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穿古越今:波斯地毯的永恒魅力

更新时间:2017-12-24 12:02:47 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The timeless appeal of the Persian rug
穿古越今:波斯地毯的永恒魅力

Poetry, wine, and song — such splendid things have, for millennia, constituted the very essence of the saffron-strewn Iranian soul and psyche.

诗歌、美酒与歌曲——一千年来,这些美妙的事物构成了伊朗遍布藏红花的灵魂内核。

While these, undoubtedly, are some of the things for which Iranian culture is known and celebrated, perhaps no element of it is as recognisable and striking — particularly abroad — as Persian rugs and textiles.

毋庸置疑,这些都是让伊朗文化举世闻名的一些事物。不过,论及辨识度和让人震惊的魅力,它们可能都比不上波斯地毯和纺织品,尤其在海外更是如此。

Adored for their intricate designs, sumptuous colours, and inimitable craftsmanship –not to mention their investment value – Persian rugs have not only found their way into households and interiors the world over, but also onto catwalks and concert stages, as well as in scores of artworks.

波斯地毯因繁复的设计、大胆的配色和无可比拟的工艺——更不用说其投资价值——受到人们的钟爱。波斯地毯不但进入了千家万户,还登上了时装秀和演唱会的舞台,此外还有许多艺术作品。

Far from being a recent phenomenon, the fascination with these textiles is a history nearly as illustrious as the woven wonders themselves.

波斯地毯并不是最近兴起的潮流,人们对波斯地毯的痴迷的历史,几乎可以和地毯奇迹本身媲美。

Scythians, Satraps, and Safavids

斯泰基人(Scythians)、波斯总督(Satraps)和萨非王朝(Safavids)

While the earliest-known carpet wasn’t discovered in modern-day Iran, its story concerns the region and the Iranian people nonetheless. Dating back to the Fifth Century B.C., the ‘Pazyryk carpet’ was discovered in the 1920s in Siberia amongst other treasures of the Scythians — an ethnic Iranic people, like the Persians and Kurds, as well as the Alans of Georgia and Russia, for instance. It was well preserved in ice. Aside from the Scythians’ Iranic ethnicity, archaeologists have surmised that the carpet itself may have found its way to Siberia from Persepolis in Iran, as the motifs featured on it bear a striking resemblance to those that can still be seen around the ancient Persian capital. Even in ancient times, as Greek writers like Xenophon attest to, the Persians were known for their carpets.

尽管据目前所知最早的地毯并没出现在如今的伊朗,它的传说却与这个地区和伊朗民族相关。20世纪20年代在塞尔维亚的斯泰基人宝藏中发现的巴基雷克(Pazyryk carpet)地毯可追溯到公元前5世纪。斯泰基人就像波斯人和库尔德人一样,是伊朗的一个民族,就好比是格鲁吉亚和俄国的阿兰人(Alans)。巴基雷克地毯被完好的保存在冰块中。考古学家推测,除了与斯泰基人有关以外,这块地毯可能还可以通过波斯波利斯(Persepolis)溯源至西伯利亚,因为上面的花纹与古波斯首都附近发现的地毯花纹惊人相似。即使在古代,色诺芬(Xenophon)等希腊作家也可以作证,波斯人以地毯而闻名。

“Pharnabazus appeared dressed in clothes that would have been worth a lot of gold,” Xenophon remarks in reference to a Persian satrap in his Hellenica. “And then his servants came forward to spread down for him the kind of soft rugs on which the Persians sit.”

色诺芬在《希腊史》(Hellenica)中提到了一位波斯总督:"法尔纳巴佐斯(Pharnabazus)登场,身穿的衣服价值连城。然后,侍者来到他面前,为他铺上某种柔软的希腊坐毯。"

While Alexander may have burned to oblivion many of those soft rugs when he torched down Persepolis, the Persian rug — like many other aspects of Iranian art and architecture – not only survived, but thrived, too. In the centuries that followed, rugs continued to be associated with luxury, as well as indigenous folk culture. But it wasn’t until the ‘golden age’ ushered in by Shah Abbas the Great of the Safavid dynasty in the 17th Century that the Persian rug truly became the Persian rug.

