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如何应对化学武器攻击 中毒是什么感觉?

What is it like to be caught up in a chemical attack?
如何应对化学武器攻击 中毒是什么感觉?

The battered white van looks like it has been abandoned – its front bumper is missing and one of the rear tyres is partially deflated. A few people mill around nearby, talking and laughing in the otherwise quiet square. They don't notice the wisp of smoke curling out from beneath the vehicle.

这辆白色的面包车太破旧了,看起来像是无主车——前保险杠不见了,一个后轮瘪了一半。有几个人在附近转悠,在安静的广场上说说笑笑。他们没有注意到车底有一缕烟冒了出来。

Within a couple of minutes, it has turned into a torrent, pouring around the doors and from an exhaust pipe protruding below the van. Those standing nearby are almost completely obscured by the white cloud and a woman lets out a small scream as a sudden shift in the wind sends the plume billowing in my direction.

几分钟后,烟势加大,从车门和面包车下面的排气管中喷涌而出。站在附近的人几乎消失在白色的烟雾里,一个女人发出了一声尖叫。因为风向突变,烟雾冲着我的方向滚滚而来。

As it spills around me I get the faint taste of old chewing gum. I can hear people coughing and shapes nearby drop to the ground. Some splutter and cry out for help. Others lie very still. It takes 20 minutes before hazy blue flashing lights emerge around the corner, indicating help is on its way. Firefighters climb into cumbersome protection suits with full breathing apparatus. They move from victim to victim, checking who can be saved and who is beyond help.

当它飘到我身边时,我隐隐闻到了口香糖的那种味道。我能听到人们在咳嗽,附近有人影倒在地上。有人在大声呼救。还有人一动不动地躺着。20分钟后,街头拐角处隐约有蓝色的闪光出现,表明救援正在路上。消防员穿着配备全套呼吸装置笨重的防护服。他们在受害者当中移动,查找可救助人员和确认已没生还希望的人员。

Fortunately for me and the others in the small southern Finnish town of Mikkeli, this is just a rehearsal – preparation for an exercise the following day that will simulate a chemical attack. The scenario – a terrorist cell has released a toxic nerve agent into a market square amid the lunchtime bustle – is designed to test pioneering new technology that could transform how emergency services respond to chemical releases.

幸运的是,对我和其他在芬兰南部小城米凯利(Mikkeli)的人来说,这只是一次预演,为第二天的化学攻击演习做准备。我刚才经历的这一幕,是预演一个恐怖分子团伙于午餐的繁忙时间,在市场广场释放了一种有毒的神经毒剂,旨在测试一项开创性的新技术,这项技术可能改变应急服务部门对有毒化学物质释放的反应。

But what do we know about the reality of events during a chemical attack? How do people respond, and can anything really be done to prevent a serious loss of life?

但是,我们对化学武器袭击事件的真相了解多少呢?人们该如何应对?为了防止出现惨重的生命伤亡,我们应该做些什么?

In Finland, the victims were all played by volunteers who were acting, but the scenario is based on very real and horrifying events.

在芬兰,受害者都是由志愿者扮演的,但这一幕是基于现实中的恐怖事件。

In 1995, the Aum Shinrikyo cult released sarin on busy trains during rush hour in five coordinated attacks that killed 13 people and injured thousands more. A year earlier, a sarin attack by the same group killed eight and left 600 people injured.

1995年,奥姆真理教(Aum Shinrikyo)于交通高峰期在繁忙的地铁上释放了沙林毒气,在5起协同袭击中,造成13人死亡,数千人受伤。一年前,同一组织发起的沙林毒气袭击造成8人死亡,600多人受到伤害。

“It was the starting point for our project,” explains Paul Thomas, an analytical chemist at Loughborough University in the UK who is leading the Toxi-Triage project that is behind the exercise in Mikkeli.

英国拉夫堡大学(Loughborough University)分析化学家托马斯(Paul Thomas)解释说:“我们这个项目的源起,就是那起事件。”他是米凯利演习背后Toxi-Triage项目的负责人。

One of the people who survived the 1995 attack was Atsushi Sakahara, a former advertising executive now living in Kyoto, Japan. He stood just yards from one of the packages of volatile liquid containing sarin. “At first I didn’t think much of it,” he recalls. “My eyes felt dry, a bit like I had strained them. But I had an important presentation to give to a client that morning so I went to the office.” It would turn out to be an event that would affect him for the rest of his life.

