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中国研究称空气污染与流产风险显著相关

    Beijing -- Chinese researchers have found a significant correlation between air pollution and the risk of miscarriage, according to a new scientific paper published on Monday.

    北京——根据周一发表的一篇新的科学论文,中国研究人员发现,空气污染和流产风险之间存在显著的相关性。

    While air pollution has been linked to increased risks of respiratory disease, stroke and heart attack, the new findings could add urgency to Beijing's efforts to control the problem. Air pollution has long plagued Chinese cities. Faced with a rapidly aging population, the government has been trying to raise the nation's fertility rate, which fell last year to its lowest level since 1949.

    尽管空气污染与呼吸道疾病、中风和心脏病发作的风险增大有关,新的发现可能会使北京方面控制这个问题的努力更加紧迫。长期以来,空气污染一直困扰着中国城市。面对人口的快速老龄化,政府一直在设法提高国民的生育率,去年生育率降到了1949年以来的最低水平。

    In a study published in the journal Nature Sustainability, scientists from five Chinese universities examined the rate of "overdue abortions" in the first trimester, which can be as high as 15 percent. Overdue abortion, also known as missing or delayed abortion, refers to the fetus has died but no signs of abortion, leading to parents mistakenly think that pregnancy progress is normal.

    在一项发表在《自然·可持续发展》(Nature Sustainability)期刊上的研究中,来自中国5所高校的科学家调查了妊娠头三个月的“过期流产”比率,这一比例有可能高达15%。过期流产又称稽留或延迟流产,是指胎儿已经死亡但没有流产体征的情况,导致父母误以为怀孕进展正常。

    Zhang liqiang, a professor at Beijing normal university and lead author of the study, said such abortions are "particularly painful" for expectant parents, who often find out days or weeks later. He added that such abortions are not well studied, which is partly why researchers are concerned.

    北京师范大学教授、这篇研究论文的第一作者张立强表示,这类流产对于准父母“尤为痛苦”,他们往往数日或数周后才发现。他还表示,这类流产没有得到充分研究,这也是研究人员予以关注的部分原因所在。

    The study used clinical records of 255,668 pregnant women in Beijing from 2009 to 2017 to assess their exposure to air pollution from industry, homes, cars and trucks at home and at work. The researchers looked at four types of pollutants: deadly fine particulate matter known as PM2.5, sulfur dioxide, ozone and carbon monoxide. Pollution levels were calculated based on historical data collected by a network of air monitoring systems around Beijing. China's capital city is known for its grey smog.

    该研究利用2009年至2017年北京255668名孕妇的临床记录,评估了她们在家庭和工作中暴露于来自工业、家庭、汽车和卡车的空气污染的情况。研究人员查看了四类污染物:被称为PM2.5的致命细颗粒物、二氧化硫、臭氧和一氧化碳。污染物的水平根据北京周边空气监测系统网络收集的历史数据计算。中国这座首都城市以灰蒙蒙的雾霾天闻名。

    Of the women in the study, 17,497, or 6.8 percent, experienced an overdue abortion in the first trimester. Taking into account differences in age, occupation and temperature, the researchers found that "maternal exposure to each air pollutant was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage in all populations."

    在研究所涵盖的女性中,妊娠头三个月经历过期流产的有17497人,占6.8%。考虑到年龄、职业和气温上的差异,研究人员发现,“在所有人群中,孕妇接触每种空气污染物都与流产风险相关。”

    Zhang liqiang, lead author of the study, said more research is needed to determine the exact link between different pollutants and the risk of overdue abortions. In the paper, funded by three Chinese government-backed research foundations, the authors acknowledge that data limitations make it difficult to account for other possible factors, such as indoor air pollution levels from stoves, building materials and tobacco smoke.

    该研究的第一作者张立强表示,还需要更多研究确定不同污染物与过期流产风险之间的确切联系。这篇论文得到了三个中国政府支持的研究基金会的资助,作者们在论文中坦承,由于数据的限制,很难考虑到其他可能的影响因素,比如炉具、建筑材料和烟草烟雾造成的室内空气污染水平。

    Even so, outside experts agree that the findings add to growing evidence that air pollution negatively impacts the health of pregnant women and their fetuses.

