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中国志愿者网络“树洞救援队”用AI救援数百位自杀者

更新时间:2019/11/7 18:26:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

    "I can't hold on, I'm going!" Just after valentine's day this year, li fan, a 21-year-old Chinese student, took the drug to commit suicide after leaving a message on his personal microblog. He soon lost consciousness.

    “我坚持不了了,我先走了!”今年的情人节刚过,21岁的中国学生李凡在自己的个人微博上留下一行话后服药自杀,他很快便失去了意识。

    He suffered from depression when he was a sophomore at a university in nanjing. After owing a few network loans and feeling to also encounter a problem, he begins suspend schooling to be at home, decide to commit suicide secretly.

    在南京的一所大学读大二的他,本身便患有抑郁症。在欠了几笔网络贷款和感情上也遇到问题后,他开始休学在家,暗自决定轻生。

    Although he had not told anyone about the decision, more than 8,000 kilometers away in Amsterdam, the Dutch capital, a program code-named "tree-hole robot 002" was activated in a computer and soon detected li fan's post.

    尽管这个决定他此前并未和其他人说过,但8000多公里外的荷兰首都阿姆斯特丹,一个代号为“树洞机器人002号”的程序在一台电脑中启动,很快便侦探到了李凡的帖子。

    A rescue operation was launched around him, and several volunteers from all over China set up an online rescue team. After discovering that li fan may have fallen into a coma, volunteers contacted the police and he was eventually rescued and taken to hospital.

    一场围绕他的救援行动就此展开,几名来自中国各地的志愿者们在网络上搭建了一个救援小组。在发现李凡可能已陷入昏迷后,志愿者们联系了警方,他最终被成功救下,送到医院。

    Li fan's story may seem thrilling, but it is just the daily life of the online group called tree hole rescue team. It is a vast network of nearly 600 volunteers from all over China. It was created by huang zhisheng, an ai scholar at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    李凡的故事看起来惊心动魄,但却只是这个名为“树洞救援队”的网络组织的日常。这是一个由近600名来自中国各个地方志愿者组成的庞大网络。它的创立者是荷兰阿姆斯特丹自由大学(Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)人工智能学者黄智生。

    In the past year and a half, the tree hole rescue team has prevented nearly 1,000 suicides by cooperating with other volunteers through the robot program developed by huang. More than 700 survivors have been rescued, removing a few duplicate cases.

    在过去近一年半的时间里,树洞救援队通过黄教授所研发的机器人程序与其他志愿者进行配合,累计阻止了近千次自杀行为。去除一些重复的案例,救回的轻生者数量逾700人。

    "I'm alone in a crowd."

    “我身处人群,却如此孤独”

    Mental health enemies: top five topics men can't talk about

    精神健康大敌:男人难以启齿的五大话题

    Chinese girl heart: parents too strict let me embarrassed and lonely

    华裔女孩心声:父母管得太严让我难堪和孤独

    Revealed: the inner struggles and challenges of asexual women in China

    揭秘:中国无性恋女子内心的挣扎和挑战

    "Save ten every week."

    “每周都能救十个”

    "I don't think I can hesitate any longer. A day later is a day of life," huang zhisheng, a professor of Chinese descent who traveled to China for a conference in a hotel on the eastern outskirts of Beijing, told the BBC.

    “我觉得不能再犹豫了,晚一天,就是多少条生命,”在北京东郊的一家酒店内,临时前往中国参加会议的华裔教授黄智生对BBC记者说道,“现在每周都能救十个人左右。”

    He said the idea for the tree hole rescue team came from seeing more and more people around him were prone to depression. So in 2018, he created a program to find people on public social media who were psychologically in need of help.

    在荷兰从事人工智能研究多年的他表示,创立树洞救援队的最初想法来源于发现身边越来越多的人都有抑郁倾向。他因此在2018年创建了一个程序,寻找公开的社交媒体上那些心理需要帮助的人。

    The tree hole rescue team was founded by chinese-dutch ai scholar huang zhisheng.

    树洞救援队由荷兰华裔人工智能学者黄智生创办。

    His work soon won support from friends and peers, and dozens of medical and ai scholars became the first responders. They based on the machine to find the account target, further implementation of rescue.

    他的工作很快获得了好友和同行的支持,几十名医学和人工智能学者成为了第一批救援队员。他们根据机器寻找到的账号目标,进一步实施救援。

    Their first rescue was on April 29, 2018. When a 22-year-old female college student tweeted that she planned to kill herself on May 1, members jumped into action. Peng ling, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences who studies digital cities, is one of them.

