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关于下雪:你可能不知道的17个有趣事实

更新时间:2019/1/2 17:44:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

17 surprising facts about snow
关于下雪:你可能不知道的17个有趣事实

Here’s a blizzard of brrillliant snow-driven facts…

关于雪,下面为大家介绍一些有趣的事实。

Whether you love frolicking in the white stuff at the first sign of a snowflake or prefer bundling up and hibernating until the spring thaw, or even if you’ve only ever dreamed of touching a snowball, here’s a blizzard of brrillliant snow-driven facts…

无论你喜欢在第一场雪来临的时候就在一片雪白中嬉闹,还是喜欢窝在家里冬眠直到冰雪消融春天来临,或是你从来没见过真正的雪,只幻想过玩雪球的样子,接下来我们就为大家介绍关于雪的一系列事实。

Snow is not white

雪并不是白色的

Mind blown. You can certainly dream of a white Christmas, even if it isn’t strictly accurate. As any good snow pedant will tell you, the ‘white stuff’ isn’t actually white, but rather translucent. It’s the light reflecting off it that makes it appear white with the many sides of the snowflake scattering light in many directions, diffusing the entire colour spectrum. Snow can also appear in a wide variety of spectacular hues. Dust, pollution or cold-loving (cryophilic) fresh-water algae can colour it black, orange or blue. Pink or ‘watermelon snow’, caused by algae containing astaxanthin, a chemical similar to the one found in carrots, was mentioned in the early writings of Aristotle.

没想到吧。你当然可以想象圣诞节的时候到处都是白茫茫的一片,即使严格意义上这种想法并不准确。任何研究雪花的人都会告诉你,所谓的“白色”并不是真正的白色,而是半透明的。是阳光的反射作用让透明的雪花看起来是白色,而且雪花是多边形,会从多个角度反射光线,从而散射整个色谱。雪花还可以呈现多种不同的色彩。灰尘、污染或是喜爱寒冷的淡水水藻可以把雪花变成黑色、橙色或者蓝色的。粉色的雪花也被称为“西瓜雪花(watermelon snow)”,最早记载于亚里士多德的作品中,这种雪花的颜色是含有虾青素的藻类造成的,虾青素类似胡萝卜里含有的某种化学物质。

Snowflakes of many designs

各式各样的雪花

One of the determining factors in the shape of individual snowflakes is the air temperature around it. The study of flakes has identified that long, thin needle-like ice crystals form at around -2 C (28 F), while a lower temperature of -5 C (23 F) will lead to very flat plate-like crystals. Further changes in temperature as the snowflake falls determines different shapes of the six arms or dendritic structure of the crystal.

每一片雪花外观的形成,决定性因素之一就是环境气温。对雪花的研究发现,像针一样细的冰晶大约在-2摄氏度(28华氏度)左右形成。如果气温降至-5摄氏度(23华氏度)就会让冰晶变成扁平的板状晶体。下雪时温度不同,雪花的六片针晶(即晶体的树状结构)也会不同。

A catalogue of snowflakes

雪花的类别

Creator of the Compound Interest science blog, Andy Brunning, has painstakingly catalogued 35 different types of snowflake (plus a few other types of frozen precipitation). They are designated as column, plane, rimed, germs, irregular plus a number of combinations of all of them.

科普博客“多种兴趣”(Compound Interest)的创始人布鲁宁(Andy Brunning)已经精心将雪花分为35类(还有一些其它类型的冻雨)。分类的依据主要看雪花是否是柱状的、平面状的、镶边的、带芽的、不规则的或包含上述多种特征。

Grown from a nucleus

从核心颗粒开始形成

Snowflakes or snow crystals don’t have nuclei in the traditional, biological way (that contains genetic information), but they all do form around one single particle whether that’s a speck of dust or a piece of pollen. This makes it completely different from sleet (which consists of frozen raindrops) or hail (which is sleet droplets that collect water as they fall). This original piece of material that formed the flake can be detected using a powerful microscope.

雪花或雪晶并不含有传统生物学意义上的(含有基因信息)的核,但它们都是围绕单一的颗粒形成的,无论这个颗粒是粉尘还是花粉。因此,雪花的形成完全不同于冻雨(由结冰的雨滴组成)或者冰雹(结冰的雨滴下落时再结合水)。可以通过高级显微镜来检测形成雪花的原始材料。

Snowflakes get big

巨型雪花

For decades there have been stories of giant snowflakes falling all over the globe, measuring anywhere from two to six and even, on one occasion, 15 inches across. While many have doubted these reports and pointed out the lack of corroborating evidence, scientists now claim there’s nothing to stop flakes growing that big. As flake size isn’t part of the meteorological measuring designations for snow, these massive flakes may well be out there, but just unreported, unseen or broken up by wind currents as they descend.

