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“反叛者”特朗普

更新时间:2017-12-31 11:16:23 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Trump, the Insurgent, Breaks With 70 Years of American Foreign Policy
“反叛者”特朗普

WASHINGTON — President Donald Trump was already revved up when he emerged from his limousine to visit NATO’s new headquarters in Brussels in May. He had just met France’s recently elected president, Emmanuel Macron, whom he greeted with a white-knuckle handshake and a complaint that Europeans do not pay their fair share of the alliance’s costs.

华盛顿——当唐纳德·特朗普总统五月从他的加长轿车出来,到访北约在布鲁塞尔的新总部时,他已经很激动了。他刚与法国新当选的总统马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)举行过会晤,他以一个令人害怕的握手和对欧洲人没有为这个联盟支付他们相应份额的抱怨问候了后者。

On the long walk through the NATO building’s cathedrallike atrium, the president’s anger grew. He looked at the polished floors and shimmering glass walls with a property developer’s eye. By the time he reached an outdoor plaza where he was to speak to the other NATO leaders, Trump was fuming, according to two aides who were with him that day.

在步行穿过像大教堂般中庭的漫长过程中,总统的怒气越来越大。他用一个房地产开发商的眼光看着擦得锃亮的地板和闪着微光的玻璃幕墙。据两位当天随他一起出行的助手说,到了他抵达定于与其他北约领导人交谈的户外广场时,特朗普已经气得冒烟了。

His visceral reaction to the $1.2 billion building, more than anything else, colored his first encounter with the alliance, aides said.

助手说,与其他东西相比,他对这幢耗资12亿美元大楼出于本能的反应笼罩了他与这个联盟的首次会面。

Nearly a year into his presidency, Trump remains an erratic, idiosyncratic leader on the global stage, an insurgent who attacks allies the United States has nurtured since World War II and who can seem more at home with America’s adversaries. His Twitter posts, delivered without warning or consultation, often make a mockery of his administration’s policies and subvert the messages his emissaries are trying to deliver abroad.

担任总统近一年后,特朗普仍是世界舞台上一个不稳定、另类的领导人,他是一个反叛者,会对美国自“二战”以来悉心扶植的盟友发起攻击,而且跟美国的对手在一起时似乎更为自如。他那些毫无征兆或经过咨询就发出去的推文常常嘲笑自己政府的政策,颠覆其使者努力向国外传达的信息。

Trump has pulled out of trade and climate change agreements and denounced the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran. He has broken with decades of U.S. policy in the Middle East by recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. And he has taunted Kim Jong Un of North Korea as “short and fat,” fanning fears of war on the peninsula.

特朗普退出了贸易和气候变化协议,并谴责2015年与伊朗达成的核协议。他承认耶路撒冷是以色列的首都,打破了美国在中东实行数十年的政策。他还嘲笑朝鲜领导人金正恩“又矮又胖”,加剧了民众对朝鲜半岛爆发战争的担忧。

He has assiduously cultivated President Xi Jinping of China and avoided criticizing President Vladimir Putin of Russia.

他极力结交中国国家主席习近平,并避免指责俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)。

Above all, Trump has transformed the world’s view of the United States from a reliable anchor of the liberal, rules-based international order into something more inward-looking and unpredictable. That is a seminal change from the role the nation has played for 70 years, under presidents from both parties, and it has lasting implications for how other nations chart their futures.

最重要的是,特朗普改变了全世界对美国的看法。美国从自由、以规则为基础的国际秩序可靠的支持者,变成了一个更注重国内和不可预测的国家。这是一个重大变化,偏离了美国70年来在来自两党的总统领导下所扮演的角色,并对其他国家如何规划自己的未来有着持久的影响。

Trump’s unorthodox approach “has moved a lot of us out of our comfort zone, me included,” the national security adviser, Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, said in an interview. McMaster defined Trump's foreign policy as “pragmatic realism” rather than isolationism.

美国国家安全顾问H·R·麦克马斯特中将(Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster)在接受采访时说,特朗普的另类做法“让我们很多人离开了自己的舒适区,包括我在内”。麦克马斯特将特朗普的外交政策定义为“务实的现实主义”,而不是孤立主义。

Trump’s advisers argue that he has blown the cobwebs off decades of foreign policy doctrine and, as he approaches his anniversary, that he has learned the realities of the world in which the U.S. must operate.

