您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 健康 >> 正文

一个纯素食的世界会是怎样?

更新时间:2019/10/21 12:21:16 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The consequences if the world decided to go meat-free
一个纯素食的世界会是怎样?

If vegetarianism was adopted by everyone by 2050, the world would have about seven million fewer deaths every year – and veganism would bring that up to eight million.

如果到2050年所有人都吃素食,每年死亡人数将减少700万人,但是如果完全素食将把这一数字增加到800万。

Food-related emissions would drop by around 60%, according to Marco Springmann, a research fellow at the Oxford Martin School’s Future of Food programme. This would be down to getting rid of red meat – which come from methane-producing livestock – from people’s diets.

牛津马丁学院未来食品计划研究人员马可·斯普林曼(Marco Springmann)表示,届时食品生产过程中的污染物排放量将减少大约60%,主要原因在于消除了食谱中的红肉,而红肉来自会产生大量甲烷气体的家畜。

However, farmers in the developing world could really suffer. Arid and semi-arid rangeland can only be used to raise animals, such as the Sahel land strip in Africa next to the Sahara; nomadic groups that keep livestock there would be forced to settle permanently and lose their cultural identities if there was no more meat.

然而,发展中国家的农民将遭受惨重损失。诸如临近非洲撒哈拉沙漠的萨赫勒(Sahel)地带等干旱和半干旱草原地区只可用于畜牧;如果取缔肉食,这些地区的游牧部落将被迫定居于永久性居民点并失去其独特的文化特征。

Repurposing former pastures into native habitats and forests would alleviate climate change and bring back lost biodiversity, including larger herbivores such as buffalo, and predators such as wolves, all of which were previously pushed out or killed in order to keep cattle.

将原来的牧场转化为野生动物栖息地和森林有助于缓解气候变化,促进生物多样性,并增加野牛等食草动物,以及狼等食肉动物的种群数量。在过去,由于要优先保障畜牧业的发展,这些动物都遭受了被驱逐或捕杀的命运。

Everybody currently engaged in the livestock industry would need to be retrained for a new career – this could be in agriculture, reforestation or producing bioenergy. Failing to provide career alternatives could lead to mass unemployment and social upheaval, particularly in traditionally rural communities.

目前的畜牧业就业人口都必须另找出路——他们或许能投身于农业、林业或生物能产业。如果不能有效安置这些人口,就会导致严重的失业问题和社会动荡,这些问题在农村地区将会尤为严重。

Taking livestock like sheep away could actually have a negative impact on biodiversity, as their grazing has helped to shape the land for centuries – so some farmers could be paid to keep animals for environmental purposes.

类似绵羊等牲畜千百年来一直是陆地生态环境的重要组成部分,因此这些牲畜消失后会对生物多样性产生负面影响——因此,为了保护环境,可能要招募某些农民饲养动物。

No more Christmas turkey – losing meat means that we would also lose traditions. Many communities around the world offer gifts of livestock at weddings and celebrations. For Ben Phalan at the University of Cambridge, this is “why efforts to reduce meat consumption have often faltered”.

不再有圣诞火鸡大餐——没有了肉食,很多传统也就随之消失。世界很多地区都有在婚礼或庆典上赠送牲畜作为礼物的习惯。剑桥大学的本·法兰(Ben Phalan)说,这就是"为什么很多致力于减少肉类消费的努力最终失败的原因"。

No meat would lower the chances of coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke and some cancers – and so save the world 2-3% global gross domestic product in medical bills.

素食将有助于降低心脏冠状动脉疾病、糖尿病、中风和某些癌症的发病率,从而将节省占全球GDP 2-3个百分点的医疗开支。

But we would need to replace meat with nutritional substitutes, in particular for the world’s estimated two billion-plus undernourished people. Animal products contain more nutrients per calorie than staples like grains and rice.

需要找到能够取代肉类的替代营养物质,对于全球20多亿营养不良的人口这一问题尤为重要。单位卡路里的肉类所含营养物质要多于谷物或大米等主食。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表