您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

罗辛亚人遭受了真正的苦难,但其中一些人在说谎

更新时间:2018-2-4 10:08:02 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Rohingya Suffer Real Horrors. So Why Are Some of Their Stories Untrue?
罗辛亚人遭受了真正的苦难,但其中一些人在说谎

LEDA, Bangladesh — The four young sisters sat in a huddle, together but alone.

孟加拉国勒达难民营——四个小姐妹围坐在一起,只有她们几个。

Their accounts were dramatic: Their mother had died when their home was burned by soldiers in Rakhine state in western Myanmar. Their father was one of thousands of Rohingya Muslims who had disappeared into official custody and were feared dead.

她们的陈述令人震惊:母亲死在缅甸西部若开邦地区的家中,当时士兵放火烧了他们的房子。父亲是成千上万名被正式逮捕、但可能已遇难的罗辛亚穆斯林之一。

Somehow, the sisters — ages 12, 8, 5 and 2 — made their way to refuge in Bangladesh. An uncle, who had been living for years in the Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh, had taken them in, adding the girls to his own collection of hungry children.

而这些姐妹——年龄分别为12岁、8岁、5岁和2岁——设法来到了孟加拉国的难民营。一位在孟加拉国罗辛亚难民营生活多年的叔叔把她们领了进来,让女孩们加入到他身边的一群饥饿的孩子之中。

“My parents were killed in Myanmar,” said the eldest girl, Januka Begum. “I miss them very much.”

“我的父母在缅甸被杀了,”年纪最大的女孩亚努卡·贝古姆(Januka Begum)说。“我非常想念他们。”

I was reporting on children who had arrived in the camps without their families. An international charity, which had given financial support to the uncle, brought me to meet the girls.

我当时正在报道没有家人陪同抵达难民营的孩子。一个曾给过这位叔叔经济援助的国际慈善机构带我见了这些女孩。

Within an hour, I had a notebook filled with the kind of quotes that pull at heartstrings. Little of it was true.

一小时之内,我的笔记本就记满了那些揪心的话语。但其中没几句是真的。

After three days of reporting, the truth began to emerge. Soyud Hossain, the supposed uncle who had taken the girls in, was actually their father. He had three wives, two in Bangladesh and one in Myanmar, he admitted. The children were from his youngest wife, the one in Myanmar.

在报道了三天之后,真相开始浮出水面。索尤达·侯赛因(Soyud Hossain),这位让人们以为是几个女孩的叔叔的男人,实际上是她们的父亲。他承认,他有三个妻子,两个在孟加拉国,一个在缅甸。这些孩子都是他最年轻的妻子生的,在缅甸的那位。

In any refugee camp, tragedy is commodified. Aid groups want to help the neediest cases, and people quickly realize that the story of four orphaned sisters holds more value than that of an intact family that merely lost all its possessions.

在所有的难民营里,悲剧都被商品化了。援助组织希望帮助最有需要的对象,而人们也很快意识到,四个孤儿姐妹的故事,比一个仅仅丢失了所有财产但一家人完好无损的故事更有价值。

To compete for relief supplies distributed by aid groups, refugees learn to deploy women with infants in their arms. Crying babies get pushed to the front of the line.

为了争得援助组织发放的救济物资,难民们学会了利用那些抱着婴儿的妇女。哭闹的婴儿会被送往队伍的前列。

Such strategies are a natural survival tactic. Who wouldn’t do the same to feed a family?

这种手段是一种本能的求生伎俩。为了让家人有吃的,谁不会这么做呢?

But false narratives devalue the genuine horrors — murder, rape and mass burnings of villages — that have been inflicted upon the Rohingya by Myanmar’s security forces. And such embellished tales only buttress the Myanmar government’s contention that what is happening in Rakhine state is not ethnic cleansing, as the international community suggests, but trickery by foreign invaders.

