您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 风尚 >> 正文

低调奢华的卫浴空间是如何演变而来的?

更新时间:2018-1-9 21:11:05 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How the design of the modern bathroom evolved
低调奢华的卫浴空间是如何演变而来的?

When the Bermondsey Public Baths opened in 1927, only one out of every 500 houses in this working-class London borough had a bathroom.

当柏蒙德西公共浴室(Bermondsey Public Baths)于1927年开张时,在伦敦的这个工薪阶层社区里,每500套房子大约只有一套拥有自己的卫生间。

What they lacked at home, including a lavatory of their own, local residents found in all but Roman splendour in a grand municipal building boasting two swimming pools and 126 private baths in cubicles along with Turkish and Russian baths, steam rooms and saunas.

虽然自己家里没有厕所,但当地居民却可以在一栋宏伟的市政大楼里获得罗马时期的辉煌体验,这里有两个游泳池,还有126间私人浴室,另有土耳其浴和俄罗斯浴,以及蒸汽室和桑拿房。

For centuries, in many parts of the world, this is how people without access to bathrooms kept clean. The Bermondsey Public Baths were closed in 1973, by which time it was increasingly hard to find an old house, and certainly not a new council flat, lacking a plumbed-in bathroom.

几个世纪以来,在世界很多地方,这就是很多家里没有卫生间的人保持清洁的地方。柏蒙德西公共浴室于1973年关闭,到那时,已经很难找到没有淋浴的老房子,新建的公租房更是如此。

In medieval England, people washed in highly social public baths influenced by those of ancient Rome, Byzantium and North Africa. Shared by men and women, in 1546 these ‘bagnios’ or ‘stews’ were closed for good by Henry VIII because of the licentious behaviour they encouraged.

在中世纪的英格兰,人们都会在高度社会化的公共浴室内洗澡,那里深受古罗马、拜占庭和北非浴室的影响。1546年,亨利八世下令永久性关闭这些被称作"bagnio"或"stew"的地方,原因是这些男女混用的浴室催生了许多放浪的行为。

The English, resorting to spices, herbs and scrubbed clothes to stay fresh, were never as clean again, at least not until the building of municipal public baths in the 19th Century, by which time industrial grime had seeped deep into the skin and psyche of much of the population.

英国人依靠香料、草药和擦洗过的衣服来保持身体清洁,他们之后再也没有像原先那么干净,直到19世纪市政公共浴室建立起来。到那时,工业化的尘垢已经深深地渗入很多人的肉体和心灵。

The flushing lavatory had been invented by Sir John Hennington, poet and godson of Queen Elizabeth I, and improved with an all-important S-bend to trap sewage smells and gases by the Scottish watchmaker and inventor Alexander Cummings in 1775. But it was only when homes were fitted with running water and effective drainage from the second half of the 19th Century that the modern private bathroom emerged. Before this, bathing and relieving oneself were bodily affairs conducted in any convenient room and, of course, outdoors. For many people, throughout the industrial world, baths were something taken in tin tubs in front of kitchen fires until well into the 20th Century.

抽水马桶是由伊丽莎白一世(Queen Elizabeth I)的教子、诗人约翰·哈林顿(John Hennington)发明的,后来在1775年,苏格兰钟表匠兼发明家亚历山大·卡明斯(Alexander Cummings)又发明了至关重要的S型弯管来阻隔下水道的臭气。但直到19世纪下半叶,当人们家里配上了自来水和有效的排水系统后,现代化的私人卫生间才真正出现。在此之前,洗澡和大小便只能就地解决,要么找个方便的房间,要么直接在户外完成。对很多人来说,在整个工业化世界里,洗澡都是在厨房火苗前的锡桶里完成的事情。直到20世纪才发生变化。

Because bathrooms were associated first and foremost with hygiene –  it is easy to underestimate how grimy industrial towns and cities were until remarkably recently – they were fitted out, for the most part, in clinical fashion. Yes, there had been wondrous town and country houses and villas equipped with impressive bathrooms, all roll-top Victorian tubs with lion’s paws feet, elaborate Edwardian shower hoods and richly patterned tiles.

由于洗手间的首要任务是清洁卫生——直到最近,人们都很容易低估工业化城镇有多么肮脏——所以它们多半都按照诊所的方式来装修。的确,有很多奇妙的城镇、乡村住宅和别墅都配有令人印象深刻的洗手间,里面有维多利亚风格的狮爪浴缸、爱德华风格的淋浴和图形丰富的瓷砖。

There were exotic bathrooms, too, like that of the deeply romantic Villa Kerylos (1908) at Beaulieu-sur-Mer, a 2nd-Century-style Greek villa on the French Riviera designed for Theodor Reinach, the French archaeologist, with all mod cons and a bathroom of great beauty that visitors gawp at today with a sense of wonder and longing.

