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法国推进“博物馆外交”,蓬皮杜中心上海分馆开幕

  Shanghai -- when the Pompidou Center first proposed the idea of a branch in China more than a decade ago, skeptics in France were debating whether the country's cherished national museum should play a role in promoting French political and business interests abroad.

  上海——十多年前蓬皮杜中心(Pompidou Center)首次提出在中国设立分馆的想法时,法国国内持怀疑态度的人还在激烈争论,该国所珍视的国家博物馆,是否应该在促进法国的海外政治和商业利益方面发挥作用。

  But with the opening of the Louvre Abu Dhabi and the Pompidou Malaga in recent years, France's strategy of using museum diplomacy to raise its profile abroad is well under way. The opening of a branch of the prestigious Paris museum of modern and contemporary art in China on Tuesday marks a bold step forward in that effort. The French President Emmanuel Macron attended the opening ceremony.

  但随着近年来阿布扎比卢浮宫(Louvre Abu Dhabi)和马拉加蓬皮杜艺术中心(Pompidou Málaga)的开放,法国利用“博物馆外交”在海外提升形象的战略正在顺利推进。周二,这座著名的巴黎现当代艺术博物馆在中国设立分馆,标志着该努力向前迈出了大胆的一步。法国总统埃马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)出席了开馆仪式。

  The new building, located along the huangpu river on Shanghai's Museum Mile, is in partnership with the west bund group, a state-owned Chinese real estate developer. The state-owned company has reportedly invested more than $3 billion in recent years with the local government to turn what was once an industrial neighborhood into a seven-mile waterfront cultural corridor.

  新馆位于黄浦江边,这里是上海的博物馆大道(Museum Mile,纽约一条著名博物馆云集的大道——译注),它的合作方是中国国有房地产开发商西岸集团。据报道,这家国企近年来与当地政府一起投资了30多亿美元,意在将曾经的工业街区变成7英里长的滨水文化走廊。

  The new pavilion, called the pompidou x west bund project, is located in the newly completed west bund art museum. Designed by British architect David Chipperfield, the pavilion has more than 27,000 square feet of exhibition space. Clad in emerald glass, the gallery consists of three exhibition halls connected by an atrium.

  这个名为“蓬皮杜x西岸项目”的新馆,位于新落成的西岸美术馆内。该馆由英国建筑师戴维·奇普菲尔德(David Chipperfield)设计,展览空间超过2.7万平方英尺。美术馆的外表覆以翡翠般的玻璃,由三个展厅组成,通过一个中庭相连。

  Pompidou described the project as the "largest cultural exchange project ever" between France and China. Compared with the Louvre ABU dhabi, for which the French and uae governments have signed a 30-year agreement, it is not huge.

  蓬皮杜方面称该项目是法中两国“有史以来最大的文化交流项目”。相较于阿布扎比卢浮宫(法国和阿联酋政府为此签署了一份30年协议),它的规模并不算大。

  The Shanghai project is a five-year contract, similar to the opening in 2015 of the pompidou center in malaga, which draws on its extensive collection to lend out exhibitions designed specifically for the Chinese branch, as well as educational programs and vocational training for Chinese museum professionals. After five years, the two sides can choose to end or extend the partnership.

  上海项目是一个为期五年的合同,与2015年开放的马拉加蓬皮杜艺术中心差不多,蓬皮杜中心利用丰富的馆藏出借给专门为中国分馆策划的展览,同时这里也为中国的美术馆专业人士提供教育项目和职业培训。五年后,双方可以选择结束或延长合作关系。

  Serge Lasvignes, pompidou's director, said in a July interview that the west bank group would cover the cost of the physical space and pay pompidou about 2.75 million euros a year, not including transportation and insurance, according to Le Point.

  据法国《观点》周刊(Le Point)报道,蓬皮杜馆长塞尔日·拉维涅(Serge Lasvignes)在7月接受采访时称,西岸集团一方则将负担实体空间的成本,并且每年向蓬皮杜支付约275万欧元,这不包括交通费和保险费。

  But pompidou insists the main motivation behind the Shanghai project is to promote dialogue, not profit.

  但蓬皮杜方面坚称,上海项目背后的主要动机是促进对话,而不是牟利。

  If we really want to make money, it would be better to sell one exhibit after another to the major international museums, Mr. Lavigne said in an interview on Monday at the west bank gallery.

  “如果我们真的想赚钱,更好的办法是把展览一个接一个地卖给主要的国际博物馆,”拉维涅周一在西岸美术馆接受采访时说。<-->纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com<-->

  But in China, even the noble mission of promoting dialogue faces challenges. The opening of the pompidou Shanghai branch comes at a time of uncertainty in relations between the west and China, and the art world will not be immune to political influence. Censorship and self-censorship are ubiquitous in China's creative industries, and even private art galleries and galleries often have to submit project and exhibition details to get approval from local authorities.

