您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 风尚 >> 正文

白色结婚礼服的前世今生

更新时间:2017-12-31 12:39:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The evolution of the wedding dress
白色结婚礼服的前世今生

It’s the default setting for brides in Western culture, but what does the ubiquitous white wedding dress actually represent? Not quite what we have always assumed, it turns out. The tradition of brides wearing white has never symbolised virginity or purity, according to a new exhibition that explores the garment’s history – the white bridal gown’s primary function was ostentatiousness.

西方文化中新娘身着白色婚纱乃是惯例,但是这种普遍的风俗到底代表着什么?我们发现这一习俗并非我们通常所想的那样。根据一个关于结婚礼服演化历史的新展览所揭示的,新娘身穿白色礼服从不是童真或纯洁的象征,白色礼服的首要功能是炫耀。

“The connotation of purity was not important,” Edwina Ehrman, curator at London's Victoria & Albert Museum, tells BBC Culture. “It was about wealth. Throughout the 18th and 19th Century, women who could afford it got married in white.” In the days when washing was done painstakingly by hand with a washboard, a white dress was almost impossible to clean thoroughly. “It was a garment you just wore once, so it was only for the very wealthy.” Ehrman has studied how wedding dresses have changed in tune with fashion and society over the centuries – and also upends some of our long-held assumptions along the way.

"纯洁的含义并不紧要,"伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特博物馆(London's Victoria & Albert Museum)馆长艾德维纳·艾尔曼(Edwina Ehrman)接受BBC文化节目采访时表示,"这主要与财富相关。整个18和19世纪,有钱的女子才会在婚礼上穿白色礼服。"在那个洗衣要靠洗衣板艰难手搓的时代,一件白色衣服几乎不可能完全洗净如初。"这是一件你只穿一次的衣服,所以这是给最富有的女人准备的,"艾尔曼研究婚礼礼服几个世纪以来与时尚与社会的变化,顺便推翻了我们长久以来的观念。

The white (or ivory) wedding dress – popularised by Queen Victoria, who wore one at her wedding to Prince Albert in 1840 – has certainly endured. There’s no denying its totemic power. For many brides it encapsulates a hopeful, romantic nostalgia, and many designers. “It can have a transformative effect,” says Ehrman. “And if you’ve already been living with your partner or even if you’ve had children you may want to wear white at your wedding because you feel it marks a new phase in your relationship.”

白色(或象牙白色)婚礼礼服的传统确实始终存在,这一传统因维多利亚女王在她1840年的婚礼上身穿白色礼服而开始风靡。无法否认其具有图腾般强大的力量。对大多数新娘和设计师而言,它包含了充满希望和浪漫的惆怅。"它具有一种变形的效果",艾尔曼说。"如果你已经与你的伴侣住在一起,或者即便你已经有了小孩,你还是会愿意在你的婚礼上身穿白色婚纱,因为你会觉得这在你们的关系上标志着一个新的阶段。"

White is the warmest colour

白色最温馨

So quintessentially bridal has the white dress become that now when a bride chooses to tie the knot wearing another colour, it’s considered daring and rebellious: think burlesque dancer Dita Von Teese in her purple, corsetted dress by Vivienne Westwood, for instance; singer Gwen Stefani in a dramatic dip-dyed number by John Galliano; or actresses Anne Hathaway, Jessica Biel and Reese Witherspoon all of whom recently wed in unconventional pink. And when designers Oscar de la Renta and Vera Wang recently debuted non-white wedding-dress collections, it was viewed as a radical move in the conservative bridal-wear industry.

新娘就应该身穿白色的习俗如此根深蒂固,以至于有的新娘选择结婚时穿其它颜色会被认为大胆而出格:想想脱衣舞娘蒂塔·万提斯(Dita Von Teese)在婚礼上身穿由薇薇安·韦斯特伍德(Vivienne Westwood)设计的紫色紧身胸衣礼服;歌手格温·史蒂芬妮(Gwen Stefani)身穿约翰·加利亚诺(John Galliano)设计的戏剧化的染色礼服;安·海瑟薇(Anne Hathaway)、杰西卡.贝尔(Jessica Biel )和瑞茜.威瑟斯庞(Reese Witherspoon)等一众女星近来在自己的婚礼上穿着不同寻常的粉色。而当设计师奥斯卡·德拉伦塔(Oscar de la Renta)与王薇薇(Vera Wang)近来首次推出非白色的婚服系列,就被视为在保守的婚纱行业中的一次激进举动。

Yet getting married in pink, purple, yellow, red (the typical bridal gown colour in China) or any other colour for that matter is nothing new in Western culture, nor particularly irreverent, says Ehrman. “Over the centuries, brides who were interested in fashion have often got married in different colours. And they would wear them many times afterwards, altering them over the years to fit in with fashion, or to fit a changing figure.” And it was common for women not to buy a new dress for the occasion, but to simply get married in their best existing outfit.