还有一些异国风情的洗手间,例如滨海伯略(Beaulieu-sur-Mer)的凯伊洛斯别墅(Villa Kerylos,1908),那是位于法国里维埃拉(French Riviera )的一栋第二世纪希腊风格的别墅,当时是法国考古学家西奥多·莱纳赫(Theodor Reinach)设计的,里面有各种各样的现代化设备,还有一间非常漂亮的浴室,使得如今的游客叹为观止并且心怀渴望。

However, for most people even on comfortable incomes, the 20th Century bathroom remained a hospital-like space with sparse white fittings and limited hot water. And, where in the present century ever more people expect multiple bathrooms and lavatories, there was usually only one of each even in detached, four bedroom homes built up to World War Two.

然而,对于大多数人来说,即使收入宽裕,二十世纪的浴室依然是一个看起来像散落着白色配件,热水有限的医院一般的空间。而且,在本世纪以来,越来越多的人希望有多个浴室和卫生间,而在第二次世界大战期间建成的独栋四居室住宅中,通常也只有一个卫生间。

Privacy remained important. Influential modern houses like the American architect Philip Johnson’s Glass House (Canaan, Connecticut, 1949) and Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth House (Plano, Illinois, 1951) might have been all but transparent, yet both featured modest bathrooms secreted behind solid partitions.

隐私仍然重要。有影响力的现代房屋如美国建筑师菲利普·约翰逊(Philip Johnson)1949年建于康涅狄格州(Connecticut)迦南(Canaan)的玻璃屋(Glass House)和密斯·凡德罗(Mies van der Rohe)1951年建于伊利诺斯州(Illinois)普莱诺(Plano)的法恩斯沃思宅邸(Farnsworth House)几乎都是透明的,但两套房子固体建筑背面都隐藏着空间不大的浴室。

Something changed in the 1960s, with rising prosperity in developed countries and a pop culture focussed increasingly on pleasure. Adorned with sunken bath, bidet, shag-pile carpet, louvred wardrobes, plastic mirror cabinets, swirly patterned waterproof wallpaper and even a Jacuzzi (the Whirlpool was patented in the United States by Candido Jacuzzi in 1964), the archetypal ‘60s bathroom was the very model of a private “bagnio”.

20世纪60年代发生了一些变化,发达国家繁荣昌盛,流行文化越来越注重快乐。装饰有下沉式浴缸、坐浴盆、毛绒地毯、百叶窗衣柜、塑料镜柜和漩涡式防水壁纸,甚至还有一个按摩浴缸(1964年,按摩浴缸在美国由Candido Jacuzzi获得专利),60年代原型浴室是非常典型的私人"bagnio"。

Since then, in affluent and fashionable homes, contemporary bathrooms have come to resemble those of opulent new or refurbished hotels, with the bathroom evolving into a sensual home spa, and an opportunity to showcase luxury or affluence to visitors.

从那时起,在富裕和时尚的家庭中,现代化的浴室就像豪华的新式或翻新的酒店一样,浴室不断发展成为一个温馨的家庭温泉,这也是向游客展示豪华和富有的机会。

Technology has kept pace, with everything from heated toilet seats and optical-illusion wash basins to remote-control flushing and shower gadgets available to anyone building a bathroom today.

技术已经跟上步伐,从加热马桶座椅和光学幻觉洗手盆到遥控冲洗和淋浴小工具都可用于今天人们建造一间浴室。

With the dawn of social-media apps, many restaurants and hotels use their bathrooms to showcase their style or personality, hoping their Instagrammable facilities will spread hype and attract more customers. In London alone, the egg-pod toilets at Mayfair’s Sketch, the mirrored bathroom within Nopi restaurant, and the ’loos with a view’ within the Shard skyscraper are just a few that regularly feature in social-media brags.

随着社交媒体应用程序的出现,许多餐馆和酒店使用浴室来展示他们的风格或个性,希望他们能登上Instagram的设施可以炒作并吸引更多的客户。仅在伦敦,Mayfair的Sketch餐厅的蛋型卫生间、Nopi餐厅内的镜像浴室以及Shard摩天大楼内的"景观厕所"都是社交媒体上的一大特色。

Today, when some 60 per cent of the world’s population is without access to a flushing lavatory, design magazines and websites are still awash with images of ambitious and aspirational bathrooms. These are often fronted by floor-to-ceiling picture windows overlooking cinematic views of cityscapes and, if not these, then of forests, mountains and oceans.

今天,全世界大约还有60%的人口没有抽水马桶厕所可用,但是设计杂志和网站仍然充斥着耗资巨大的梦幻浴室。这些奢华的梦幻浴室往往有落地式的窗户,让人们一边沐浴,一边俯瞰城市、或森林、山脉和海洋景观。

In a curious way, this longing to wash in sight of nature takes us back to traditional public bathing, not medieval ’stews’ or municipal baths in poor areas of industrial cities, but to the smoke saunas of Finland and the sento (communal bath house) and onsen (natural hot-spring bathhouse) of Japan, where bathing and cleansing, despite advances in plumbing and bathroom equipment, remain purist and age-old rituals.

奇怪的是,这种渴望在大自然中清洗的想法让我们回到了传统的公共浴室,不是那些工业化城市贫困地区的中世纪澡堂,而是芬兰的蒸汽桑拿浴室、日本的传统澡堂和天然温泉等纯粹和古老的沐浴仪式。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表