当亚历山大烧毁波斯波利斯(Persepolis)时,很多软毯可能都被烧毁了。不过,和伊朗的很多艺术、建筑一样,波斯地毯不但存活下来,而且愈发兴旺发展起来。在随后的几个世纪里,地毯长期与奢侈以及本土文化相关联。不过,波斯地毯真正享誉世界还要等到17世纪萨非王朝阿拔斯一世(Shah Abbas the Great)所创造的"黄金时代"。

Prior to his reign, many of Europe’s carpets came from Ottoman Turkey due to its proximity, but, as a result of various reforms and treaties brought about by Shah Abbas (r. 1588 – 1629), as well as Western colonial interests, the textiles industry was given a much-needed jolt, and began operating on a scale as never before seen. “Shah Abbas really revived the carpet-production industry,” says Dr. Aimée Froom, curator of the forthcoming Bestowing Beauty exhibition of Iranian artefacts at the Houston Museum of Fine Arts. Among many other items from the Sixth Century to the 19th Century, two showstoppers will be on view at the exhibition; a rug that once belonged to Italy’s King Umberto, as well as an animal-themed one from the Safavid era.

在萨非王朝之前,因为距离很近,所以欧洲的很多地毯都来自奥斯曼帝国。不过,一方面阿拔斯一世(1588 - 1629)进行了多项改革,签订了多项条约,另一方面西方国家开始产生殖民兴趣,导致纺织业为之一振,生产扩大到前所未有的规模。"阿拔斯一世确实复兴了地毯制造业,"休斯顿美术馆(Houston Museum of Fine Arts)即将到来的"美丽的馈赠"(Bestowing Beauty)伊朗艺术品展览的策展人艾米•弗鲁姆博士(Dr. Aimée Froom)说。本次展览除了从6世纪到19世纪的很多展品外,还会有两件惊世大作。其中之一就是曾属于意大利国王翁贝托(Umberto)的地毯,还有一个是萨非王朝的动物主题地毯。

Trade – as well as exchanges in general — with Europe increased, and the English, French, and Dutch, amongst others, were only too willing to lounge on their newfound luxuries from the land of Shakespeare’s ‘Sophy’ (Safavid).

随着与欧洲的贸易和整体交流的增加,英国、法国、荷兰等国热切希望享受来自莎士比亚作品中萨非王朝的新奇奢侈品。

From the reign of Shah Abbas onwards, Persian rugs can be seen in works of master artists of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque periods like Vermeer, Terborch, and Rubens. In Vermeer’s Young Woman with a Water Pitcher(c. 1662), for instance, the pitcher in question rests, according to the Met Museum, on a ‘soft and thickly textured Persian carpet.’ The aristocrat-and -jeweller Sir John Chardin, who visited Iran during the reign of Shah Abbas II, writes at length about rugs and other textiles in his classic travelogue, and Virginia Woolf’s gender-bending protagonist Orlando was known to own some Persian rugs of his own as an ageless androgyne in Elizabethan England.

从阿拔斯一世开始,波斯地毯开始出现在荷兰黄金时代(Dutch Golden Age)伟大艺术家以及弗拉芒画派巴洛克时期(Flemish Baroque)艺术家弗美尔(Vermeer)、特鲍赫(Terborch)、鲁本斯(Rubens)等人的作品中。比如,根据大都会艺术博物馆(Met Museum)的说法,在弗美尔1662年的作品《持水壶的女人》中,水壶放在一张"柔软、粗纹理"的波斯地毯上。在阿拔斯二世统治时期曾到访伊朗的珠宝商贵族约翰·夏尔丹爵士(Sir John Chardin)在他的经典游记中用很长的篇幅讨论地毯和其他纺织品。弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)性别扭曲的主人公奥兰多(Orlando)是伊丽莎白时代英国的不老双性人,他也以拥有波斯地毯而闻名。

As with the high-heeled shoes introduced to Europe by Iranian cavalrymen, and the later infatuation with Iranian philosophy, ancient religion, and literature during the Enlightenment, Europeans in all corners of the continent were going gaga over Persian rugs.

