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产妇生产:这三个“传说”是否属实?

更新时间:2017-12-16 12:35:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The truth about three childbirth myths
产妇生产:这三个“传说”是否属实?

1) First babies usually arrive late

传说一:头胎总是比预产期晚

It’s true that only 4% of babies are born on their due dates, and that plenty of first babies are born late, but plenty of others are born early. When computer scientist Allen Downey from the Olin College of Engineering in the US looked in detail at the data from a survey conducted in 2002 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, he found that first babies are less likely to be born on the due date than subsequent children. His analysis showed they’re more likely to be late than subsequent babies, but they are also more likely than second or third babies to be born early.

的确,只有4%的婴儿会在预产期当天出生,许多头胎婴儿出生晚于预产期,但是也有许多婴儿早于预产期降生。美国奥林工程学院(Olin College of Engineering)的计算机科学家艾伦·窦尼(Allen Downey)详细研究了美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)2002年进行的一项普查的数据,他发现头胎所生的小孩比后几胎婴儿出生时间更容易偏离预产期。他的分析也表明头胎婴儿的分娩日比后几胎婴儿更容易晚于预产期。

He did find that first babies are on average born slightly later than other babies, but by just 16 hours, or a little more than that if you only include babies born at full-term. But since we’re looking at all babies, I think it’s fairer to include the premature babies too.

他的确发现头胎婴儿平均孕期比其他婴儿稍长,但只长十六个小时,或者如果仅对比足月婴儿的话,孕期只稍微长一点。但是既然我们所说的是所有新生婴儿,我认为把早产儿也包括在内是公平的。

Sixteen hours isn’t much, so the assumption that first babies are usually several days or even a week late isn’t correct. It does happen sometimes, and everyone will have anecdotes about babies induced two weeks after they were due because they’ve still not arrived. But of course, data is not the plural of anecdote, so when you’re seeking trends, individual stories tell us little.

十六小时并不多,所以第一胎通常比预产期晚几天甚至一周的假设是不正确的。这种情况的确也有发生,每个人都可能听说过某些孩子在预产期过后两周还毫无动静,才不得不通过催产术出生的故事。当然,数据不是故事的复合,所以当你在探寻趋势时,个别案例作用有限。

There’s also the question of whether we should even expect every pregnancy to last the same number of weeks. In one study, researchers measured hormone levels every day from the urine samples of women who were trying to conceive. This allowed them to determine exactly when ovulation and implantation of the fertilised egg had occurred, and to calculate an accurate length of pregnancy. They found it could vary by as much as five weeks.

还有一个问题是,我们是否应该期望每次怀孕持续同样的周数。在一项研究中,研究人员利用试图怀孕的妇女每天的尿液样本测定激素水平。这样他们能够精确地测定排卵和当受精卵着床的发生时间,并计算出准确的妊娠期长。他们发现妊娠期的差异幅度可能高达五周。

For second and third babies, the delivery date might also depend on the length of the gap between pregnancies. Researchers found that if conception occurs within a year of the birth of the first baby, the second pregnancy is often shorter.

对于第二胎和第三胎婴儿,分娩日期也可能取决于两次受孕之间的间隔长短。研究人员发现,如果受孕发生在第一胎出生的一年内,第二胎的孕期往往更短。

Some believe that due dates should be abandoned. Instead, women could be given a later date and told that by this date they will have delivered their baby. This would mean that 96% of couples could be saved from the pressure and anxiety that comes from their baby being born on a date other than the one they’ve had in their minds for all those months.

有些人认为应该放弃确定预产期。相反,妇女可以被告知一个更晚的日期,并讲明在这个日期之前孩子就会出生。这样就能让96%的夫妇不再焦虑煎熬为什么过了预产期孩子还不来。

2) Spicy food brings on labour

传说二:辛辣的食物容易刺激分娩

If the due date has passed and there’s no sign of anything happening, then roughly half of women take things into their own hands. In a US survey, more than a fifth of those hoping to kick-start labour did so by eating a hot curry.

如果预产期已经过去却没有任何动静,那么大约有一半的妇女会希望自己来把事情搞定。美国的一项调查表明,超过五成希望促进分娩的女性是通过吃辛辣的咖喱来做到这一点的。

The theory is that it might increase peristalsis – the wave like muscle contractions that help food pass through the gut - which in turn might trigger contractions in the uterus. This has never been tested systematically and there have been calls for large-scale randomised controlled trials to discover what does and doesn’t encourage labour to start.

这一理论认为辛辣食物可能会促进肠蠕动,这种波状肌肉收缩有助于食物通过肠道,反过来又可能引发子宫收缩。不过该理论未被系统性的验证,有人呼吁进行大规模的随机对照试验,以发现什么哪些因素会导致分娩,而哪些不会。

Even if spicy food can trigger contractions in some, its effectiveness might depend on your tolerance to spicy food. If you eat it every day it might not have the same impact on the intestine and in turn have no impact on the uterus.

即便辛辣食物会引起一些人产生宫缩,但它的有效性可能取决于你对辛辣食物的耐受性。如果你每天都吃,它可能不会对肠道产生同样的影响,反过来也不会对子宫产生什么影响。

3) Your waters always break dramatically

传说三:破水总是很有戏剧性

In films, heavily pregnant women suddenly look stricken as, without warning, liquid suddenly gushes out of them while contractions start and they clutch their bellies, before being rushed to hospital. In fact, it often doesn’t happen like this. Contractions can begin before the waters break. Sometimes they don’t break and medical staff do it artificially. And very occasionally the amniotic sac doesn’t break at all and the baby is born still in the sac, known as “en caul”. It is claimed that Sigmund Freud himself was one of these babies.

电影里常有这样的场景,大腹便便的孕妇会因为毫无征兆的突发破水和宫缩而惊慌失措,在被紧急送往医院之前,她们总是紧紧攥住自己的肚子。事实上,这种情况通常不会发生。宫缩可能在破水之前发生。有时破水不会自动发生,需要医务人员人工破水。偶尔也有羊膜囊完整,而婴儿包裹在其中出生的情况,这种被称为"裹在胎膜中出生"(en caul)。据说西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)就是这么出生的。

But most of the time, if waters break and the baby is at term, then labour and birth are not far away, if not already underway. One large study found that three-quarters of women whose waters had broken went into labour within 24 hours, the majority without induction.

但在大多数情况下,如果羊水破裂,而且婴儿已经足月,那么分娩和出生也就不远了,或者说已经开始。一项大型研究发现,羊水破裂的妇女中,有3/4在24小时内进入分娩,其中大多数没有使用催产术。

Those hoping for drama might be disappointed, because even when the waters breaking is the first signal that labour is about to start, the amniotic fluid can just seep out gradually, rather than in one big gush.

那些希望发生戏剧化场面的人可能会失望,因为即使羊水破裂是分娩即将开始的第一个信号,羊水也是逐渐渗出,而不是一次性大爆发。

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