特朗普的顾问辩称,他让数十年的外交政策教条变得清醒,并且在即将迎来上台一周年纪念日之际,他已经了解了美国所处的这个世界的现实。

They point to gains in the Middle East, where Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is transforming Saudi Arabia; in Asia, where China is doing more to pressure a nuclear-armed North Korea; and even in Europe, where Trump’s criticism has prodded NATO members to ante up more for their defense.

他们指出了世界各地的收获。在中东,王储穆罕默德·本·萨勒曼(Mohammed bin Salman)正在改变沙特阿拉伯;在亚洲,中国正在采取更多措施,对拥有核武器的朝鲜施压;甚至在欧洲,特朗普的指责也促使北约(NATO)成员国加大了对各自防务的投入。

“Most foreign leaders are still trying to get a handle on him,” said Richard N. Haass, a top State Department official in the George W. Bush administration who is now the president of the Council on Foreign Relations. “Everywhere I go, I’m still getting asked, ‘Help us understand this president, help us navigate this situation.’"

“大部分外国领导人仍在努力理解他的意思,”乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)政府时期的国务院高层官员、现任外交关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)主席的理查德·N·哈斯(Richard N.Haass)说。“无论走到哪里,都有人让我‘帮我们了解这位总统,帮我们度过目前的局面’。”

Few countries have struggled more to adapt to Trump than Germany, and few leaders seem less personally in sync with him than its leader, Chancellor Angela Merkel, the physicist-turned-politician. After she won a fourth term, their relationship took on weighty symbolism: The great disrupter versus the last defender of the liberal world order.

在适应特朗普这件事上,几乎没有哪个国家比德国更艰难,并且在个人风格上,物理学家出身的德国领导人安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)总理似乎也是与特朗普差异最大的。在默克尔赢得第四届任期后,他们的关系被赋予了沉重的象征意义:一个是破坏大王,一个是自由世界秩序最后的捍卫者。

For Merkel and many other Germans, something elemental has changed across the Atlantic. “We Europeans must really take our destiny into our own hands,” she said in May. “The times in which we can fully count on others — they are somewhat over.”

对默克尔和其他很多德国人来说,大西洋对岸某种基本的东西发生了变化。“我们欧洲人必须真正把我们的命运掌握在自己手中,”她在5月说。“我们可以完全依靠别人的时代,在一定程度上来说已经结束了。”

Xi of China and King Salman of Saudi Arabia both won over Trump by giving him a lavish welcome when he visited. The Saudi monarch projected his image on the side of a hotel; Xi reopened a long-dormant theater inside the Forbidden City to present him and his wife an evening of Chinese opera.

通过特朗普到访时的热情款待,中国国家主席习近平和沙特国王萨尔曼都赢得了他。沙特国王把他的照片投影在了一家酒店的一侧;习近平则为了给特朗普夫妇奉上一个京剧之夜,重新开放了故宫内部一个长期关闭的剧院。

Later, chatting with his aides, Trump continued to marvel at the respect Xi had shown him. It was a show of respect for the American people, not just for the president, one adviser replied gently.

后来和助手聊天时,特朗普仍对习近平对他表现出的尊重感到惊讶。一名顾问轻声回答说,这是对美国人民表现出的尊重,不仅仅是对总统。

Then, of course, there is the strange case of Putin. The president spoke of his warm telephone calls with the Russian president, even as he introduced a national security strategy that acknowledged Russia’s efforts to weaken democracies by meddling in their elections.

当然,还有普京这个奇怪的例子。特朗普会说起他与俄罗斯总统的热情通话,尽管他提出的国家安全战略中承认俄罗斯试图通过干预选举削弱民主制度。

Aides to Trump argue that his outreach to autocrats has been vindicated. When the Saudi crown prince visited the White House in March, the president lavished attention on him. Since then, they say, Saudi Arabia has reopened cinemas and allowed women to drive.