现居住在日本京都的前广告主管坂原淳(Atsushi Sakahara),是1995年沙林毒气袭击的幸存者之一。他当时就站在距离一包含有沙林的挥发性液体几尺远的地方。他回忆说:“一开始我并没有想太多。接着我感觉眼睛很干,有种用眼过度的感觉。但是那天早上我要给客户做一个重要的演示,所以之后我就去办公室上班了。”结果证明,这件事影响了他后来的人生。

Sakahara’s day had started as normal, snoozing his radio alarm for a few minutes before getting up and making the short uphill walk to the train station where he bought a newspaper and boarded the Hibiya Line train at Roppongi station to start his daily 15-minute commute towards Tsukiji station.

那一天,坂原淳像往常一样。早上收音机闹钟响过之后,他小睡了几分钟,然后起床。走一小段上坡路到达六本木车站,他在那里买了份报纸,坐上了日比谷线列车,开始每天15分钟的筑地站通勤之旅。

“When the train arrived I was reading an article in the newspaper about the sarin attack in Matsumoto about nine months earlier,” recalls Sakahara. “The third door of the first train car was less crowded so I got on there. On the left side there was a plastic bag. I nearly sat down beside it, but changed my mind.”

坂原淳回忆说:“列车到达时,我正在读报上一篇关于9个月前松本市沙林毒气袭击的文章。我看第一节车厢的第三个门没那么拥挤,所以我就从那个门上了车。左边有一个塑料袋。我差点坐到它旁边,但后来改变了想法。”

His instinct was correct. The plastic bags, which had been wrapped in newspaper, contained a solution that consisted of 30% sarin. Two stops before Sakahara boarded the train, a member of Aum Shinrikyo set the package on the floor and punctured it with the sharpened tip of an umbrella, allowing the contents to evaporate into the carriage.

坂原淳的直觉是正确的。那个用报纸包着的塑料袋里,是含有30%的沙林溶液。在坂原淳上车前两站,奥姆真理教的一名成员把包裹放在地板上,然后用尖锐的雨伞尖刺穿包裹,让里面的溶液挥发到车厢里。

“There was a guy sitting next to the bag who didn’t look very well – he was kind of slumped and sweating,” says Sakahara. “I just felt like I shouldn’t be there. Maybe I should have yelled, to tell everyone else to get out too, but I didn’t. I wish I had.”

坂原淳说:“坐在那个塑料袋旁边的人看起来不大舒服,耷拉着脑袋,一直在冒汗。我只是觉得自己应该换一个地方。其实我应该大声呼喊让大家都离开,但我没有。我是希望我能这么做。”

Instead Sakahara moved to the front of the second carriage, along with a couple of other passengers who slammed the dividing door behind them. When he looked back, Sakahara says he saw a pregnant woman in the carriage he had just left. It is a memory that has stuck with him as he watched the terrible effects of the sarin take effect.

相反,坂原淳走到了第二节车厢的前部,一起的还有另外几个乘客,他们关上了身后的车门。当他回头时,看到刚离开的车辆里还有一个孕妇。后来在目睹沙林毒气的可怕之处时,这段记忆一直挥之不去。

“I was told she was OK, but I don’t know what happened to her,” he said. As the train set off again, the man he had seen earlier keeled over. “Someone said he had fainted. When we arrived at the next stop, Kamiyachō station, he was carried out and the station staff rushed over.”

他说:“后来我得知她没事,但我不知道她究竟经历了什么。”当列车再次启动时,他之前看到的那个人跪倒在地。“有人说他晕倒了。我们到达下一站神谷町站时,车站工作人员冲了过来,把他抬下了车。”

Sarin can take effect within seconds of being inhaled and symptoms can appear within a minute of exposure. It can be lethal in around 5-10 minutes. As a vapour, however, it is heavier than air and so will have taken some time to fill the carriage. Passengers were also reported to have opened windows on the train as they began to feel unwell. It was a step that could have saved many lives in the carriage – only one person lost their life on the train Sakahara was on.