但虚假的叙述会使真正的恐惧贬值——谋杀、强奸、大规模焚毁村庄——这些缅甸安全部队强加在罗辛亚人身上的恐惧。而这些经过渲染的故事只会巩固缅甸政府的说法,即若开邦地区所发生的并非如国际社会所说的种族大清洗,而是外国侵略者的诡计。

The official narrative in Myanmar goes like this: Rohingya Muslims are illegal immigrants from an overcrowded Bangladesh. With Muslim men taking multiple wives, the Rohingya are reproducing faster than Myanmar’s majority Buddhists.

缅甸的官方表述是这样的:罗辛亚穆斯林是从人满为患的孟加拉国过来的非法移民。由于穆斯林男性一夫多妻,罗辛亚人的生育速度比缅甸的主要人口佛教徒快得多。

There is plenty of evidence to counter this claim. Muslim roots in the region reach back generations. The ratio of Muslims to Buddhists in northern Rakhine has not changed much over the past half-century.

很多证据可以反驳这一说法。穆斯林在这块地方的根基可以追溯回几个世代之前。在过去的半个世纪里,若开邦北部穆斯林与佛教徒的比例并没多少改变。

But with the Myanmar government restricting access to the area where the Rohingya once lived, even refusing to let top U.N. officials into the country, it is impossible for investigators and journalists to gather firsthand evidence of atrocities. Local reporters for Reuters who tried to investigate a mass grave now sit in jail.

但由于缅甸政府限制人们出入这块罗辛亚人曾经居住的地区,甚至也不让联合国高级官员进入这个区域,调查人员和记者根本无法收集暴行的第一手证据。路透社(Reuters)一位当地记者曾试图调查一处乱坟岗,现在被关在监狱里。

That’s why in the refugee camps in Bangladesh, victims with physical manifestations of their trauma are simpler to interview. A fresh bullet wound in a child’s body is proof that something terrible happened.

这就是为什么在孟加拉国的难民营中,有身体创伤的受害者采访起来更简单。孩子身上新近的枪伤是恶行发生的证明。

For every person quoted, I’d estimate that at least a dozen others were left in my notebooks. But a reporter’s necessary skepticism — which governs our work in every story — only contributes to the invasion of privacy. How must it feel for a Rohingya woman, who admits to a stranger that she was raped, when she realizes that her story is being doubted?

据我估算,我在文章中每引用一个人的话,会有至少十几个人被我留在了笔记本里。但是,记者必要的怀疑精神——它支配着我们的每一篇报道——只会增加对隐私的侵犯。当一位向陌生人承认自己曾被强奸的罗辛亚女性意识到自己的故事遭到怀疑时,她会是什么感觉?

Yet I have seen Rohingya people quoted in the foreign news media telling stories that I know are not true. Their accounts, in some cases, are too compelling, like a perfect storm of suffering.

可是,我知道外国新闻媒体上报道的罗辛亚人讲述的某些故事不是真实的。他们的有些故事太吸引人了,就像一场完美的灾难风暴。

That is not to discount the collective trauma that has compelled nearly 700,000 Rohingya to flee for Bangladesh over the past five months. Doctors Without Borders estimates that 6,700 Rohingya met violent deaths in a single month last year. Even that number, the medical aid group says, is too low.

我并不是质疑过去5个月里迫使近70万罗辛亚人逃往孟加拉国的集体创伤。据无国界医生组织(Doctors Without Borders)估计,去年有6700名罗辛亚人在一个月内因暴力致死。该医疗援助组织表示,就连这个数字也远远低于实际数字。

At times, there is a benign explanation for children telling untruths. Young minds can process lived memories and secondhand ones in remarkably similar ways.

有时,孩子们不讲实话存在合理的解释。年幼的大脑会以非常相似的方式处理亲身记忆和二手记忆。

“Even if some children have only heard of atrocities, fear has been instilled in them and it’s very hard for them to separate what they’ve seen from what they’ve heard,” said Benjamin Steinlechner, a spokesman for the U.N. Children’s Fund in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. “It’s like watching a horror movie. Children experience it very differently from adults.”

