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马来西亚大选:一场历史性的变更

更新时间:2018-5-11 20:03:05 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Malaysia’s Election: What Happened, and What’s Next
马来西亚大选:一场历史性的变更

HONG KONG — The official opposition victory in Malaysia’s election on Wednesday has put a new focus on the country’s political system, which has been dominated by one party since independence.

香港——在马来西亚周三的选举中,反对党获得正式胜利,这让人们重新开始关注该国自独立以来,一直由一个政党主导的政治体制。

Here’s a look at the central questions about Malaysia’s political system and important figures in the political sphere.

以下是关于马来西亚政治体制和政治领域重要人物的几个核心问题。

Who won?

谁赢了?

Mahathir Mohamad, a 92-year-old former prime minister, led an opposition coalition to victory over his former protégé, Prime Minister Najib Razak. Mr. Mahathir served as prime minister from 1981 to 2003, a period of strong growth followed by the Asian financial crisis, from which the country recovered after rejecting austerity policies.

92岁的前总理马哈蒂尔·穆罕默德(Mahathir Mohamad)领导的反对党阵营联盟战胜了他从前的门徒、总理纳吉布·拉扎克(Najib Razak)。马哈蒂尔在1981年至2003年期间曾担任总理,那是一个强劲增长的时期,随后出现了亚洲金融危机,马来西亚在放弃紧缩政策后,从危机中复苏。

Mr. Mahathir was known for his autocratic tendencies, advocacy of Asian exceptionalism and occasional anti-Semitic jibes that prompted international condemnation. His electoral victory this week required that he work with some of the opposition figures who were his rivals in past decades.

马哈蒂尔以其专制倾向、倡导亚洲例外论和偶尔出现的反犹嘲弄言论为人所知,这些都曾引起国际社会的谴责。他在本周选举中的胜利要求他与一些过去几十年的敌人进行合作。

After hours of discussions on Thursday, Malaysia’s king agreed to appoint him prime minister.

经过几个小时的讨论,马来西亚国王同意任命他为总理。

Malaysia has a king?

马来西亚有国王?

Yes, but it is a position with little parallel. The monarch, officially the “yang di-pertuan agong,” is selected from a group of hereditary rulers who are titular leaders of the Malay states. The position has a five-year term and changes hands in a regular order of rotation.

是的,但这是一个几乎没有同例的身份。君主,即官方所称的“马来西亚最高元首”,是从马来各州世袭的名义领导人中挑选出来的。该职位的任期为五年,定期按顺序轮换。

The current king, Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan, ascended the throne in December 2016.

现任最高元首是克伦坦的苏丹·莫哈末五世(Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan),他于2016年12月登基。

The royals have limited authority, but under Malaysia’s constitutional monarchy, the king must appoint the prime minister based on who commands the support of a majority of members of the lower house of Parliament.

王室的权力有限,但在马来西亚的君主立宪制下,元首必须任命得到下议院多数议员支持的人为总理。

What will happen to Najib?

纳吉布会怎么样?

Mr. Najib, 64, has been accused of stealing hundreds of millions of dollars in public money from a government investment fund he once headed. If he is no longer in power, he could face prosecution. The United States Justice Department is investigating the disappearance of more than $3.5 billion, much of which is believed to have been laundered through American financial institutions.

64岁的纳吉布被指控从他曾经牵头的一个政府投资基金中挪用数亿美元的公共资金。如果他不再掌权,可能面临起诉。美国司法部(Justice Department)正在调查一起35亿美元(约合222亿元人民币)的失踪案,据信其中大部分是通过美国金融机构洗钱而消失的。

Mr. Mahathir said his coalition would not pursue a vendetta against political opponents. But he did not rule out the possibility of legal jeopardy for Mr. Najib.

马哈蒂尔表示,他的联合政府不会报复政治对手。但他并未排除纳吉布面临法律风险的可能性。

“We don’t want to punish people because they disagree with us, but the law will be fully implemented in this country,” Mr. Mahathir said. “Before, there was no rule of law.”

“我们不想因为人们不同意我们的观点而惩罚他们,但法律将在这个国家得到充分执行,”马哈蒂尔说。“以前没有法治。”

Who is Anwar Ibrahim?

安瓦尔·易卜拉欣(Anwar Ibrahim)是谁?

As he spoke Thursday, Mr. Mahathir was seated next to Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, who ran with him as their coalition’s nominee for deputy prime minister. Her husband, Anwar Ibrahim, is a former deputy prime minister whom Mr. Mahathir had removed from office and prosecuted.

马哈蒂尔星期四发表讲话时,坐在万·阿齐扎·万·伊斯梅尔(Wan Azizah Wan Ismail)旁边。她作为联合政府提名的副总理与马哈蒂尔一起竞选。她的丈夫安瓦尔·易卜拉欣(Anwar Ibrahim)是曾被马哈蒂尔免职并起诉的前副总理。

Mr. Anwar was jailed on corruption and sodomy charges that were widely criticized as being politically motivated. Mr. Mahathir said he would seek Mr. Anwar’s release and pardon so that he could return to politics.

安瓦尔因腐败和鸡奸罪名入狱,这些指控被普遍批评为出于政治动机。马哈蒂尔说,他将寻求释放并豁免安瓦尔,以便其重返政界。

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