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建筑设计对癌症患者的治疗魔力

更新时间:2017-12-15 13:57:44 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The hidden healing power of design
建筑设计对癌症患者的治疗魔力

Among the standout events at the UK’s recent Northern Design Festival  was the showcasing of a cancer-care centre that combines elements of design to foster patients’ wellbeing. Maggie's Centre is located in the green grounds of Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, and this year joined forces with the festival to spread awareness about the centre, its architecture and interior design, and how these help make Maggie's an uplifting sanctuary for many.

最近一期英国北方设计节(Northern Design Festival)举办的各项精彩活动中,一个通过独特设计元素协助癌症患者的护理中心的设计展示吸引了我的注意。麦琪中心(Maggie's Centre)坐落于纽卡斯尔市弗里曼医院(Freeman Hospital)旁的绿地中,这座中心独特的外观和室内设计风格帮助它更好地促进癌症患者的康复。麦琪中心今年参与了设计节以提高人们对于其本身及其内部设计语言的认识。

There are 19 centres currently in the UK, all built in the grounds of NHS cancer hospitals, as well as one in Hong Kong, with seven new facilities in the process of construction. All provide free practical, social and emotional support to patients with cancer, as well as to their family and friends.

麦琪中心目前在英国有19座癌症患者康复中心,全部位于英国国民医疗体系(NHS)所属癌症医院院区之内,另外香港还有一个麦琪中心,同时还有七个康复中心处于计划建设阶段。所有康复中心均为癌症患者及其亲友提供免费的实用性、社交性和情感性扶持。

The award-winning Newcastle building was designed from concept through to completion by Cullinan Studio architects. It has an average of a hundred visitors to their centre each day, and more than 80,000 visits have been made to the centre since it opened in 2013. The organisation Maggie's Centres is named after Maggie Keswick Jencks. Jencks was a writer, artist and garden designer who lived with advanced cancer for two years, during which she used her experience to create a blueprint for a new type of care. The result is Maggie's Centres which are built around her belief that “people should not lose the joy of living in the fear of dying.” She believed buildings have the ability to uplift people, and co-founded the project before she died in 1995.

纽卡斯尔这座获奖建筑的概念设计和施工设计均由Cullinan事务所完成。每天到中心参观的游客平均有100人,自从2013年落成开放以来,总参观人数已经超过8万人。麦琪中心因作家、艺术家和园林设计师麦琪·科斯维克·詹克斯(Maggie Keswick Jencks)而得名。在和晚期癌症斗争的两年里,她构想出了一套全新的癌症病人护理方案。麦琪中心就是参照"不畏死亡,快乐生活"这一理念而设计建造的。她认为建筑物有治愈能力,在1995年去世之前,她联合创立了麦琪中心这个项目。

There is some evidence that architecture can affect patients’ recovery times.

有证据表明,建筑设计会影响到病人的康复时间。

According to Dr Ellen Fisher, vice president of academic affairs and dean of the New York School of Interior Design, who was quoted in an article on cancer.net: ”an environment designed using the principles of evidence-based design can improve the patient experience and enable patients to heal faster, and better."

纽约室内设计学院学术副院长兼系主任艾琳·费舍尔(Ellen Fisher)博士在cancer.net网站上发表文章称:"参照遵循证据的设计理念设计出来的环境能够改善病人体验,加快病人康复时间,提高康复质量。"

"Design elements such as a comfortable place for the family in the patient’s room, a sink in the room, control over lighting, temperature, and air flow, all assist in healing," she added. "The design of the physical environment also has a substantial impact on the caregivers through creating more efficient and productive work areas, better support in the patient rooms, and the proper design of settings to mitigate medical error.”

"病房内舒适的家庭活动空间、洗手池、灯光温度气流控制等等设计元素都会促进病人康复,"她说。"物理环境的设计还对医护人员产生重大影响。更高效和便利的工作区域、更好的病房设施和环境设计都会让医护人员少犯错误。"

Maggie's widower, Charles Jencks, who is a landscape designer, architectural historian and co-founder of Maggie’s Centres, also spoke of the importance that architecture has on wellbeing in a 2013 study, saying that “architecture creates the ambience and frame of mind for the carers, who then pass it on to the patients. And in that sense, architecture is key.”

麦琪的丈夫——园林设计师、建筑史学家和麦琪中心联合创始人查尔斯·詹克斯(Charles Jencks)在2013年发布的一项研究中也表示,好的建筑设计会对医护工作起到正面作用:"建筑设计可以为医护人员提供一个意识背景与框架,进而传递给病人。从这方面看,建筑设计是一个关键要素。"

Design for life

为生命而设计

Renowned architects Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid and Richard Rogers are among those who have worked on the Maggie's Centres buildings.

著名建筑设计弗兰克·盖里(Frank Gehry)、扎哈·哈迪德(ZahaHadid)和理查德·罗杰斯(Richard Rogers)都曾经为麦琪中心项目工作过。

BBC Designed spoke to the interior designer of the Newcastle project, David Wallace, about how he set out to bring his experience working with residential interiors to make Maggie's as homely, familiar and as comfortable as possible: ”It looks like a house, though unlike most houses, it is quite literally embedded in its landscape. The landscape was designed by Sarah Price, and the garden is visible from everywhere within the building.”

BBC设计频道采访了这个纽卡斯尔项目的室内设计师大卫·华莱士(David Wallace),询问他如何利用自己的住宅室内设计经验增进麦琪中心的家居温馨感:"它看起来就像是一座住宅。但与大多数住宅不同的是,它完全融入了周围的花园。花园设计师是莎拉·普莱斯(Sarah Price),在室内任何角度望去都能看到花园。"

In the Foresight Mental Capital and Wellbeing project carried out by the UK Government Office for Science, it was found that “access to nature and the 'natural' are significant contributors to individual mental capital wellbeing. The significant factors contributing to mental capital and wellbeing relate to our sensory stimulation: that is what we see, smell, touch, taste and hear.’”

英国政府科技办公室(UK Government Office for Science)完成的"远见精神健康(Foresight Mental Capital and Wellbeing)"研究项目表明,"接触自然和'自然化'事物能够极大改善人们的精神健康状况。我们通过视觉、嗅觉、触觉、味觉和听觉感受到的信号都会影响到我们的精神健康。"

Wallace has used natural materials in his design, including wood, leather and wool, he says. “In this centre, there are many hard surfaces - raw concrete, CorTen steel - and then the planting - a beech hedge, hornbeam, buxus, Ballerina tulips in spring. All of these elements directed me towards a certain palette.”

华莱士称,它在设计中使用了木材、皮革和羊毛等天然材料:"中心里有很多硬表面——例如素混凝土和考顿钢,此外在春天还有各种植物-榉树绿篱、鹅耳枥、黄杨和芭蕾郁金香。这些色彩元素影响了我的色调选择。"

“Everything that the visitor to the centre encounters is reassuring, honest, stimulating. There is a place to rest at the entrance - to pause, to be welcomed and to take in the surroundings. The interior is unlike a clinical environment. It feels very domestic - there’s no signage, for example. The textiles are interesting and colourful. The experience is disarming, human.”

"来访者在中心看到的一切都令人安心、真诚温暖并鼓舞人心。入口处可以小歇片刻,感受到这里的欢迎气氛并欣赏周围美景。内部陈设不像是一个医疗环境,更像是温馨舒适的家居环境——例如,没有医院常见的标志牌。色调五彩缤纷,生动有趣。人们在这里无不感到放松舒适。"

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