“就算有些孩子只是听说过暴行,恐惧也会渗透到他们头脑里,他们很难将自己看到的与听到的区分开,”孟加拉国科克斯巴扎尔的联合国儿童基金会(U.N. Children’s Fund)分部的发言人本杰明·施泰因勒希纳(Benjamin Steinlechner)表示。“这就像看恐怖片。孩子们对此的体验与成年人不同。”

I have a better sense of the life of Hossain, the four girls’ father.

后来,我对那四个女孩的父亲侯赛因的生活有了更多的了解。

His troubles, he said, began when he was briefly back in Myanmar and saw a 12-year-old girl with fair skin and delicate features.

他说,他的麻烦始于他有一次短暂回到缅甸,遇见一个12岁的女孩,皮肤白皙,容貌秀美。

“She was so beautiful,” Hossain said. “I needed to marry her.”

“她太美丽了,”侯赛因说。“我必须娶她。”

Child marriage is distressingly common among the Rohingya, and soon, Hossain began shuttling among his three wives. Not every wife knew about the other, but Hossain didn’t think three wives were too many. His own father, he said, had six wives and 42 children.

童婚在罗辛亚人中是一个令人痛苦的常见现象。不久之后,侯赛因开始往返于他的三个妻子之间。不是每个妻子都知道其他妻子的存在,但侯赛因并不认为三个妻子太多。他说,他的父亲有6个妻子和42个孩子。

Yet Hossain admitted that he was not adept at balancing family relations. When his four daughters sought shelter in Bangladesh after their village had been burned, Sajida, the wife with whom he has been living in the Leda refugee camp, was furious.

不过,侯赛因承认自己并不擅长平衡家庭关系。当他的四个女儿在村庄被烧毁后来孟加拉国避难时,和他一同住在勒达难民营的妻子赛义达(Sajida)非常愤怒。

“My husband is a bad man,” she announced, after she finally admitted the girls’ true provenance. “I am tired of all his lies.”

“我丈夫是个坏人,”她在最终承认女孩们的真实身份后宣布。“我听腻了他的谎话。”

Later, when I reached Hossain by phone, he was seething.

后来,我通过电话联系到侯赛因时,他很激动。

“I beat her when you left,” he said. “I will beat her again tomorrow.”

“你走了以后,我打了她一顿,”他说,“明天我还要再打她一顿。”

Hossain’s sister-in-law had also explained part of the family’s complicated truth. A neighbor later relayed that her candor had earned her a beating from her husband.

侯赛因的嫂子也解释了这个家庭的复杂真相。一位邻居后来转述称,她的坦率也导致她遭到丈夫殴打。

Rather than highlight the plight of unaccompanied minors, my reporting had catalyzed domestic violence in two households. I regretted the days of questioning Sajida, who goes by one name.

我的报道非但没有引发人们对那几名无依无靠的未成年人的关注,反而在两个家庭中引发了暴力。我后悔询问赛义达——这是她告诉我的唯一名字。

I had found her unsympathetic when she said she wished those girls would disappear back to Myanmar. But that night her husband would beat her. As I stood and judged her for not embracing these four girls from her husband’s youngest wife, a cockroach skittered across the floor. A rat followed.

她说,她希望那些女孩能消失,返回缅甸,我觉得她毫无同情心。但那天晚上,她会遭到丈夫毒打。我站在那里指责她不接纳自己丈夫最年轻的妻子生下的四个女儿时,一只蟑螂从地上飞快地掠过。后面跟着一只老鼠。

Sajida began crying.

赛义达开始哭泣。

All around, through the bamboo slats that make up the walls of a Rohingya shelter, children’s eyes followed my movements, wondering what I was doing there and why I had made a grown woman weep.

这个罗辛亚难民房的墙是用竹板做成的。四周孩子们的眼睛透过竹板观察我的一举一动,想弄清我在做什么,以及我为什么会把一名成年女性弄哭。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表