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7 Takeaways From the Airstrikes on Syria

LONDON — The United States, in coordination with France and Britain, carried out a series of predawn airstrikes on Saturday in Syria in response to what it said was a chemical weapons attack this month in the rebel-held Damascus suburb of Douma.


The strikes were the latest development in a long-running and complex conflict with consequences far beyond Syria itself — including in the United States, Iran, Russia and other parts of Europe.


Here are seven takeaways from the airstrikes and their aftermath:


The strikes were intense, limited.


The United States and its allies tried to walk a fine line with the airstrikes, sending a strong message to President Bashar Assad of Syria without provoking a military response from Russia and Iran, Assad’s two strongest allies.

美国及其盟友小心把握本次空袭的分寸,既要向叙利亚总统巴沙尔·阿萨德(Bashar al-Assad)发出强有力的信息,又不能激起阿萨德最强大的两位盟友——俄罗斯和伊朗的军事反击。

The operation on Saturday was more powerful than an airstrike ordered by President Donald Trump last year — this time there were three targets, rather than one, requiring twice as many weapons. But it was limited to one night, at least for the moment; was specifically aimed at chemical weapons facilities’ and steered clear of Russian soldiers and bases.


“Right now this is a one-time shot, and I believe it has sent a very strong message to dissuade him, to deter him from doing it again,” Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said of Assad, although Trump suggested there might be more to come. “We are prepared to sustain this response,” he said, until Syria abandons its use of chemical weapons.

 “目前这是一次性打击,我相信它已经传递了十分强硬的信息来阻止他,防止他再这么做,”国防部长吉姆·马蒂斯(Jim Mattis)在谈到阿萨德时说道,尽管特朗普表示可能还会有更多行动。“我们准备维持这一反应,”他说,直到叙利亚放弃使用化学武器。

The U.S. chose not to wait.


The United States and its allies went ahead with the airstrikes in the face of several developments that suggested they could be delayed.


Inspectors from the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons arrived in Damascus, Syria, on Saturday to investigate the attack in Douma, the group said in a post on Twitter.

禁止化学武器组织(Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)在Twitter上表示,该组织的检查人员已在周六抵达叙利亚大马士革,对本次发生在杜马的袭击展开调查。

Mattis was working to slow the move toward a military response, concerned that a missile strike could spark a wider conflict between Russia, Iran and the West.

马蒂斯曾努力减缓军事回应的进程,担心导弹袭击将引发俄罗斯、伊朗和西方之间更大范围的冲突。<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

And Trump sent mixed signals about timing. On Wednesday, he warned Russia on Twitter that missiles “will be coming, nice and new and ‘smart!'” But the next day, he added: “Never said when an attack on Syria would take place. Could be very soon or not so soon at all!”


At a news conference Saturday morning, Prime Minister Theresa May of Britain said that the strikes had been “the right thing to do,” in part for the “operational security” of those carrying them out.

英国首相特丽莎·梅(Theresa May)在周六上午的新闻发布会上表示,本次袭击是“一件正确的事”,部分是出于确保袭击执行者的“行动安全”。

Assad absorbed another blow.


The airstrikes sent an unambiguous message to Assad, and it was not clear that it would change his thinking. He remained firmly in power thanks to the support of Russia and Iran.


Assad has essentially been under siege since the Syrian civil war began more than seven years ago. In that time, he has dealt with the war, airstrikes, sanctions, Islamic State militants, a variety of rebel groups and a crumbling economy.


As Syrian state media reported that many of the missiles had been intercepted, the Syrian presidency’s Twitter account posted a video that appeared to show Assad showing up for just another day at the office.


The events depicted could not be independently verified.


Capitol Hill remained divided.


The reaction in Washington was divided along party lines, with the strikes bringing praise from Republicans and criticism from Democrats like Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., the House minority leader.

华盛顿的反应依党派泾渭分明,军事打击引起共和党人赞扬,亦招致加州民主党议员、众议院少数党领袖南希·佩洛西(Nancy Pelosi)等民主党人的批评。

“The Butcher of Damascus learned two lessons tonight the hard way,” Sen. Tom Cotton, R-Ark., said in a statement. “Weapons of mass destruction won’t create a military advantage once the United States is done with you and Russia cannot protect its clients from the United States.”

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

“大马士革屠夫今晚以残酷的方式得到了两个教训,”阿肯色州共和党参议员汤姆·科顿(Tom Cotton)在一份声明中说。“一旦美国打算对付你,大规模杀伤性武器也不会产生军事优势;还有,俄罗斯也无法保护其委托人不受美国威胁。”

Sen. Tim Kaine, D-Va., complained that Trump had not sought permission from Congress. Proceeding with the strikes, he said, was “illegal and — absent a broader strategy — it’s reckless.”

弗吉尼亚州民主党参议员蒂姆·凯恩(Tim Kaine)抱怨特朗普没有向国会申请许可。他说,军事打击是“非法的——而且缺乏更大的战略,是鲁莽的做法。”

Russia deploys angry rhetoric.


Russia called for an urgent meeting of the U.N. Security Council, and offered some harsh warnings before the attack. (At the meeting, the Security Council rejected a Russian resolution condemning the missile strikes.) But the speed and the tone of the Russian reaction on Saturday, stressing that the attack had not resulted in a direct confrontation and was rather limited, suggested almost relief on the part of the Kremlin.


According to Russian state news media, President Vladimir Putin condemned the missile strikes as an “act of aggression against a sovereign state” and against the United Nations Charter.

据俄罗斯国家新闻媒体报道,弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)总统谴责导弹袭击是“侵略主权国家的行为”,违背了《联合国宪章》。

May avoided a conflict at home.


May has said she believed there was a need to send a strong message about the use of chemical weapons, but she also had compelling diplomatic and political reasons to support the United States — and to carry out the strikes as soon as possible.


One imperative was the desire to reciprocate the support London has received from the United States in the dispute with Russia over the poisoning of a former spy, Sergei V. Skripal, and his daughter, Yulia S. Skripal, on British soil.

英国与俄罗斯就前英国间谍谢尔盖·V·斯克里帕尔(Sergei V. Skripal)及其女儿尤莉亚·S·斯克里帕尔(Yulia S. Skripal)在英国领土被下毒一事产生争端,在这个过程中,英国获得了美国的支持,现在它急欲对此做出回报。

May, who made an explicit connection between the airstrikes in Syria and the poisoning of the Skripals, benefited from the timing of the airstrikes, two days before lawmakers were to return from vacation. While not obligated to consult Parliament, she may have felt constrained to do so and could easily have lost a vote on a strike, as her predecessor David Cameron did in 2013.

梅在对叙利亚的空袭和斯克里帕尔父女被下毒这两件事之间建立起明确的联系;此外,空袭发生在议员们休假归来的两天前,这个时机也令她从中受益。尽管她没有义务与议会商讨,但她可能觉得最好还是不要这样做,空袭投票恐怕难以通过,她的前任戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)在2013年就是这样。

Britain also wants to prove its use as an ally to Trump at a time when its international influence is under question because of its withdrawal from the European Union, and when it hopes to strengthen trade ties with the United States.


For France, a red line was crossed.


President Emmanuel Macron had prepared his nation for this moment: He had discussed the possibility of airstrikes and made clear early in his presidency that the use of chemical weapons was a red line.

埃马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)总统早已令法国为这一刻做好了准备:他曾讨论过空袭的可能性,并在担任总统之初就明确表示过,使用化学武器是一条红线。



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