沙林毒气在吸入几秒钟后开始发挥作用,接触一分钟内出现症状。它可以在大约5-10分钟内致命。不过,作为一种水气,它比空气重,因此需要一些时间才能填满整个车厢。据报道,乘客们在开始感到不舒服的时候,有人打开了车窗。这个做法救了车厢里的许多人,坂原淳乘坐的那列地铁仅一人丧生。

In the minutes that followed, the front carriage of the train was evacuated and an announcement said there had been an explosion at Tsukiji station. In truth there was no explosion – another train targeted in the attack had pulled onto the platform and passengers had staggered out and collapsed. The quickly unfolding events led to confusion.

在随后的几分钟,前面那节车厢的乘客被疏散,广播通知称筑地站发生爆炸。事实上,并没有发生爆炸,而是另一列遭到毒剂攻击的地铁列车靠站停车,乘客们踉踉跄跄地走了出来,瘫倒在地。事情发生得太快,一时间导致了混乱。

“Tsukiji was my destination,” says Sakahara. “So, I decided to get off the train and left the station.” He took a cab to his gym, tried to do a short work-out but then decided to have a shower before his meeting with clients.

坂原淳说:“我本来是要在筑地站下车的。既然这样,我决定下车出站。”叫辆出租车去健身房,想稍微锻炼一下,但后来决定在见客户之前还是冲个澡。

“I was starting to feel horrible but the shower helped me,” he says. Without realising it, Sakahara had followed three of the key steps recommended by the US Department of Homeland Security in the event of a chemical attack – getting into clean air, removing his clothes and washing with soap and water.<-->纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com<-->

他说:“我开始感到很难受,但淋浴帮了我。”在毫不知情的情况下,坂原淳遵循了美国国土安全部建议的发生化学武器袭击时的三个关键步骤:置身于干净的空气里、脱下衣服、用肥皂和水清洗。

“When I went back outside, though, it was like I was looking out through very strong dark glasses,” he adds. Darkened vision is a typical symptom of sarin exposure along with eye pain, pupil constriction, nausea and nose bleeds. It was only when Sakahara met a colleague in the office lift, who commented on his bloodshot eyes, did he realise what might be happening.

他补充道:“不过,当我走到外面的时候,感觉自己像戴了一副深色墨镜,”视力变暗是沙林毒气接触的典型症状,并伴有眼睛疼痛、瞳孔收缩、恶心和流鼻血。坂原淳在办公室的电梯里遇到一位同事,说他眼睛充血,他这才意识到可能出了问题。

“He told me I should go to a hospital,” says Sakahara. “When I got to the hospital there were so many victims there already. I had a headache by then and my eyes were painful. I was covered in a sticky sweat. A doctor came to see me and I asked him what it might be. He said ‘no idea’.”

坂原淳说:“同事告诉我应该去医院。到了医院,那里已经有很多受害者了。那会儿我头痛,眼睛也痛。身上黏糊糊的都是汗。我问接诊的医生这是什么病,他说‘不知道’。”

It would be several hours before the Japanese authorities were able to determine that sarin was responsible. While lethal doses of nerve agents can act within seconds to minutes, the immediate signs of mild or fleeting exposure can also be frustratingly nondescript – irritated eyes, dizziness, headaches, excessive mucus and difficulty breathing. The could be mistaken for a heavy cold if they didn't come on so quickly.

几个小时后,政府才明确告知是沙林毒剂导致的。虽然致命剂量的神经毒剂几秒钟到几分钟就能置人于死地,但轻微或者短暂的接触,症状可能是难以形容的,如眼睛发炎、头晕脑胀、头痛、流鼻涕、呼吸不畅。这些症状如果不是突然出现,就很容易被误以为是重感冒。

The packages that contained the poison had been picked up and disposed of by station staff, who would too become victims of the attack. Many of those who had been on the affected trains and in the stations had, like Sakahara, wandered off as the emergency services struggled to get a grip on the situation. They later turned up at hospital under their own steam, adding to the chaos.