    他们的第一次营救行动是在2018年4月29日。当时,一名22岁的女大学生发微博说,她计划5月1日自杀,成员们立刻行动起来。在中国科学院研究数字城市的研究员彭玲便是其中之一。

    Peng ling told the BBC that people get clues from other posts by the girl, tao yue. "Boys with me just want to have fun... I don't deserve to live in this world. Rescuers quickly determined that the girl might be having emotional problems.

    彭玲对BBC说,大家通过这个名叫陶悦的女孩的其他博文获得线索。在一条微博中,陶悦说,“男孩子跟我在一起也只是想玩一玩……我不配活在这个世界上”。救援队员迅速判断女生可能遇到了情感问题。

    In an earlier post, the team found the contact information of the girl's boyfriend, who obtained tao yue's mobile phone and notified the school.

    而在更早的一条微博中,队员们则找到女生前男友的联系方式,通过他获得陶悦的手机并通知了学校。

    "I sent her a text message just before I went to bed, telling her it was normal for things to go wrong and that I could pick her up and visit Beijing," Ms. Peng said. "I didn't expect her to reply, but then I added my WeChat and gradually calmed down. Later, I asked her if she had eaten anything in the morning, middle and evening. Every week, we also sent her a bunch of flowers online."

    “我在睡觉前尝试性地给她发了一条短信,和她说生活不顺心很正常,我可以接她来北京玩,”彭玲说。“本来没指望她回复的,但后来加了我的微信,逐渐冷静下来。后来,每天早中晚我都要问她吃没吃饭,每周我们还通过网购给她送一束花。”

    Volunteers face not only temporary relief, but also long-term companionship.

    志愿者需要面对的不仅是一时的救援,还有随后的长期陪伴。

    After the first rescue operation was successful, the tree hole rescue team began to work intensively. Because of physical disability to jump off a bridge, because I owe money to commit suicide in a hotel... It's like something out of a movie or a novel, almost every day in a rescue group.

    第一次救援行动成功后,树洞救援队便开始紧锣密鼓地运转起来。因为身体残疾要跳桥、因为欠钱要在宾馆自杀……这些如同发生在电影和小说中的故事,几乎每一天都在救援队的群里上演。

    "Rescue requires both luck and experience," said li hong, a beijing-based psychologist who has been with the rescue team for nearly a year. In one case, she said, to save a woman who committed suicide in a hotel in chengdu, sichuan province, she and her team searched eight similar hotels and had to make phone calls.

    “救援既需要运气,也需要经验,”加入救援队近一年的北京心理咨询师李虹说。她称,有一次,为了救一名在四川成都的酒店自杀的女士,她和队员检索出了8家相似的酒店,只能一个个打电话查询。

    "All the hotel front desk operators said they didn't know about it, but one receptionist hesitated, and we suspected it was the hotel," Ms. Li said.

    “所有的酒店前台接线员都说不知道这件事,但有一家前台语气上迟疑了一下,我们就怀疑是在这家酒店,后来果然如此,”李虹说。

    "Tree"

    “树洞”

    Although the follow-up rescue requires the volunteers to locate manually, the identification of potential targets in the early stage and the determination of emergency degree are done automatically by the machine.

    虽然后续的救援需要志愿者人工进行定位,但前期潜在目标的查找和紧急程度的判定则由机器自动完成。

    Mr. Huang said he USES a program written in JAVA to monitor specific 'tree holes' on microblogs during a fixed period of time each day and interpret the semantics of microblogs with keywords.

    黄智生说,他通过JAVA编写的程序,在每日固定时间段内对微博上特定的“树洞”进行监控,并对带有关键词的微博进行语义解读。

    His post, written seven years ago before he committed suicide, has become one of the biggest "tree holes" on Chinese Internet platforms. More than 1 million comments have been left.

    七年前这名网友自杀前留下的博文,已经成为中国互联网平台最大的"树洞"之一。网友留言已超过100万条。

    "Tree hole" is a popular term among young Chinese and is said to have originated from an Irish fairy tale about a barber who confides in a tree. Many people compare tree holes to places where secrets can be recorded.

    “树洞”是中国年轻人中流行的词汇,它据说来源于爱尔兰童话里一名向树吐露秘密的理发师。很多人将“树洞”比作可以记录秘密的地方。

    In 2012, a 23-year-old Chinese student posted on his weibo account, walking fan, saying, "I have depression, so I'm going to die. There's no important reason.

    2012年,一名23岁的中国学生用自己的微博账号“走饭”发帖说,“我有抑郁症,所以就去死一死,没什么重要的原因,大家不必在意我的离开。”

    Local police later confirmed that sanfan had committed suicide before the regular post. But what she may not have expected is that her last words have become a "tree hole". Every day, tens of thousands of netizens leave comments, telling their own thoughts and even expressing the idea of killing themselves.