伊朗的骑兵曾把高跟鞋引入欧洲。在启蒙时代,整个欧洲大陆都醉心于伊朗哲学、古代宗教、文学以及波斯地毯。

Pop Goes Persia

波斯时尚风潮

Having, as usual, withstood the vagaries of time and fortune, Persian carpets once again found themselves all the rage in the 20th Century. In 1911, the renowned French hautecouture designer Paul Poiret hosted his ‘Thousand and Second Night’ — alternatively known as the ‘Persian Fête’ — a lavish, over-the-top Persian-themed ball in the garden of his Paris residence. In addition to the extravagant Persian-inspired outfits and congeries of exotic animals, there were, of course, choice Persian rugs laid out to complete the Persian effect.

经历了时间和命运的无常后,波斯地毯在20世纪又卷土重来。1911年,著名的法国高级时装设计师保罗·波烈(Paul Poiret)在他巴黎住所的花园里举办了一场名为"一千零二夜"(Thousand and Second Night)的波斯主题疯狂舞会(Persian Fête)。除了以波斯为灵感的奢侈服饰、大量异域风情的动物以外,当然还摆出了精选的波斯地毯,以完整呈现波斯风格。

Some decades later, in the swinging ‘60s, the fascination reached new heights. Iranian patterns such as paisley or ‘Persian pickles’ — an indigenous Persian-rug staple — were all the rage amongst the hitmakers of the day, who often sourced paisley shirts and other garments of Iranian origin (e.g. kaftans) from boutiques like Granny Takes a Trip on London’s King’s Road, and Kleptomania on Carnaby Street. According to veteran designer Anna Sui, who recently enjoyed a retrospective at London’s Fashion and Textile Museum: “in the ‘60s, paisley was kind of it. As a kid, I saw all the rock stars wearing paisley, like Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, and the Beatles.” In the late ‘60s and early ‘70s, leading fashion publications like GQand Vogue, as well as lesser-known ones such as Honey, visited Iran to stage exotic photo-shoots in environs like Esfahan and Persepolis. Needless to say, there were rugs aplenty.

数十年后,在摇摆的60年代,对波斯地毯的痴迷又达到了新的高度。伊朗图案,比如佩斯利花纹或"波斯腌菜"——一种波斯地毯中常用的花纹——就在当时的明星中盛行。当时的明星常常从伦敦国王路(King's Road)的精品店Granny Takes a Trip和卡纳比街(Carnaby Street)的精品店Kleptomania购置佩斯利花纹衬衫和其他源自伊朗的衣服(比如土耳其长袍)。老牌设计师萧志美(Anna Sui)最近在伦敦的时尚和纺织品博物馆(Fashion and Textile Museum)回顾了时尚史。她说:"佩斯利花纹在60年代很流行。我当时还是个孩子,所有的摇滚明星都穿佩斯利花纹的衣服,比如鲍勃·迪伦、滚石乐队、甲壳虫乐队。"在60年代末、70年代初,领先的时尚出版物GQ和Vogue以及名气较小的Honey来到伊朗的伊斯法罕(Esfahan)和波斯波利斯拍摄异域风情照。不用说,那里有很多地毯。

Even on today’s runways, Persian rugs and Persian rug-related designs continue to impress fashionistas. Aside from some of Sui’s designs, Hermes’ Persian-inspired ‘Tabriz’ collection from 2013 (named after the Iranian city), and Givenchy’s Persian rug-obsessed authumn/winter2015 collection, Alexander McQueen autumn/winter 2017 is also worth noting for a lush head-to-toe Persian rug get-up, as is Dutch designer Marlou Breuls, who bagged the people’s choice award at the 2016 Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week in Amsterdam for an outfit largely composed of an actual Persian rug. Other labels including Etro and Liam Gallagher’s Pretty Green have also long been making extensive use of paisley in their designs.