装有毒物的包裹被车站工作人员捡起并处理掉了,他们也成为这次袭击的受害者。许多跟坂原淳一样搭乘受影响列车和出现在站台上的人,在紧急救援人员控制局势的时候,都离开了。后来,他们是自行前往医院,从而加剧了混乱。

Another problem following the chemical attack was panic. “In Tokyo, the hospitals were overwhelmed by thousands of people seeking medical help and reassurance after the sarin attacks,” says Thomas. “The vast majority – about 80% of those – did not need hospital care. You can imagine what impact that has on a busy hospital when you have hundreds of people turning up like that. If your grandmother happens to have a stroke on that day, she is not going to get the care she needs. The lethality of that is too awful to bear. As many people or more will be harmed as a result of that congestion as would be hurt by the event.”

化学袭击后带来的另一个问题是恐慌。托马斯说:“在东京的沙林毒气袭击之后,成千上万的人涌向医院寻求医疗救助和安慰,令医院不堪重负。绝大多数——大约80%的人,是不需要住院治疗的。可以想象一下,当数百人同时出现在医院时,对繁忙的医院会造成什么影响。如果有老人当天碰巧中风,她可能就得不到需要的照顾。这太要命了。因拥堵造成更多人的间接伤害,也不比毒气事件本身造成的伤害少。”

This is where Thomas believes new technology could help – by allowing rapid diagnosis following future attacks. For example, researchers at German electronics firm Gesellschaft für Analytische Sensorsysteme, or Gas for short, have developed a breath analyser that can detect low levels of biochemicals known as metabolites, which are produced by the human body as it reacts to harmful chemicals. In Mikkeli the smoke has been laced with peppermint and the volunteers were given peppermint oil capsules as a substitute for sarin that produces metabolites the instruments can detect.

托马斯相信,新技术可以提供帮助——在未来发生化学攻击后,进行快速诊断。例如,德国电子公司Gesellschaft für Analytische Sensorsysteme(简称Gas)的研究人员开发了一种呼吸分析仪,可以检测出人体对有害化学物质做出反应时,所产生的低水平的生化物质——代谢物。在米凯利的烟雾中加入了薄荷,志愿者给予薄荷油胶囊作为沙林的替代品,分析仪器可检测代谢物。

By simply blowing into a plastic tube that has a syringe plunger attached, the breath of hundreds of potential victims can be analysed quickly. “It can give us an answer in about 40 seconds,” says Emma Brodrick, a systems application manager at Gas who helped develop the BreathSpec device.

只需将气吹入一个带有注射器柱塞的塑料管,就可以对数百名潜在受害者的呼吸进行快速分析。参与研发这个名叫BreathSpec装置的布罗德里克(Emma Brodrick)说:“它可以在大约40秒内给我们答案。”

Back in Mikkeli, Finland, I watch another type of sensor technology supporting the emergency services during the rehearsal. There is a faint buzzing as through the smoke – coloured white so it can be seen in this exercise – a small drone emerges. On board it is carrying highly sensitive, miniaturised instruments that sample the gas and wirelessly beam back the results to emergency crews.

回到芬兰的米凯利,我在演习期间看到了另一种支持应急服务的传感器技术。烟雾中传来微弱的嗡嗡声——烟雾是白色,方便在演习中看到——一架小型无人机出现了。机上配备了高灵敏度的微型仪器,可以对气体进行采样,并用无线方式将结果传给紧急救援人员。

“The drone lets us get samples from close to the source without putting personnel at risk,” explains George Pallis, an engineer and managing director of T4i, the company behind the technology. “It can also take samples over a wide area very quickly so we can get an idea of spread too.”

研发该技术的T4i公司的工程师兼总经理帕利斯(George Pallis)解释道:“无人机可以从接近源头的地方获取样本。也可以快速地在大范围内采集样本,我们可以通过它来了解有毒化学物质的扩散情况。”

The Toxi-Triage consortium have also been developing technology that can pick up the signatures of poisonous chemicals from greater distances. Using specialised cameras that pick-up visible, ultraviolet and infrared light – known as hyperspectral imaging – it is possible to detect characteristic patterns that betray the presence of a chemical agent.