    当地警察随后证实了“走饭”在这条定时微博发布前,已自杀身亡。但她或许没有想到的是,她这条遗言竟成为了一个“树洞”,每天都有数以万计的网友留言,诉说自己的心事,甚至表达轻生的念头。

    Statistics from tree hole rescue team show that people with suicidal thoughts are mainly aged between 16 and 26, and the peak time for messages in tree hole is from 10 PM to 2 am, about 1:3 for every male and female.

    树洞救援队的统计显示,有自杀想法的人年龄主要集中在16至26岁,深夜10点到凌晨2点是树洞留言的高峰期,在男女比例上大约是1:3。

    The ai program automatically divides the captured messages into 10 levels, with 10 being the highest level of urgency, meaning a suicide is in progress, followed by 9, meaning a clearly planned suicide attempt.

    人工智能程序会自动把这些抓取到的留言划分为十个级别,根据紧急程度,十级为最高级,意味着自杀正在实施,随后的九级则意味着有明确计划的自杀企图。

    Li hong, a beijing-based psychological consultant, said the tree hole rescue has taken up more than half of her life. She has rescued nearly 30 people.

    北京的心理咨询师李虹说,树洞救援占用了她生活中的大半时间。她目前已救助近30人。

    In such cases, Mr. Huang said, volunteers try to call the police directly or his family or friends. However, if it is below level 6, which means publishing some world-weary words, the volunteers will not take direct action.

    黄智生说,在这种情况下,志愿者们会想办法直接报警,或打电话给他的家人或朋友。而如果是六级以下,即发表一些厌世性的文字,志愿者们一般不会直接采取行动。

    "At the highest level, life is at stake. Life is above all else. But if it's not that urgent, we won't continue to search for information or take action to protect privacy, "Mr. Huang said.

    “最高级的话,意味着生命危在旦夕,生命是高于一切的。但如果没有那么紧急,出于保护隐私,我们不会继续搜当事人的信息或采取行动,”黄智生说。

    How to strike a balance between suicide intervention and social media privacy protection has been a controversial topic.

    如何在干预自杀和社交媒体的隐私保护之间寻找平衡,一直是一个争议性的话题。

    The Samaritans, a British voluntary agency, launched a service called Samaritans Radar on Twitter in 2014. Once users post negative words, the system sends emails to their friends. The program was shut down nine days after it went live, sparking a huge privacy controversy.

    2014年,英国志愿机构撒玛利亚会(Samaritans)在推特(Twitter)上曾推出名为撒玛利亚雷达(Samaritans Radar)的服务。一旦用户发布了一些负面情绪的词语,系统就会向他们的好友发送邮件。该程序上线后引发巨大的隐私争议,在9天后便被关闭。

    depression

    抑郁症

    Li hong told the BBC that financial problems, such as lack of Internet loans, were the main reason boys wanted to commit suicide, while girls were "trapped in love". But behind these direct factors, quite a few people share a common trait -- varying degrees of depression.

    李虹对BBC说,因为欠网贷等经济问题是男生想要自杀的主要原因,而女生则主要是“为情所困”。不过在这些直接因素背后,相当多的人都有着一个共同特点--患有不同程度的抑郁症。

    According to the world health organization (WHO), as of 2017, more than 320 million people worldwide suffered from depression, including more than 54 million people in China, equivalent to four out of 100 people suffering from depression.

    据世界卫生组织(WHO)的统计,截至2017年,全球有逾3.2亿人罹患抑郁症,其中中国有超过5400万患者,相当于100人里就有4个抑郁症患者。

    Mr. Huang's program automatically retrieves keywords on the microblogging platform, ranks them and generates a suicide alert.

    黄智生的程序可以自动检索微博平台的关键词,进行分级后生成自杀警报。

    However, depression is not a "big problem" in China's rural areas or in the minds of many older generations.

    然而,在中国的农村地区或很多年长一代人心中,抑郁症并不是什么“大问题”。

    "I knew I had depression when I was in high school, but my mother told me it was absolutely impossible, don't think about it," li told the BBC.

    “我上高中时就知道我有抑郁症了,但我的妈妈就和我说,绝对不可能,你不要乱想,”李凡对BBC说。

    It is this neglect that makes some people with depression suffer more and even die.

    正是这种忽视让一些抑郁症患者更加煎熬,甚至走向死亡。

    More than half of China's 250, 000 or so suicides each year are depression, and one every 20 seconds, the state-run science and technology daily reported.