即使在如今的T台上,波斯地毯以及相关的设计仍然让时尚达人印象深刻。除了萧志美的一些设计以外,还有爱马仕(Hermes)以波斯为灵感的2013服装系列"大不里士"(Tabriz)(取自伊朗城市名)、纪梵希(Givenchy)痴迷于波斯地毯的2015秋冬服装系列、亚历山大·麦昆(Alexander McQueen)2017秋冬服装系列中一套魅力十足的从头到脚的波斯地毯服。荷兰设计师马洛·布雷尔斯(Marlou Breuls)曾在2016梅赛德斯奔驰阿姆斯特丹时装周(Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week)凭借一套用波斯地毯制作的套装夺得众选奖。其他的品牌还包括Etro和连恩·盖勒格(Liam Gallagher)的派蒂·格林(Pretty Green)也在设计中长期大量使用了佩斯利花纹。

Persian rugs earned the spotlight elsewhere, too. In the ‘60s and ‘70s, acts like Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young and the Grateful Dead performed on Persian-rug-strewn floors, while in more recent years, luminaries such as Eric Clapton, and the late Tom Petty and Leonard Cohen were spotted crooning away on them onstage. Still today, stages are often strewn with them while artists strum and sing away.

波斯地毯也在其他地方受到瞩目。在六、七十年代,CSNY乐队(Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young)和感恩至死乐队(Grateful Dead)在铺着波斯地毯的舞台上表演。近些年来,埃里克·克莱普顿(Eric Clapton)和后来的汤姆·派蒂(Tom Petty)和里奥纳德·科恩(Leonard Cohen)也在波斯地毯的舞台上歌唱。时至今日,仍有很多舞台铺设波斯地毯,而艺术家们在舞台上尽情歌唱、弹奏。

Trouble in Paradise

伊朗地毯面临的挑战

This isn’t to say that only Westerners have been infatuated for centuries with Persian rugs, or that they’re seen as commonplace among Iranians.

这并不是说过去几个世纪只有西方人对波斯地毯着迷,也并不意味着伊朗人对波斯地毯司空见惯。

In Iran, as well as in the Iranian diaspora, contemporary artists have been inspired by Persian rugs, and have employed related themes in their works. Babak Kazemi’s Exit of Shirin and Farhadseries, for instance, makes beautiful use of Persian rug imagery in his mixed-media photography, while diaspora-based artists like Germany’s Anahita Razmi and America’s Sara Rahbar have used actual Persian rugs in installation pieces dealing with their identities.

在伊朗以及客居他国的伊朗人中,一些当代艺术家从波斯地毯汲取灵感,并在他们的作品中运用了相关主题。比如,巴巴克·卡齐米(Babak Kazemi)的《斯瑞与法哈德的退出》(Exit of Shirin and Farhad)系列作品在多媒体摄影中使用了波斯地毯的意象。客户国外的伊朗艺术家,比如德国的安娜希塔·拉兹米和美国的莎拉·拉赫巴尔(Sara Rahbar)在有关他们身份认同的装置艺术上使用了真实的波斯地毯。

All, however, is not well in Paradise (or, pairi-daeza, as it was originally known in Old Persian). Even after the lifting of many crippling sanctions, the Persian-rug industry is under threat from cheaper factory-made alternatives from China and India, as well as a relative loss in interest from some middle-class Iranians, who are opting for other home décor. Chinese rugs may be emblematic of having ‘made it’ to Iggy Pop — “Here comes my Chinese rug!” he and David Bowie howl in the song Success on 1977’s Lust for Life — but to weavers of Persian rugs, who knot them entirely by hand in an entirely organic process using natural dyes and sheep’s wool, they are inferior substitutes threatening not only their livelihood and way of life (many local producers are, as the Scythians were, nomads), but also a priceless aspect of their heritage.