艾尔曼说,其实,不论身穿粉色、紫色、黄色、红色(中国新娘礼服的常用色)还是其它什么颜色在西方文化中并不新鲜,也并非特别不敬。"几个世纪以来,对时尚感兴趣的新娘经常在婚礼上身穿各种颜色的礼服。而且她们在婚礼后还会穿很多次,并且在随后的几年中还会不断修改,以使其样式跟上时尚潮流,或者适应变化的体型。"并且女人们不会单为婚礼买一件新的衣服,而只会穿着她们现有最好的衣服结婚。

Bridal fashion adapted to wartime as best it could. “People did what they could during World War II,” explains Ehrman. “They would borrow a dress or wear their service uniform. Women in the armed forces could also hire a dress, and some brides made dresses out of curtain fabric. We have an example in the show of a buttercup-print dress made of lightweight upholstery fabric.”

新娘礼服的风俗尽可能地适应战时需要。"二战期间人们就比较将就,"艾尔曼解释道,"他们会借衣服,或者就穿军装。军队中的女性也会租用服装,有些新娘会用窗帘布来做婚纱。我们这里的展览就有一件用轻柔的装饰布做成的金凤图案的婚纱。"

Post-war, the mid-calf ballerina-length design became popular, favoured by women who had careers. There were some spectacular one-off gowns, too. Margaret Whigam, one of the first It girls, wore a big, showy gown by Norman Hartnell. “She was beautiful, rich and she loved the camera – she was the perfect client for Hartnell,” says Ehrman. “That was not a garment that could be altered for another occasion.”

战后,受到职业女性喜爱的芭蕾裙长度的中长款式礼服大行其道。也会有某些风格华丽的一次性礼服。新潮女孩之一的玛格丽特·维汉姆(Margaret Whigham)就穿了一件诺曼·哈特奈尔(Norman Hartnell)设计的艳丽而宽大的礼服。"她美貌富有,而且喜欢上镜头,是哈特奈尔的完美客户,"艾尔曼说,"这是无法为其它场合修改使用的礼服。"

In the swinging 1960s, singer Lulu sported a white hooded, fur-trimmed maxi coat over a mini dress and high boots. The Thea Porter-designed empire-line dress displayed in a previous V&A wedding-dress exhibition – “demure but flirty” as Ehrman puts it – in devore velvet, is quintessentially 1970s. “The reason the white wedding dress has survived is because it can evolve and remain fashionable –it persists because it can be reinvented.”

在新潮辈出的60年代,歌手露露(Lulu)得意洋洋地向众人展示她那件带白色兜帽、毛皮长裙,外搭外套小洋装,并穿着高筒靴。西亚·波特(Thea Porter)设计的烧花天鹅绒面料的高腰礼服,也在前次的维多利亚与艾伯特博物馆婚礼礼服展览中展出——正如艾尔曼所说的给人"既庄重又轻浮"的感觉——则流行于70年代。"白色礼服之所以能够经久不衰,原因就在于它能不断变化,并一直很时尚——它历久弥新在于其能不断改头换面更新换代。"

Designer Jenny Packham agrees. “The most memorable wedding outfits for me are those that define an era from a fashion perspective,” she says. “Bianca Jagger in that white suit, Audrey Hepburn in a mini dress and head scarf.” Packham designs bridal wear as well as eveningwear (and is a favourite with many high-profile women, including the Duchess of Cambridge).

设计师珍妮·佩克汉姆(Jenny Packham )也同意这一说法。"对我而言,最有纪念意义的婚礼服装是那些定义了一个时代时尚特色的服装,"她说道,"比如身穿白色套装的比安卡·贾格尔(Bianca Jagger)和穿小洋装戴头巾的奥黛丽赫本。"佩克汉姆既设计婚纱,也设计晚礼服(她的设计是许多女性名人的最爱,其中也包括剑桥公爵夫人(Duchess of Cambridge)。

So what era influences Packham’s bridal wear the most? “The 1930s are always a great source of inspiration – a wonderfully decadent and glamorous era between the wars, it was a design explosion of divine proportions.”

那么,那个时代对于佩克汉姆的婚纱设计影响最大呢?"30年代的婚纱是我设计的一大灵感来源,那是一个两次大战间颓废而光彩斑斓的奇妙时代,是黄金比例设计大爆发的时代。"

And how does she predict the wedding dress will evolve?  “The bridal dress must stand out as a piece of clothing… At the moment there is a comfortable stand-off between the red carpet and the aisle. Neither wants to look like the other.”

那么她如何预测婚礼礼服的演变?"作为一块布料,婚纱必须能够突显出来。在那个时刻,必须与红色地毯与通道之间形成一种令人舒适的对比。两者都不希望与对方相似。"

Alice Temperley is influenced by the silhouettes and spirit of the 1920s. Why has the romantic, ultra-feminine gown endured for so long in her view? “The wedding dress is traditional, timeless and defies trends,” she says, recalling her own wedding dress, made with “antique lace and 1920s sequins that I had collected since childhood”.