    中国官方媒体《科技日报》报道说,中国每年约25万的自杀人群中一半以上是抑郁症患者,几乎每20秒就有一人因抑郁症自杀。

    Huang zhisheng's robot once found a post on the Internet: "I will visit mount wuyi during the New Year, and I will jump off the building after the New Year." it came from a female student. According to the message, rescuers searched for the girl's mother, but she said: "my daughter was talking and laughing just now. Why do you think she wants to die?"

    黄智生的机器人曾在网上搜到一条帖子:“跨年时我去武夷山去游览,新年回来我就跳楼”,它来自一名女生。根据这条信息,救援队员辗转找到女生的妈妈,但她表示:“我女儿刚才还有说有笑的,你凭什么说她要寻死?”

    Rescue workers showed the mother a diagnosis of her daughter's major depression, but she still ignored it. Until that day, the daughter was ready to jump from the building, was rescued by the police.

    救援队员给母亲看了一张女儿的重度抑郁诊断报告,但她依旧没有重视。直到当天,女儿准备跳楼时,才被警方救下。

    Depression accounts for more than half of the estimated 250,000 suicides in China each year, with one every 20 seconds.

    中国每年约25万的自杀人群中一半以上是抑郁症患者,几乎每20秒就有一人因抑郁症自杀。

    company

    陪伴

    More and more people are joining the rescue team, but huang said it is still a drop in the ocean for the huge number of people who want to commit suicide online.

    目前,正有越来越多的人加入树洞救援队,但黄智生表示,这对于网上庞大的想寻短见的群体来说,仍然杯水车薪。

    "Because microblogs limit the frequency of grabs, we are currently able to detect more than 3,000 objects per day. But even then, we can only save one or two a day on average, and only the most urgent, "he said.

    “因为微博会限制抓取的频率,我们目前每天能侦测到的范围大概是3000多条。但即使这样,我们平均一天也只能救1-2个,只能挑最紧急的去救,”他说。

    Another, bigger problem for rescuers is the company of the person they bring back.

    救援队员需要面临的另一个更大的问题,是把人救回来之后的陪伴。

    "A big part of my life right now is occupied by these tree hole babies. Sometimes it's exhausting, "said li hong. She still has a long chat with the eight rescued. "When they leave me messages about their confusion, I usually immediately respond," she said.

    “我现在生活中的一大部分时间都被这些树洞宝宝(指被救援者)占据了。有时很疲惫,”李虹说。她目前仍和8位被救援者保持着长期聊天关系。“他们给我留言,说自己的困惑,我一般看到后都会马上回,”她说。

    In addition to online companionship, li said some of the team members are also looking for ways to help rescue victims solve practical difficulties. For example, an ai scholar once helped a social phobia sufferer find a job tagging data.

    除了线上陪伴,李虹表示,一些队员还想办法帮助被救援者解决现实困难。例如,曾有人工智能学者帮一名社交恐惧症患者找到一份数据标注工作。

    Although there are more than 600 volunteers so far, they are still a drop in the bucket compared to the huge number of suicides, huang said.

    黄智生说,尽管目前已有600多名志愿者,但相比于庞大的自杀人群仍然杯水车薪。

    But for those who have not completely untangled their hearts, they may commit suicide again. For example, tao yue mentioned above.

    但对于一些没有彻底解开心结的被救援者,他们有可能再次自杀。例如,前文提及的陶悦。

    After she was rescued, tao yue was "looking better and better every day" and was even ready to go back to school, peng said. But her life came to a screeching halt one weekend when she swallowed pills and killed herself.

    彭玲说,陶悦被救回来后,状态“看起来一天比一天好”,甚至准备回校读书。但就在一个周末,她突然吞药自尽,生命戛然而止。

    "I still don't know why, she was still talking to me on Friday about her new WeChat profile picture," peng ling said. "The sudden departure of someone who had been with you for so long was a big shock."

    “我到现在也不知道原因,她周五还在和我聊她微信的新头像,”彭玲说。“陪了这么长时间的人突然走了,是一种很大的冲击。”

    Li fan, who was also rescued, has now found a job as a hotel receptionist. "I like it because I can meet different people," he said.

    同样被救援的李凡,如今找到了一家酒店前台的工作。“我喜欢这份工作,因为可以和不同人打交道,”他说。

    Despite their efforts, he says, most of the time they are still only able to solve the immediate problem. He believes that his efforts and the understanding of his relatives are more important.

    他表示,虽然救援队员努力了,但大多时候仍只能解一时之急。他认为,自己的努力和亲人的理解更加重要。

    "As lu xun said, human beings have many joys and sorrows that are not related to each other, and we need to get out of them by ourselves," he said.

    “就像鲁迅说的,人类的悲欢很多是并不相通的,还是要靠自己走出来,”他说。

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