不过,地毯在伊朗的发展并不是一切都好。即便很多制裁手段被解除以后,波斯地毯业仍然受到中国和印度工厂制造的地毯所带来的威胁。另外,伊朗中产阶层对波斯地毯的兴趣也开始减少,转而寻找其他家居装饰品。尽管中国生产的地毯被写进了伊基·波普(Iggy Pop)1977年的专辑Lust for Life的歌曲Success中——他和大卫·鲍伊(David Bowie)一起咆哮道:"我的中国地毯来了" ,但是对那些用天然染料和羊毛以纯有机的方式纯手工编织波斯地毯的工人来说,这种低劣的替代品所威胁的不仅是他们的生计和生活方式(很多本地生产商和斯泰基人一样是游牧民族),更是破坏了他们无价的文化遗产。

According to specialist and dealer Anahita Sadighi, owner of Berlin’s Arts of Asia, Chinese and Indian varieties have been a problem since the 1979 Revolution. “Important makers left the country and moved to India, Pakistan, and China, resulting in the spread of cheaply produced, low-quality carpets,” she says. “Persian carpets had always been regarded as highly prestigious luxury goods that only the elite could afford. This changed dramatically after the shift.”

柏林亚洲艺术画廊(Arts of Asia)的所有人、艺术专家、画商安娜希塔·萨蒂基(Anahita Sadighi)认为,自1979伊朗革命以来,中国和印度的地毯就一直是一个问题。"重要的生产商离开了伊朗,搬去印度、巴基斯坦和中国,导致低成本、低品质的地毯泛滥,"她说,"波斯地毯一直被视为尊贵的奢侈品,只有精英阶层才能负担。在那以后,这种情况发生了很大的变化。"

Rug life

拥有地毯的生活

In spite of its domestic woes, the Persian rug still, as it has for aeons, holds a timeless, luxurious, opulent and extravagant allure and appeal.

尽管波斯地毯在本国面临困境,但是它仍然保持着永恒、奢侈、富有的诱人魅力。

“There’s something so magical about it,” says Froom. “It pervades so many different aspects of life.”

弗鲁姆说:"它有某种强大的魔力,渗透到了生活中的方方面面。"

As for Persian-rug patterns like paisley, which have become ubiquitous in fashion and design, Sui’s words echo Froom’s: “[Paisley] is so beautiful … it’s not that you either like it or don’t: everyone likes it… I think there’s a reason it’s been so successful in carpeting — it’s a pattern you can really live with.”

像佩斯利花纹等波斯地毯花纹在时尚和设计界已经无处不在。萧志美呼应了弗鲁姆的话:"佩斯利花纹如此美丽……不论你喜不喜欢,大家都喜欢……我觉得它在地毯设计上大获成功不是没有道理的——它确实可以相伴生活。"

And, while Sadighi’s comments are certainly disheartening, judging from its enduring popularity and the many luxurious and stylish associations it enjoys, the Persian rug — or, at least, the idea of the Persian rug — isn’t going to bite the dust anytime soon.

虽然萨蒂基的评论让人感到沮丧,但是从波斯地毯持久的人气和它与奢侈、流行的多重关系来看,至少波斯地毯的概念不会在短期内消失。

Foreign invaders, rock and rollers, and other menacing creatures have tramped, tread, and indulged to excess on the floral sprays and undulating patterns of this little Iranian masterpiece, which — if history be any guide — will come to see many more tales woven upon it in time.

外国入侵者、摇滚歌手以及其他险恶的生物都曾踩过这件带有起伏变化鲜花图案的伊朗地毯杰作。如果我们能从历史中获得启迪的话,那么未来我们还将会见证更多的故事与波斯地毯发生关联。

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