    即便如此,外界专家一致认为,越来越多的证据表明,空气污染对孕妇及其胎儿的健康产生了负面影响,而上述发现为这一观点提供了佐证。

    There is a lot of evidence that air pollution is associated with pregnancy outcomes in general, especially premature birth and the risk of low birth weight, said Tom Clemens, a lecturer at the university of Edinburgh who has studied the topic but was not involved in the study. "This is one of the first studies to link particulate pollution to pregnancy outcomes, and it's important in that sense."

    “有大量证据表明,空气污染与怀孕结果总体上存在关联,尤其是早产和婴儿出生体重低的风险,”爱丁堡大学讲师汤姆·克莱门斯(Tom Clemens)说,他研究过这一课题,但未参加这项研究。“这是首批将颗粒污染与怀孕结果联系起来的研究之一,从这个意义上讲,它很重要。”

    Health concerns about air pollution have risen rapidly in China over the past decade. A recent study showed a link between air pollution and cognitive decline. Other studies suggest that air pollution in China causes as many as one million premature deaths each year.

    过去10年来,中国对空气污染的健康担忧迅速加剧。近期一项研究表明,空气污染与认知能力下降之间存在联系。另一些研究表明,中国的空气污染每年导致多达100万人过早死亡。

    This anxiety is mainly focused on children. Chai jing, a former journalist for China's state-run news media, has said that complications during pregnancy caused her to make a documentary about China's devastating air pollution. The documentary, titled "under the dome," went viral soon after it was released in 2015, and was suddenly ordered off the Internet by communist party censors.

    这种焦虑主要集中在儿童身上。前中国官方新闻媒体记者柴静曾表示,她之所以会去拍摄一部关于中国毁灭性的空气污染的纪录片,就是因为怀孕期间出现并发症。2015年面世后,这部名为《穹顶之下》的纪录片很快在网上疯传,后被中共审查机关突然下令从网络平台下架。

    Public concern about air pollution -- and its implicit threat to broader social stability -- has prompted government officials to try to address the problem. These efforts, including limiting the construction of coal-fired power plants and limiting the number of cars on the roads, have been largely successful. Beijing is on track to drop out of the world's 200 most polluted cities this year, according to a report released last month by AirVisual, the research arm of Swiss company IQAir.

    公众对空气污染的担忧——及其对更广泛的社会稳定的隐性威胁——促使政府官员设法解决这一问题。这些努力,包括限制燃煤电厂的建设和限制道路上的汽车数量,在很大程度上取得了成功。瑞士公司IQAir的研究部门AirVisual上月发布的一份报告称,北京今年有望退出世界上污染最严重的200个城市之列。

    But problems remain. Earlier this month, a thin layer of smog set the backdrop for a major celebration in Beijing marking the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, despite the government's best efforts to control pollution. Footage of the parade showed Chinese military aircraft trailing colorful plumes of smoke through a polluted sky.

    但问题依然存在。本月早些时候,北京纪念中华人民共和国成立70周年的重要庆典上,背景是薄薄的灰霾,尽管政府已尽最大努力控制污染。阅兵画面显示,中国军机在污浊的天空中拖着五颜六色的烟雾。

    In the nature sustainable development paper, the researchers say the risk of an overdue abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy has decreased since 2013 as air pollution concentrations have declined -- further evidence of the link, they say.

    研究人员在《自然·可持续发展》这篇论文中表示,自2013以来,随着空气污染浓度的下降,妊娠头三个月发生过期流产的风险有所下降——他们称这进一步证明了两者之间的联系。

    At the end of the paper, they put the issue in the context of another official priority: China's declining birth rate. Worried about the possibility of a shrinking workforce, the government has encouraged women to have more children in recent years, partly by relaxing the one-child policy. But so far, these efforts have done little to change that trend.

    在论文的最后,他们把这个问题置于另一个官方优先事项的背景下:中国不断下降的出生率。由于担心劳动力萎缩的可能性,政府近年来在一定程度上通过放宽独生子女政策限制,鼓励女性多生孩子。但到目前为止,这些努力并没有给这一趋势带来多少改变。

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