Toxi-Triage项目也在研发一种技术,可以从更远的地方采集有毒化学物质的特征。通过专用摄像机,它可以捕捉到可见光、紫外光和红外光——即所谓的高光谱成像,从而检测出泄露化学物质存在的特征模式。

While at a much earlier stage than the drone-based technology, these hyperspectral detection systems could be used in handheld devices or mounted on aircraft that can fly overhead. Looking further ahead, the team behind it hope such technology could also be mounted on satellites with high-resolution optics, allowing authorities to monitor for the use of chemical weapons in war zones.

虽然与无人机技术相比,它还处于更早期阶段,但这些高光谱检测系统可用于手持设备或安装在空中飞行的飞机上。研制该技术的团队,希望未来它能安装在具有高分辨率光学系统的卫星上,让政府可以监测战区的化学武器使用情况。

In places like Syria, where reports of chemical weapons use have relied upon information provided by local teams on the ground and subsequent testing of victims often days after the alleged attack, it could transform the ability to pinpoint attacks and find those responsible.

在叙利亚等地,有关使用化学武器的报告,还需要依赖当地团队提供的信息,以及随后对受害者进行的测试,而这些测试往往是在袭击发生数天后进行的。在这些地方,这个发明会提升查明袭击目标、找到袭击者的能力。<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

“It is informed vigilance that is key to effective prevention,” says Tatyana Novossiolova, a research fellow who studies the threats posed by chemical and biological weapons at the Center for the Study of Democracy in Sofia, Bulgaria. The responsibility for this vigilance is not just something for the authorities, but each and every one of us if we want to combat the threat posed by chemical weapons, she argues.

保加利亚索菲亚民主研究中心(Center for the Study of Democracy)的研究员、从事化学和生化武器威胁研究的诺沃索洛娃(Tatyana Novosolova)说:“保持合理的警惕是有效预防的关键。”她认为,如果我们要与化学武器构成的威胁作斗争,保持警惕不仅仅是当局的责任,也是我们每个人的责任。

“This entails knowing whom to turn to, should one find themselves in a risky situation or emergency, such as being familiar with the relevant responsible authorities or services and knowing how best to reach them.”

“这就需要知道在遇到危险或紧急情况时向谁求助,比如熟悉有关部门或服务机构,并知道如何与他们取得联系。”

For those authorities and emergency services responding to a chemical attack or an accidental release of harmful chemicals, knowing what substance is involved is crucial.

对于应对化学武器袭击或有害化学物质意外泄露的有关负责部门和紧急服务机构来说,了解涉事物质至关重要。

In 2018, a mysterious chemical haze swept on shore from English Channel, causing widespread panic as members of the public reported breathing difficulties and eye problems. It took months of investigation before the most likely source was identified as a ship venting gas out in the channel, but emergency teams struggled to know how to respond at the time.

2018年,英吉利海峡飘来神秘的化学烟雾,引发了大范围的恐慌,有公众报告称呼吸困难和视力出现问题。经过几个月的调查,发现来源是一艘在海峡排放天然气的船只,但当时应急小组不知道要如何应对。

“If they had our kit, they would have known, as soon as they arrived on scene, exactly what they were dealing with,” says Thomas. Understanding exactly what agent has been released is a crucial first step in any response, he explains.

托马斯说:“如果他们有我们的设备,那么一到现场,就能知道要处理的是什么化学物质,”他解释说,准确找出释放出来的是何种物质,是做出反应的第一步。

The precautions and response can vary depending on the chemical responsible, while those exposed have to be treated in different ways. For example, with nerve agents and some pesticide poisonings it is common to give patients the drug atropine. But atropine should not be given to those exposed to the incapacitating agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate, better known as BZ, as it can worsen its effects.

预防措施和反应会因化学物质的不同而有所不同,而那些接触者必须采用不同的处理方式。例如,如果是神经毒剂和一些农药中毒,给病人的常见药物是阿托品。但阿托品不应该给那些接触过失能剂二苯乙醇酸-3-喹咛环酯(更广为人所知的名字是BZ)的人服用,因为它会让情况更严重。

Some nerve agents also have specific antidotes that if given quick enough can save lives.

一些神经毒剂也有特定的解毒剂,如果能及时用上,就能挽救生命。

Researchers like Janice Chambers and her team at Mississippi State University are also trying to develop better antidotes to nerve agents that can help to reduce the effects they can have on the brain.