数十年来,一直有关于世界各地降落的巨型雪花的报道,尺寸在2至6英寸不等,有一次甚至达到了15英寸。虽然许多人怀疑这些故事的真实性,并指出缺乏确凿的证据,但科学家们现在认为,没有什么能阻碍巨型雪花的形成。由于雪花片的大小并不是气象测量指标之一,因此很可能的确存在巨型雪花,只是没有人报道、没人看到,或者是在下落过程中被一阵阵的风分解了而已。

Snow affects sound

雪花对声音的影响

Freshly fallen snow absorbs sound waves, giving everything a seemingly hushed, quieter ambience after a flurry. But if the snow then melts and refreezes, the ice can reflect sound waves making sound travel further and clearer.

刚落下的雪花会吸收声波,让万物在一阵杂乱后显得更加平淡宁静。不过,如果雪融化并再次结冰,那么这些冰块可以反射声波,让声音更清晰、传播得更远。

There are hundreds of words for it

关于雪花的上百种词汇

It’s often stated that the Inuit have 50 words for snow, a fact that was discredited as pure speculation, and then confirmed as roughly accurate. No matter how many they actually have, it pales in comparison to the Scots. Researchers at the University of Glasgow claim that the Scots language has 421 terms related to the white stuff, including ‘skelf’ (a large snowflake), ‘spitters’ (small drops of driving snow) and ‘unbrak' (the beginning of a thaw).

人们经常说,因纽特人有50个表达雪花的词汇。这一陈述曾被认为是纯粹的猜测,然后又被证实是大致正确的。无论因纽特人到底有多少表达雪花的词汇,与苏格兰人相比都会相形见绌。格拉斯哥大学的研究人员称,苏格兰人的语言中有421个表达与雪花有关,包括“skelf”(一片大的雪花)、“spitters”(小型的被风吹着的雪)以及“unbrak”(融雪的开始)。

It’s hard to define

难以定义

Speaking of language, you must be careful if you’re ever tempted to refer to a snowstorm as a ‘blizzard’. Snowfalls must meet a strict set of stipulations to be considered a blizzard. Visibility must be below 200m while the wind has to reach speeds of around 48kmp (30mph).

说到语言,如果你曾经试图将大型降雪(snowstorm)称为“暴风雪”(blizzard),你一定要小心。必须达到严格的规定,降雪才能被视为暴风雪。 能见度必须低于200米,而风速必须达到48公里/小时(30英里/小时)左右。

Snow on Mars

火星上的雪

According to Nasa’s scientific simulations (corroborated by remote robots on the planet’s surface), during the summer in the north of Mars there may well be sudden, violent snow storms. We know there are clouds and subsurface ice on Mars, so snow is certainly plausible. Scientists also detected a cloud of carbon dioxide snowflakes over the southern pole of the planet.

根据美国国家航空航天局的科学模拟(由火星表面的远程机器人佐证),在火星北部的夏季,可能会出现突如其来的大型降雪。 我们知道火星上有云和地下冰层,所以下雪肯定是合理的。科学家还在火星的南极发现了一团二氧化碳雪花。

Monkeys love it

猴子喜欢雪

Don’t think for a second we are the only mammals to enjoy a good snowball fight. Japanese macaques, also know as ‘snow monkeys’ have been observed making and playing with balls of snow. Young macaques appear to enjoy stealing each others snowballs, then battling to retrieve them.

不要以为人类才是唯一喜欢打雪仗的哺乳动物。人们发现被称为“雪猴”的日本猕猴也喜欢制作和玩雪球。年轻的日本猕猴似乎很喜欢互相偷对方的雪球,然后打架夺回来。

Too much snow isn’t good for you

“北极歇斯底里症”

Spend too much time on the slopes and you could suffer from piblokto or ‘Arctic hysteria’, a disorder affecting Inuit people living within the Arctic circle. Symptoms include meaningless verbal repetition or performing irrational or dangerous acts, followed by amnesia of the event. Vitamin A toxicity is thought to be one source of the disorder, though in recent years researchers have questioned whether the illness, thought to be based on as little as eight cases, actually exists at all.