设计师爱丽丝·坦波丽(Alice Temperley)则受到了20年代的造型与精神的影响。在她看来,为何浪漫的、极度女性化的礼服能够持续这么久?"婚礼礼服是传统的、不受时间影响的,并且抵制潮流,"她说道。回忆起她自己的婚礼礼服是由"我自孩提时代收集的古董蕾丝和20年代常用的亮片"制成的。

Making a statement

突出个性

It’s all in the detail, agrees Gareth Pugh, who has created stage outfits for the likes of Lady Gaga and Kylie Minogue – and whose dramatic-but-romantic bridal dress for stylist Katie Shillingford is part of the V&A collection. “A costume for the stage and a wedding dress both have very specific roles to fulfil,” Pugh tells BBC Culture. “However, the approach and process are very different. Usually with stage costume, comfort and the ability to move around easily are top of the list, along with being visually striking.

细节说明了一切,加勒斯·普(Gareth Pugh)同意这一点,他为美国歌手嘎嘎小姐(Lady Gaga)和澳大利亚歌手凯莉·米洛(Kylie Minogue)设计舞台服装。而他为形象设计师凯蒂·希灵福德(Katie Shillingford)设计的充满戏剧效果但并不浪漫的礼服也是维多利亚与艾伯特博物馆展览的一部分。"舞台演出服和结婚礼服都是有特定角色需求的服装,"加勒斯·普接受BBC文化栏目采访时说。"但是,设计的方法和过程则完全不同。通常舞台服装首先要求舒适,以及更容易活动,而且有视觉冲击力。"

“With a wedding dress there are layers of subtlety that you can achieve that you just can’t replicate on stage – usually because a wedding dress is viewed in much closer quarters. And a bride is more willing to forego comfort.” And how does Pugh think the wedding dress will evolve in the future? “I think the idea of dressing up and presenting a side of oneself that is a fantasy will always appeal,” he says. “For most, a wedding is perhaps the one day where they are allowed free rein to really go to town.  There will always be a niche market for the traditional white meringue, but I like the idea of the dress being a little more personal – something that is made with love and care, something that takes time and patience - a lot like the marriage itself.”

"而婚礼礼服则可以实现不同层的细微差别,而这些你无法在舞台上复制——通常结婚礼服是为了在更近的距离上被观赏。而且新娘往往愿意牺牲舒适性。"而加勒斯·普觉得结婚礼服在未来会如何演变呢?"我认为通过穿衣来表现一个人的某一侧面非常有趣,并且始终有吸引力,"他说道。"对大多数人而言,婚礼可能是他们可以自由自在毫无拘束地寻欢作乐的一天。传统白色礼服的小众市场总会存在,但是我更喜欢设计样式更为个性化——投入更多的关爱,更多的时间和耐心来设计——就像对待像婚姻本身一样。"

And like marriage itself, wedding attire continues to evolve. As Edwina Ehrman puts it, “Gay weddings and cross-cultural weddings are both examples of how new traditions are being established.” All of which feeds into the multi-billion-dollar global wedding-attire industry. “There is definitely a spirit of competitiveness around weddings now – the bridezilla or groomzilla phenomenon is real,” says Ehrman. And the alternative-wedding bridezilla who wishes to make a conscious statement through her wedding can be just as competitive – in fact, some are ditching the white wedding dress to make a point about gender politics.

就像婚姻本身,婚礼服装也在不断演变。正如艾尔曼所说的:"同性恋婚礼和跨文化婚礼是新传统如何被确立的例子。"这些都融入了价值数十亿美元的全球婚礼服装产业。"现在围绕婚礼确实有对抗现象的出现——难缠的新娘或者新郎(bridezilla or groomzilla)的现象是真实存在的。"艾尔曼说。那些希望通过她们的婚礼清楚地表明态度而选择另类婚礼的难缠新娘将非常有对抗精神——事实上,其中某些人正在抛弃白色的结婚礼服,从而摆出反抗性别政治的姿态。

That’s nonsensical, says Ehrman. “If you want to wear a coloured dress on your wedding day, or trousers, or go barefoot, go ahead. But the idea that wearing a white wedding dress is going to somehow enslave you is absurd – equality and respect are what matter in a marriage, not what you wear at your wedding. When it comes to modern bridal wear we are just incredibly lucky to have such a diversity of choice.”

艾尔曼说,那是毫无意义的。"如果你想在结婚那天穿其它颜色的礼服、穿裤子或者光着脚,那就随你好了。但是那种觉得穿着白色礼服结婚就是受到了压迫的观点实在荒谬——婚姻中重要的是平等和尊重,而不是你在婚礼上穿什么。对于现代的婚礼服装而言,我们非常幸运有了多种选择。"

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表