快捷搜索: 诚信  善良  中国  纽约时报  自信  诚实 

改善健康也许很简单:每天少吃300卡

    Scientists have long known of a fairly reliable way to extend the lives of rodents and other lab animals: cutting the number of calories they eat by 10 to 40 percent.

    科学家们早就知道一种相当可靠的方式,能够延长啮齿类及其他实验室动物的寿命:把他们摄入的卡路里数量减少10%至40%。

    The strategy, known as calorie restriction, has been shown to extend the lives of various organisms and reduce their chances of developing cancer and other age-related diseases. Whether it can do the same for humans is debatable. But an intriguing new study suggests that long-term calorie restriction in young adults can have an impact on their health.

    这种被称为卡路里限制的策略已被证实可延长各种生物的寿命,并降低它们患癌症及其他年龄相关疾病的几率。它是否能对人类起到同样的作用尚无定论。但一项饶有趣味的新研究表明,长期限制青壮年人的卡路里摄入可对他们的健康产生影响。

    In the new study, funded by the National Institutes of Health and published this month in the journal Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, researchers looked at a group of 143 healthy men and women between the ages of 21 and 50. They followed instructions to restrict calories for two years. They could eat what they wanted if they reduced the amount of food they ate, with the goal of reducing the number of calories they ate by 25 percent.

    这项新研究由美国国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health,简称NIH)出资并发表在本月的《柳叶刀糖尿病与内分泌学》(Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology)期刊上,其中研究人员对一群年龄介乎21岁至50岁的143名健康男性和女性进行了观察。他们按照指示,进行了为期两年的卡路里摄入限制。他们可以食用自己想要的食物,条件是减少摄入食物总量,目标是使他们摄入的热量减少25%。

    A lot of people don't reach that goal. On average, dieters were able to cut their total calories by about 12 percent, or roughly 300 calories a day -- the equivalent of a large bagel, a few chocolate chip cookies or a small cup of starbucks mocha frappuccino. But many in this group had improved cardiovascular and metabolic health, even though they were already in the normal range.

    很多人没达到这一目标。平均而言,节食者得以将总热量削减了约12%,大致相当于每天300卡路里,这是一个大贝果、几块巧克力曲奇或一小杯星巴克摩卡星冰乐的热量。但这组人中,很多人的心血管和新陈代谢健康指标都得到了改善,尽管他们原本已在正常范围内。

    They lost weight and body fat. Their cholesterol levels improved, their blood pressure dropped slightly, their blood sugar control improved and their inflammation decreased. Meanwhile, the 75 healthy people in the control group who were not on calorie restriction showed no improvement in these measures.

    他们的体重和体脂均有下降。他们的胆固醇水平有所改善,血压略有下降,血糖控制情况好转,炎症发作也减少。与此同时,未实行卡路里限制的75名对照组健康人士的这些指标没有改善。

    The calorie-restricted group benefited in part from significant weight loss, an average of 16 pounds over the two-year study period. But their metabolic health improved more than expected, suggesting that caloric restriction may have some unique biological effect on the body's disease pathways, said William Kraus, the study's lead author and a professor of medicine and cardiology at duke university.

    卡路里限制组的受益部分源于他们的体重大幅降低,在研究进行的两年期间平均减少了16磅。但他们代谢健康状况的改善程度大于减重本身的预期,这表明热量限制可能对身体的疾病通道有某种独特的生物作用,该研究第一作者、杜克大学医学和心脏病学教授威廉·克劳斯(William Kraus)表示。

    We were not surprised by the change, he said. "But the magnitude of the change is really striking. "In a sick population, no combination of five drugs can produce that much improvement."<-->纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com<-->

    “有变化我们并不意外,”他说。“但变化的幅度着实惊人。在疾病人群中,任何的五种药物组合无法产生这么大的改善。”

    Calorie restriction may be a useful way to improve Health and lose weight, but it is unclear whether the changes revealed by the new study will ultimately translate into longer lives and fewer chronic diseases, said Frank Hu, chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, who was not involved in the study.

    热量限制或许是改善健康和减轻体重的有用途径,但尚不清楚这项新研究所揭示的变化最终能否转化为寿命延长和慢性病的减少,未参与该研究的哈佛大学陈曾熙公共卫生学院(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)营养学系主任胡炳长(Frank Hu)称。

    He says the modest improvements experienced by participants must be sustained over time to produce long-term benefits. But he questioned whether caloric restriction was practical for most people, given that "we live in a fat-inducing environment where there are a lot of energy-dense but nutrient-poor foods that are cheap, easy to get and sell like hot cakes."

    他表示,参与者所经历的适度改善必须长时间保持,方能产生长期的益处。但鉴于“我们生活在一个致胖环境中,有大量能量密集但缺乏营养的食物,它们廉价、容易获得还很热销”,热量限制对于大多数人是否实际,他表示质疑。

    But he added that some people may find caloric restriction feasible if they combine it with popular dietary strategies like the Mediterranean diet, intermittent fasting or cutting back on carbohydrates.

    不过他也表示,一些人可能会发现热量限制是可行的,如果他们把它和地中海饮食、间歇性禁食或减少碳水化合物摄入这类热门饮食策略结合起来的话。

    The new study confirms how difficult it is to limit calories. Study participants underwent intensive training programs to learn how to cook low-calorie meals, participated in group discussions and regularly consulted nutrition experts. But they still don't meet half of their 25% calorie reduction target. As anyone who has ever dieted knows, maintaining weight loss over the long term is the hardest part.