像钱伯斯(Janice Chambers)和她在密西西比州立大学的团队这样的研究者,也在尝试开发更好的解毒剂来对抗神经毒剂,以减少毒剂对大脑的影响。

“Our objective is not just survival, but survival with minimal or no damage to brain function,” says Chambers. But she warns it could still take many years before their new drugs – known as oximes – get approval from regulatory authorities.

钱伯斯说:“我们的目标不仅仅是保命,而是对大脑功能造成的损害最小或没有损害的情况下生存。”但她警告称,新药物——被称为肟类药物,获得监管机构的批准,还需要多年的时间。

Decontamination can also drastically reduce the lethality of chemical weapons as the longer a substance is left on skin and clothes the more of it can enter the bloodstream. Victims have their clothes stripped from their bodies before being vigorously washed and scrubbed in hastily erected decontamination tents by emergency personnel wearing protective gear. Tests have shown that decontaminating within 15 minutes of exposure even to highly lethal nerve agents like VX can dramatically improve a victim's chances.

去污染也可以大大降低化学武器的杀伤力,因为有毒物质留在皮肤和衣服上的时间越长,进入血液的数量就越多。受害者脱下衣服,然后由身穿防护装备的紧急救援人员在匆忙搭建的洗消帐篷里进行强力洗刷。试验表明,在接触VX等强致命神经毒剂15分钟内进行消毒,可以显著提高受害者的存活几率。

The volunteers in Mikkeli are surprisingly stoic throughout this doubtless embarrassing and rather abrasive part of the exercise they are taking part in. As they reach the end of the decontamination tent, a hand-held device that looks a little like an electric sander is run over their skin. This clever bit of kit – known as a Gas Detector Array X – can identify the presence of harmful chemicals on skin, clothing and other surfaces. It is a bit like a Geiger counter, but for chemical agents rather than radiation.

米凯利的志愿者们在这项令人尴尬、让人不适的整个活动过程中,表现出了惊人的坚忍。当他们来到洗消帐篷的尽头,一台看起来有点像电动砂光机的手持设备在他们的皮肤上划过。这个聪明的装置,被称为X阵列气体探测器(Gas Detector Array X),可以识别皮肤、衣服和其他物体表面是否存在有害化学物质。它有点类似盖革(Geiger)计数器,不过是用于化学试剂而非辐射。

Each “victim” is also wearing a coloured wrist band, snapped on by the firefighters as they examined them. Inside is a wireless “smart” chip rather like those in a contactless payment card that when scanned with a mobile phone can reveal who they are, where they were in the incident, changes in their condition and what treatment they have received. Breath, blood and urine samples taken from them can be similarly tagged. Together it helps the emergency services keep track of victims as they are then taken to hospital.

每名“受害者”都戴着一条彩色腕带,是救援队员在给他们做检查的时戴上的。里面有一个无线“智能”芯片,类似非接触式支付卡,用手机扫描,就可以显示佩戴者的身份,他们在事故中所处的位置,病情的变化,以及接受的治疗。从他们身上提取的呼吸、血液和尿液样本也都可以做类似的标记。它帮助紧急服务机构在受害者送往医院时对他们进行跟踪。

A few are given black wristbands, an indication that they have “died”.

其中一些人戴的是黑色腕带,这表明已经“死亡”。

The exercise in Mikkeli is over in a few hours and the battered van that was the source of the gas is towed away. But in a real incident it could be days or even weeks before an area subjected to a chemical attack is safe for people to use again. Some chemical weapons, such as sulfur mustard and VX, can persist in soil for more than a month. Large areas of land between Lille and Verdun in France remain “no-go” red zones where the public, farming and forestry are banned due to the millions of tonnes of toxic gases unleashed during World War One. Cleaning up the tonnes of unexploded munitions that are unearthed here each year is a time-consuming and difficult task.

