Could Trees Be the New Gravestones?
SANTA CRUZ, California — Death comes for all of us, but Silicon Valley has, until recently, not come for death.
Who can blame them for the hesitation? The death services industry is heavily regulated and fraught with religious and health considerations. The handling of dead bodies does not seem ready for venture-backed disruption. The gravestone does not seem an obvious target for innovation.
But in a forest south of Silicon Valley, a new startup is hoping to change that. The company is called Better Place Forests. It is trying to make a better graveyard.
但在硅谷南部的一片森林，一家新的初创公司正希望能带来改变。公司名为善地森林(Better Place Forests)。它正在试图创造一种更好的墓园。
“Cemeteries are really expensive and really terrible, and basically I just knew there had to be something better,” said Sandy Gibson, chief executive of Better Place. “We’re trying to redesign the entire end-of-life experience.”
And so Gibson’s company is buying forests, arranging conservation easements intended to prevent the land from ever being developed, and then selling people the right to have their cremated remains mixed with fertilizer and fed to a particular tree.
The Better Place team is opening a forest in Point Arena, a bit south of Mendocino; preselling trees at a second California location, in Santa Cruz; and developing four more spots around the country. They have a few dozen remains in the soil already, and Gibson says they have sold thousands of trees to the future dead. Most of the customers are “pre-need” — middle-aged and healthy, possibly decades before finding themselves in the roots.
Better Place Forests has raised $12 million in venture capital funding. And other than the topic of dead bodies coming up fairly often, the office is a normal San Francisco startup, with around 45 people bustling around and frequenting the roof deck with a view of the water.
There is a certain risk to being buried in a startup forest. When the tree dies, Better Place says it will plant a new one at that same spot. But a redwood can live 700 years, and almost all startups in Silicon Valley fail, so it requires a certain amount of faith that someone will be there to install a new sapling.
Still, Gibson said most customers, especially those based in the Bay Area, like the idea of being part of a startup even after life. The first few people to buy trees were called founders.
“You’re part of this forest, but you're also part of creating this forest,” said Gibson. “People love that.”
Bring Your Dog, Forever
Customers come to claim a tree for perpetuity. This now costs between $3,000 (for those who want to be mixed into the earth at the base of a small young tree or a less desirable species of tree) and upward of $30,000 (for those who wish to reside forever by an old redwood). For those who do not mind spending eternity with strangers, there is also an entry-level price of $970 to enter the soil of a community tree. (Cremation is not included.)
A steward then installs a small round plaque in the earth like a gravestone.
When the ashes come, the team at Better Place digs a 0.9-meter by 0.6-meter trench at the roots of the tree. Then, at a long table, the team mixes the person’s cremated remains with soil and water, sometimes adding other elements to offset the naturally highly alkaline and sodium-rich qualities of bone ash. It is important the soil stay moist; bacteria will be what breaks down the remains.
Because the forest is not a cemetery, rules are much looser. For example: pets are allowed. Often customers want their ashes to be mixed with their pets’ ashes, Gibson said.
“Pets are a huge thing,” Gibson said. “It’s where everyone in your family can be spread. This is your tree.”
“Spreading” is what they call the ash deposit. The trench is a “space,” the watering can is a “vessel,” the on-site sales staff are “forest stewards.” When it comes to both death and startups, euphemisms abound.
It is all pretty low-tech: mix ashes in with dirt and put a little placard in the soil. But there is a tech element: For an extra fee, customers can have a digital memorial video made. Walking through the forest, visitors will be able to scan a placard and watch a 12-minute digital portrait of the deceased talking straight to the camera about his or her life. Some will allow their videos to be viewed by anyone walking through the forest, others will opt only for family members. Privacy settings will be decided before death.
Death Is a Growth Industry
As cities are running out of room to bury the dead, the cost of funerals and caskets has increased more than twice as fast as prices for all commodities. In the San Francisco Bay Area, a traditional funeral and plot burial often costs $15,000 to $20,000. The majority of Americans are now choosing to be cremated.
“The death services market is very big — $20 billion a year — and customer approval is low,” said Jon Callaghan, a partner at True Ventures, an investor in Better Places. “The product is broken.”
“殡葬服务市场很大，每年达200亿美元，而且客户认可度很低，”真创投(True Ventures)合伙人、善地投资人约翰·卡拉汉(Jon Callaghan)说。“产品很差。”
The firm’s other investments include Blue Bottle, Peloton and Fitbit, and Callaghan sees consumers of those products as ones who would be interested also in Better Place trees.
“Every industry seems to have its time when things get wild,” said Nancy Pfund, the founder and a managing partner at DBL Partners, which led early funding. “It’s been mobile apps, it’s been cars, it’s been fake meat, and now it is death care,” she said.
“每个行业似乎都会有一段疯狂的时期，”从事早期领投的DBL合伙人公司(DBL Partners)创始人兼管理合伙人南希·芬德(Nancy Pfund)说。“已经有过手机应用、汽车、人造肉，现在轮到殡葬服务了，”她说。
Around 75 million Americans will reach the life expectancy age of 78 between 2024 and 2042, Better Place suggests. The company’s pitch is that tree burial is good for the environment, the location is more beautiful than a traditional graveyard — and it is cheaper as well.
Those tracking the death services industry are more skeptical about how disruptive it will be.
John O’Conner, who runs Menlo Park Funerals, said more than 90% of his clients opt for cremation.
经营门洛帕克殡葬服务公司(Menlo Park Funerals)的约翰·奥康纳(John O'Connor)称，他90%的客户都选择火化。
“Most of my people scatter on their own,” O’Conner said. “They just go at night, scatter grandma, have a cup of Champagne, and every day they drive by that park they know grandma is there. Why would they pay $20,000 to go to a memorial grove when they can scatter at any little park they want to for free?”
That act is, technically, illegal.
“Don’t ask, don’t tell,” O’Conner said.
Ben Deci, a spokesman for California’s Cemetery and Funeral Bureau, said Better Place Forests’ activities do not fall under the bureau’s purview.
加州公墓和殡葬局(Cemetery and Funeral Bureau)发言人本·德西(Ben Deci)表示，善地森林的经营活动不受该局管辖。
“It looks to me like they’ve just purchased large tracts for forest land and are allowing people to disperse their ashes, and they say here ‘This’ll be your tree or whatever,’” Deci said. “You don’t need our approval to do that.”
As Gibson hiked across the Santa Cruz forest, he noticed a rhododendron, his mother’s favorite flower, growing out of a stump.
Both his parents died when he was young, and, at 12, Gibson was adopted by his half brother. He is now 36, and, since then, he has spent many afternoons in Toronto at his parent’s grave site, set on a noisy corner, with a shiny black headstone that reflects traffic.
“You remember them dying, you remember the memorial service, and you remember the image of their final resting place,” Gibson said. He was haunted by that badly designed grave site. “It’s comically bad.”
Visiting their grave in 2015, he decided to quit his job running a marketing automation company. He would make a better graveyard.
“A lot of investors laughed at us when I first pitched this,” Gibson said. “People don’t really like thinking about this.”