特朗普的助手辩称,他与独裁者的接触已被证明是正确的。今年3月,沙特王储造访白宫时,总统对他格外关注。他们说,从那以后,沙特阿拉伯重新开放了电影院,允许女性开车。

But critics say Trump gives more than he gets. By backing the 32-year-old crown prince so wholeheartedly, the president cemented his status as heir to the House of Saud. The crown prince has since jailed his rivals as Saudi Arabia pursued a deadly intervention in Yemen’s civil war.

但批评人士认为,特朗普付出的比他得到的多。总统全心全意支持这位32岁的王储,巩固了他作为沙特王室继承人的地位。从那之后,这位王储将他的对手们监禁起来,沙特阿拉伯也在对也门内战进行致命干预。

Trump granted an enormous concession to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu when he announced earlier this month that the United States would formally recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. But he did not ask anything of Netanyahu in return.

本月早些时候,特朗普宣布,美国将正式承认耶路撒冷是以色列的首都,对以色列总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)做出了巨大让步。但他并没有向内塔尼亚胡提出任何要求作为回报。

That showed another hallmark of Trump’s foreign policy: how much it is driven by domestic politics. In this case, he was fulfilling a campaign promise to move the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv. While evangelicals and some hard-line, pro-Israel American Jews exulted, the Palestinians seethed.

这也展现出特朗普外交政策的另一个特点:它在很大程度上受国内政治驱动。在以色列的问题上,他是在履行将美国大使馆从特拉维夫迁往耶路撒冷的竞选承诺。虽然福音派和一些亲以色列的强硬派美国犹太人欢欣鼓舞,却激起了巴勒斯坦人的怒火。

For some of Trump’s advisers, the key to understanding his statecraft is not how he deals with Xi Jinping or Angela Merkel, but the ideological contest over America’s role that plays out daily between the West Wing and agencies like the State Department and the Pentagon.

对特朗普的一些顾问来说,了解他的治国之道的关键不在于他如何与习近平或安格拉·默克尔打交道,而在于围绕美国应该扮演的角色的意识形态较量,这种较量每天都在白宫西翼与国务院和五角大楼(Pentagon)等机构之间进行。

“There’s a chasm that can’t be bridged between the globalists and the nationalists,” said Stephen K. Bannon, the president’s former chief strategist and leader of the nationalist wing.

“全球主义者和国家主义者之间存在着无法弥合的鸿沟,”总统的前首席战略师、国家主义势力的领头人斯蒂芬·K·班农(Stephen K. Bannon)说。

On the globalist side of the debate stand McMaster, Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis, Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson, and Trump’s chief economic adviser, Gary D. Cohn. On the nationalist side, in addition to Bannon, stand Stephen Miller, the president’s top domestic adviser, and Robert Lighthizer, the chief trade negotiator.

这场辩论的全球主义阵营包括麦克马斯特、国防部长吉姆·马蒂斯(Jim Mattis)、国务卿雷克斯·W·蒂勒森(Rex W. Tillerson)和特朗普的首席经济顾问加里·D·科恩(Gary D. Cohn)。在国家主义阵营方面,除了班农,还有总统的高级内政顾问斯蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)和首席贸易谈判代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)。

The globalists have curbed some of Trump’s most radical impulses. He has yet to rip up the Iran nuclear deal, though he has refused to recertify it. He has reaffirmed U.S. support for NATO, despite his objections about those members he believes are freeloading. And he has ordered thousands of additional U.S. troops into Afghanistan, even after promising during the campaign to stay away from nation-building.

全球主义者已经遏制了特朗普最激进的一些冲动。他还没有撕毁伊朗核协议,尽管他拒绝认证。他重申了美国对北约的支持,尽管他反对那些北约成员国,认为它们在吃白食。他下令向阿富汗增派数千名美军,尽管他在竞选期间承诺不参与阿富汗的国家建设。

Trump acknowledges that being in office has changed him. “My original instinct was to pull out,” he said of Afghanistan, “and, historically, I like following my instincts. But all my life I’ve heard that decisions are much different when you sit behind the desk in the Oval Office.”

特朗普承认,总统这个职位改变了他。“我最初的直觉是撤军,”他谈到阿富汗时说,“而且过去,我喜欢跟随自己的直觉。但一直以来,我经常听说,当你坐在椭圆形办公室的桌子后面时,你的决定会很不同。”

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