米凯利的演习几个小时就结束了,作为毒气来源的那辆破面包车被拖走了。但在现实中,遭受过化学攻击的区域可能需要数天甚至数周才能再次安全的供人们使用。一些化学武器,如硫芥子气和VX,可以在土壤中存留一个多月。法国里尔(Lille)和凡尔登(Verdun)之间的大片土地仍然是“禁区”。由于第一次世界大战期间这里释放过数百万吨有毒气体,公众、农业和林业都被禁止进入。这里每年清理出来的未爆炸弹数以吨计,这是一项既耗时又艰巨的任务。

But the US’s Defense Advanced Research Project Agency has been developing a portable “soil scrubber” to destroy chemical weapons by burning them and passing the gas through beds of carefully selected soil to turn the gases into harmless salts.

不过,美国的国防部高级研究项目局(Defense Advanced Research Project Agency)一直在研发一种便携式“土壤净化器”,它通过烧毁化学武器,让气体通过精心挑选的土壤床,将气体转化为无害的盐,来达到销毁目的。

Perhaps a longer lasting legacy is the impact that chemical weapons and accidents can have on their victims. Survivors of the Bhopal accident in India were found to be suffering from a wide range of serious long-term health problems more than 30 years after they were exposed to the toxic gas. Their children also bear the scars of the incident – their limbs twisted and brains damaged.

也许遗留更久的是化学武器袭击事件对受害者的影响。印度博帕尔(Bhopal)事件的幸存者在接触过有毒气体30多年后,被发现患有一系列严重的疾病。他们的孩子也承受着事件留下的伤痕——四肢扭曲,大脑受损。

There are few studies on the long-term effects of chemical weapons, but reports from doctors and survivors of attacks suggest they too leave a legacy of disease and congenital birth defects. One recent study on Kurdish survivors of chemical attacks in Iraq in 1988 showed they suffered from deteriorating physical and psychological health, including breathing problems, sleep disorders, eyesight issues and anxiety. Many lived in constant fear of another attack.

很少有关于化学武器长期影响的研究,但来自医生和袭击幸存者的报告表明,受化学武器袭击后会遗留下疾病和先天性缺陷等长期影响。最近一项关于1988年伊拉克化学袭击中库尔德幸存者的研究表明,他们的身体和心理健康状况不断恶化,包括呼吸问题、睡眠障碍、视力问题和焦虑。许多人生活在对另一场袭击的恐惧之中。

Research on survivors from the 1995 sarin attacks in Tokyo also reveal heart problems, muscle defects, and breathing difficulties. The survivors also show memory impairments and carry deep psychological scars.

对东京1995年沙林毒气袭击案的幸存者所做的研究,也显示出心脏问题、肌肉缺陷和呼吸困难的存在。幸存者还表现出记忆障碍,并留有很深的心理创伤。

Atsushi Sakahara is 52 years old now and still wrestling with the effects of his experience. Physically he says he coughs a lot; his eyes struggle to adjust to changes to light. He also suffers from severe fatigue and occasional paralysis in his arms and legs when stressed. Psychologically he struggles too.

现年52岁的坂原淳仍在努力克服这段经历带来的影响。他说自己经常咳嗽,眼睛很难适应光线的变化。他还患有严重的疲劳症,遇到压力时手臂和腿部偶尔会麻痹。心理上也存在一些问题。

“It’s hard, I feel insecure now when I go out,” he says. His regret at not shouting to warn others on the train about his concerns also still burns bright. “I have a lot of guilt about it.”

他说:“这很难,我现在外出时会感觉很不安全。”他很后悔当时在火车上感觉不对劲的时候,没有大声提醒列车上的其他人,这仍然折磨着他。“我对此非常内疚。”

But despite what he has endured, Sakahara has also shown it is possible to overcome adversity. He now works as a film director and won a Palm d’Or at Canne for a short film called Bean Cake in 2001. He is currently working on a documentary about the cult behind the attack he survived, Aum Shinrikyo.

不过,尽管经历了这些,坂原淳也证明了克服逆境是可能的。他现在是一名电影导演,并在2001年凭借一部名为《豆饼》(Bean Cake)的短片在戛纳电影节获奖。他目前正在拍摄一部纪录片,讲述那次袭击背后的邪教奥姆真理教。

“I want to help others to understand what happened,” he says. “It can never happen again.”

他说:“我想让更多的人了解当时发生的事情。这种事不能再发生了。”

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