    这项新研究证实限制卡路里何其困难。研究参与者接受了密集的培训项目,从中学习如何烹制低卡路里餐食,参加了小组讨论并定期向营养专家咨询。但他们仍然连25%的热量削减目标的一半都达不到。而任何有过节食经验的人都知道,长期保持减重效果是最难的。

    But the new research is groundbreaking in several ways. The study, funded entirely by the NIH and costing $55 million, was called "Calerie" -- Comprehensive Assessment of long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy. This is the first major clinical trial to examine the effects of calorie restriction in young adults of normal weight or slightly overweight but not obese. The trial was designed to see if caloric restriction could affect healthy aging and disease status.

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

    但新研究在多个方面都有开创性。研究完全由NIH资助,耗资5500万美元,全名为“Calerie”——降低能量摄入长期效应综合评估(Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy)。这是以体重正常或轻微超重但不肥胖的青壮年为对象,检验卡路里摄入限制影响的首例主要临床试验。试验旨在查看热量限制能否影响健康老龄化进程和疾病状况。

    While they set strict calorie targets, they also gave the subjects some flexibility to eat what they wanted. They found that the subjects' protein intake did not change, but they ate significantly less fat and carbohydrates. The subjects also consumed more micronutrients such as vitamins A, K and magnesium, indicating A significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, said Susan b. Roberts, one of the study's authors and A senior scientist at Tufts University's USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging.

    虽然他们设定的卡路里目标非常严格,但也给了受试者一些灵活性,让他们可以吃自己想吃的食物。他们发现,研究对象的蛋白质摄入量并没有改变,但他们摄入的脂肪和碳水化合物明显减少。研究报告作者之一、塔夫茨大学USDA人类衰老营养研究中心(Tufts University U.S.D.A. Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging)资深科学家苏珊·B·罗伯茨(Susan B. Roberts)说,受试者还摄入了维生素A、K和镁等更多微量元素,表明水果和蔬菜的摄入量有了大幅增加。

    They eat healthier, she said. "Things like nuts, whole grains, green vegetables and beans."

    “他们吃得更健康,”她说。“比如坚果、全谷物、绿色蔬菜和豆类之类东西。”

    Dieting can be an unpleasant experience for many people. But the researchers found that, to the surprise of many subjects, caloric restriction was not intolerable. Although more people dropped out of the diet group than the control group, overall, the study had a high retention rate. The researchers looked at measures of quality of life and found that the calorie-restricted group slept better, had more energy and were in better mood. There was also no significant increase in hunger or food cravings compared to the control group, Roberts said.

    对许多人来说,节食可能是一种不愉快的经历。但研究人员发现,对许多受试者来说,令他们惊讶的是,热量限制不是无法忍受的。虽然退出节食组的人比对照组多,但总的来说,这项研究的受试者保留率很高。研究人员研究了生活质量的衡量标准,发现限制热量摄入的那组人睡眠更好、精力更充沛、情绪也更好。罗伯茨说,与对照组相比,他们的饥饿感和对食物的渴望也没有明显增加。

    We didn't measure anything that said they were in bad shape, she said.

    “我们没有测量到任何表明他们情况不好的东西,”她说。

    One question the study doesn't answer is whether caloric restriction extends human life as it does in other animals. To test this, researchers can only keep people on such diets and keep following them for decades.

    这项研究无法回答的一个问题是,热量限制是否能像延长其他动物寿命一样延长人类的寿命。要想测试这一点,研究人员只能让人们保持这样的饮食,并且继续跟踪他们几十年。

    But in the end, caloric restriction did have a beneficial effect on a range of risk factors for diabetes and heart disease. Both diseases cause the death and disability of millions of americans, especially older people.

    但最终,热量限制确实对糖尿病和心脏病的一系列风险因素产生了有益影响。这两种疾病导致数以百万计美国人的死亡和残疾,尤其是年龄较长者。

    Duke's krauss said he hopes to study the participants again in 10 years to see if the benefits of caloric restriction can be sustained. This phenomenon, known as the legacy effect, exists in high-intensity exercise training and other health interventions. But for now, he said, the public lesson from the experiment is that people can benefit from cutting 300 calories from their daily diet.

    杜克大学的克劳斯说,他希望在10年内再次对参与者进行研究,看看热量限制实验的好处是否能够持续下去。这种现象被称为遗留效应,在高强度运动训练和其他健康干预措施中都存在。但就目前而言,他说,该实验对公众的启示是,从每天的饮食中减少300卡路里的热量可以令人们获益。

    It's not hard to reach this caloric restriction, he said. "It's basically the size of an after-dinner snack."

    “达到这个热量限制并不难,”他说。“基本上就是一顿餐后小吃的量。”

网站部分信息来源于自互联网和网友上传,只为方便大家查询浏览,请自行核对信息的真实情况,本站将不承担任何责任!

您可以还会对下面的文章感兴趣:

  • 36小时环游新加坡
  • 辞掉工作、花了57天,他们找回了走失的狗
  • 中国颁布新规,限制未成年人玩游戏
  • 5个要点,迅速了解特朗普弹劾调查最新关键证词
  • 改善健康也许很简单:每天少吃300卡
  • 最新评论

    留言与评论(共有 条评论)
       
    验证码: