the rocks as the guys, so I ended up predominately cycling alone. I rested often, looking out over the cliffs. Something about the view made me think of what I imagine cycling on another planet would be like: no other humans or signs of civilisation anywhere, just rock and mountain, rock and mountain.


As we finally approached the village after about seven hours, miraculously intact, children – seeming both shy and curious – appeared alongside the path. Shimshal is one of four hamlets in the Shimshal Valley, along with Farmanabad, Aminabad and Khizarabad. The people here are Wakhi, an ethnic group spread across northern Pakistan, Afghanistan, China and Tajikistan, and belong to the Ismaili sect of Shia Islam. The adults smiled and greeted us as we went by, pausing to look up from their tasks, telling us in English that we were welcome in their village.

大约七个小时后,我们终于奇迹般完好无损地抵达星峡尔村。几个看起来既害羞又好奇的孩子出现在小路旁边。星峡尔峡谷有四个村子,星峡尔村是其中之一,另外三个是法尔马纳巴德(Farmanabad)、阿米纳巴德(Aminabad)和凯扎拉巴德(Khizarabad)。这里的人是瓦基人(Wakhi),一个分布于巴基斯坦北部、阿富汗、中国和塔吉克斯坦的民族,属于什叶派伊斯兰教(Shia Islam)的伊斯玛仪(Ismaili)教派。我们过去的时候,大人们停下手中的工作抬头看我们,微笑着和我们打招呼,用英语告诉我们,欢迎我们到他们村子来。

After spending the night at the Shimshal Valley Guesthouse, situated on a small hill behind the school, we ventured on foot toward the Shimshal Pass, where villagers take their yak herds to graze in the lush pastures. After hiking about 35km, we arrived at a swinging, creaking bridge made from wood, rope and chain, constructed over a high river crossing. A weathered plaque on the precarious platform bore the washed-out words ‘Chichan Bag’. I wondered what these words meant. Was it the name for the water crossing, or this particular part of the trail? Mr Hussain told me there was a man in the village who could explain it all.

我们一行在位于学校后面一个小山丘上的星峡尔峡谷宾馆(Shimshal Valley Guesthouse)住了一夜,第二天步行向星峡尔山口(Shimshal Pass)前进,村民们在那里郁郁葱葱的牧场上放牧牦牛。徒步35公里后,我们到达了一个用木板、绳索和铁链搭成的桥,那座桥摇摇晃晃、嘎吱作响,建造在很高的河道之上。岌岌可危的平台上一块风化的板子上刻着"Chichan Bag"字样。我想知道这两个词什么意思。是这条河道的名称,还是这条路特殊部分的名字?侯赛因(Hussain)先生告诉我,村子里有一个人能解释清楚。

Back at the guesthouse dining room later that day, we gathered around a table and Mr Hussain introduced us to Essa Khan, who has lived in the village all his life and can trace his ancestors back 12 generations. Mr Khan said he would tell us about his family first, and then the bridge.

那天晚些时候,我们回到宾馆,聚在餐厅一张桌子旁边,侯赛因先生把我们介绍给艾萨·汗(Essa Khan),他一直住在这个村子,可以追溯到自己的祖先12代。艾萨·汗先生说,他会先和我们聊聊他的家庭,然后聊聊那座桥。

Mr Khan’s grandfather was a carpenter. One day, he decided he’d turn a barren tract of land near Shimshal into a field. He tilled and ploughed the soil so that it would be able to produce crops of wheat, buckwheat and barley, using nothing but his own hands and basic tools like a shovel and rake. The crops were (and still are) used to make bread that was then both shared and traded with the community. His name was Chichan Bag.

艾萨·汗先生的祖父是位木匠。有一天,他决定将星峡尔附近的大片荒地改造为田地。他只是用自己的双手,加上铁锹、耙子等基本工具耕种土地,使得地里能够产出小麦、荞麦、大麦等庄稼。这些庄稼以前(现在依然)用于制作面包,在社会成员之间进行分享和交易。他的名字叫做Chichan Bag。

In 1995, Muhammad Bashi, Mr Khan’s father, built a bridge as ‘Nomus’ for his father.

1995年,艾萨·汗先生的父亲穆罕默德·巴什(Muhammad Bashi)为他父亲建造了一座名为"Nomus"的桥梁。

Nomus, a Wakhi word that can be translated as ‘showing concern for humanity’, is a unique system of social philanthropy – and an integral part of Shimshal society. Essentially, it’s a system in which the wealthier members of the community sponsor a building project like a bridge, trail or wall by providing resources, food and/or their own labour to honour a relative’s memory (whether they are alive or dead) and to generate blessings of God.


If a person has donated his wealth for the benefit of all, in turn people will look after and guard his property.


Shimshalis consider Nomus a lifetime assignment, even writing songs in praise of those who have offered their services to the community. It isn’t practiced anywhere outside the Shimshal Valley, and no one is exactly sure how it came into being or when it began – only that it has existed in Shimshal for as long as anyone now can remember.


Most of the Shimshalis I spoke with can trace their families back many generations, and have a long memory of their difficult history as servants, tending livestock and acting as porters for the Mir who controlled the Hunza region when it was a princely state – both as a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1892 to 1947 and as a princely state of Pakistan from 1947 to 1974.


After the princely state was dissolved by the Pakistani government, the Shimshali people concentrated their efforts on building their own community, taking pride in being self-reliant. They believe that self-sufficiency is the way to keep control of their own affairs, and that they know best how to take care of their own lands and people. Nomus, with its core goal of benefitting a community, is likely a part of this belief.


I asked Mr Khan and Mr Hussain what they knew about the tradition. They both agreed that the fact that Shimshal was cut off from most of the rest of the world for so long (until 2003 when the Shimshal Valley Road was finished) probably led to the creation of Nomus. Shimshalis needed to figure out a way to take care of themselves and each other; they were too remote and isolated to expect help from anyone outside the community.


Essa mused that he suspected that the Nomus tradition was at least 100 or more years old. “In olden times, someone who owned many goats and sheep maybe decided to offer some of them to the community so that they all could benefit from them. In turn, the community, would help graze the herds,” he said.


Most of the infrastructure improvements in Shimshal – including the bridges; the solar panels that power the 250 or so houses and the mobile phone towers with electricity; the rock walls that line the village roads; and the stone and mud houses constructed along the path to the pass ­– are a result of Nomus. There’s the community-run Shimshal Nature Trust, which oversees the region and takes care of its land. Even the Shimshal Valley Road was only made possible through the local community volunteering their labour along with the Aga Khan Rural Support Program and the Pakistan Government. Shimshalis are proud of their homes and the fact that they built their village themselves.


Mr Bashi passed away in the early 2000s, and now Mr Khan maintains the Chichan Bag bridge, rebuilding it in 2004 after a flood washed it out. The descendants of Chichan Bag will continue to maintain the bridge for as long as it exists. And it will always bear the name, and be known as, the Chichan Bag Bridge. To not do so would mean dishonouring the memory of their ancestor and not receiving blessings from God.

巴什先生在21世纪初去世了,如今,艾萨·汗先生维护着Chichan Bag桥,在2004年洪水冲刷之后进行了重建。这座桥存在多久,Chichan Bag的后人就会继续维护多久。而且会一直以Chichan Bag桥这个名字为世人所知。不那么做,就意味着有辱祖先的记忆,不会得到上帝的保佑。

“If my children want to build something for me, I will, of course, be happy,” Mr Khan said. “But it depends on whether they can manage to build and honour me with something or if they will maintain what I built for my father who built for his father. Either way, I will be happy.”