在雪中待太久就可能得北极癔症或“北极歇斯底里症”,这一癔症就影响着北极圈内的因纽特人。其症状包括不断口头重复无意义的词语,或者进行不理智的、危险的行为,然后对自己的所作所为完全失忆。人们曾经认为癔症的成因是为维他命A中毒,但近几年研究人员一直在怀疑这种仅有八宗案例的疾病是否真正存在。

Afraid of snowfall

恐雪症

One psychological condition that definitely exists is chionophobia, or a fear of snow, deriving from ‘chion' the Greek word for snow. While the phenomena can develop due to a childhood trauma involving snowy accident, there are more irrational variations where people develop an acute fear of becoming trapped or buried in snow if there isn’t a flake in sight or at the first sign of a flutter.

肯定存在的一种心理状态是恐雪症(chionophobia),或者是对雪的恐惧。这一表达源于希腊语中的“chion”一词,意思是雪。虽然这种现象可能是由童年经历的雪天事故导致的,但人们在没有看到雪花时也会产生一些不理性的反应,例如立即产生对被困或被埋在雪中的恐惧。

Snow rock stars

雪中摇滚巨星

The great explorer Ernest Shackleton was renowned for his bravery, intrepid spirit and loyalty to his comrades. But the contents of his medical kit during the Nimrod Expedition sounds more like the rider for a 70s rock band than a polar exploration. Colic was treated with cannabis, diarrhoea sufferers enjoyed the delights of opium while those stricken with snow blindness, a temporary loss of vision due to overexposure to the sun's UV rays, would have cocaine dripped directly into the eye.

伟大的冒险家沙克尔顿(Ernest Shackleton)因勇敢无畏、忠于伙伴而闻名于世。不过他在尼姆罗德考察(Nimrod Expedition)时携带的医药箱让他们更像70年代的摇滚乐团,而不是极地探险团队。毫无原因哭闹的人会被用大麻治疗,腹泻的人则用鸦片。那些由于长期暴露在紫外线中、暂时失去视觉而得雪盲症的人的治疗方法则是直接将可卡因滴入眼中。

A yodel won’t cause an avalanche

歌声并不会造成雪崩

There are a number of factors that can trigger an avalanche, but noise isn’t one of them. Weight is a much more important contributor. A sudden deluge of snow, an increase in wind speed or even the over-zealous footstep of a skier can trigger a sudden, deadly, cascade. But a loud burst of terrible singing, that won’t have much of an effect.

能够引发雪崩的因素有很多,但声音并不是其中之一。重量是一个更重要的因素。突如其来的积雪、风速的增加、甚至滑雪者过于沉重的脚步都可能造成一场突如其来的致命雪崩。但是一阵可怕的歌声并不会产生太大的影响。

Snow warms you up

雪让人感到温暖

Because snow is comprised of 90 to 95 percent trapped air, it means it’s a great insulator. This is the reason many animals burrow deep into the snow during winter in order to hibernate. It’s also the reason that igloos, that use only body heat to warm them, can be 100 degrees warmer inside than outside.

雪的90%至95%由空气组成,这意味着它是一种很好的保温体。这就是为什么许多动物冬季会在雪中挖地洞以便冬眠。这也是为什么仅靠体温来加热的圆顶冰屋的内部温度可能比外部高100华氏度。

It’s adaptable

雪的适应性强

Usually, the air temperature needs to be around the freezing mark for snow to form, but if rain falls for long enough it can cool the air around it as it falls and eventually create the right environment to produce flakes. So the temperature can be as high as 6°C on the ground and snow can still be falling.

通常情况下,空气温度需要在冰点左右才能形成雪,但如果降雨时间长,导致周围的空气温度降低,也会形成适合降雪的环境。 因此即使地面温度可能高达6摄氏度,仍然可能降雪。

Speedy snowflakes

快速下落的雪花

Snowflakes can fall at a speed anywhere between a leisurely one to a breakneck 14kmp (9mph), depending on the environmental conditions in the air as they drop. Snowflakes gathering water as they fall and wind direction can speed up the descent. It takes roughly an hour for a flake to leave its cloud and reach the ground.

雪花的下落速度可以悠闲缓慢,也可能高达14公里/小时(9英里/小时),具体取决于当时空中的环境条件。 雪花一边下落一边凝集水分,而风向也可以加速下降。 雪花片从离开云层到到达地面大约需要一个小时。

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