  但在中国,即使是促进对话的崇高使命,也面临着挑战。蓬皮杜上海分馆的开幕恰逢西方与中国关系的不确定时期,而且艺术界也不会免受政治的影响。在中国的创意行业,审查和自我审查无处不在,连私立美术馆和画廊往往也必须提交项目和展览详情,以获得地方当局批准。

  The exhibition features works by Pablo Picasso's "The Guitar Player" and Vasily Kandinsky's "gelb-rot-blau," as well as works by Chinese artists zhang huan and zhao wuji. Although largely educational in nature, local officials demanded the removal of several pieces from the "shape of time" before the project began, and Mr. Lavine said there were "a variety of reasons."

  这次展览展出了一些名作,如巴勃罗·毕加索(Pablo Picasso)的《吉他手》(The Guitar Player)和瓦西里·康定斯基(Vasily Kandinsky)的《黄-红-蓝》(Gelb-Rot-Blau),还有中国艺术家张洹和赵无极的作品。虽然大体上是教育性质,但在项目开展前,当地官员仍要求换下“时间的形状”中的几件作品,拉维涅称其中有“各种各样”的理由。

  We discussed it, explained it, and for the most part they agreed to keep it, Mr. Lavigne said. He said fewer than five pieces in the show were eventually replaced for reasons "beyond politics," though he declined to elaborate.

  “我们讨论、解释,大部分情况下他们同意保留作品,”拉维涅说。他说展览中最终有不到五件作品被换掉,原因“不仅仅是政治上的”,不过他拒绝透露详情。

  I really think -- maybe naively -- that as long as you can make something interesting, as long as you can make something that doesn't betray you, it's better to be there than not to be there at all, he said.

  “我真的认为——或许有些天真——只要你能做出有趣的东西,只要你能做出不背叛自己的东西,在场总比完全不在场要好,”他说。

  Mr. Lavigne added that, given the limited scope of the partnership, the museum would evaluate the situation as the project progressed.

  拉维涅还说,鉴于合作关系的范围有限,博物馆将随着项目的进展对情况进行评估。

  The question for me is, 'are the rules being applied changing the nature of the project? ' ravine said. "If not, let's move on. If so, we'll stop."

  “对我而言问题在于,‘在应用的规则是否在改变项目的性质?’”拉维涅说。“如果没有,我们继续。如果有,我们就停下。”

  Pompidou did not want to see the Shanghai partnership break down over minor censorship issues, mainly because the project had been nearly 20 years in the making. About a decade ago, plans for the branch were on the verge of materialized, but the deal fell apart at the last minute.

  蓬皮杜不希望看到上海的合作关系因轻微的审查问题而破裂,一个主要原因是项目已筹备将近20年。大约10年前,开设分馆的计划眼看就要实现,但交易却在最后一刻告吹。

  By 2015, when lavine came to pompidou and resumed negotiations with Chinese officials, China was already playing a bigger role in the art world. Driven by a growing middle class, China became the world's third-largest art market last year, according to the annual art Basel fair and the ubs global art market report. China also has a growing network of art lovers and professionals, including curators, collectors and artists, from well-known figures like ai weiwei to rising artists like cao fei, who recently held a solo show in the pompidou in Paris.

  到2015年,拉维涅来到蓬皮杜,与中国官员重启谈判时,中国已在艺术界发挥着更重大的作用。根据一年一度的巴塞尔艺术展与瑞银集团环球艺术市场报告,在不断扩大的中产阶级的带动下,中国去年成为世界第三大艺术市场。中国还拥有一个包括策展人、收藏家和艺术家在内的不断壮大的艺术爱好者和专业人士网络,其中有艾未未这样的知名人物,也有曹斐这样正在崛起的艺术家,后者不久前在巴黎蓬皮杜举办了个展。

  In the process of site selection on the pompidou side, the west bank became a natural choice. The art district, not far from the former French concession, already has several new private museums, including the Yuz Museum and the dragon Museum, which was founded by a billionaire taxi driver and his wife.

  在蓬皮杜方面选址的过程中,西岸成为一个自然的选择。该艺术区距离前法租界不远,已经拥有几家新建的私立博物馆,包括余德耀美术馆(Yuz Museum)和龙美术馆,后者由一名出租车司机出身的亿万富翁和他的妻子共同创立。

  The deal received the highest level of official blessing when President Emmanuel macron visited China in January 2018 for a state visit and personally discussed it with Chinese President xi jinping. The project will open to the public on Friday.

  2018年1月马克龙总统前来中国进行国事访问,并亲自与中国国家主席习近平谈及此事,这项交易遂得到最高级别的官方祝福。项目将于周五对公众开放。

  Experts say China's motivation for the program can be partly explained by a desire to soften its international image, which has been tarnished by recent Revelations about its mass detention of muslims from the Uighur minority and what many see as China's increasingly assertive stance abroad.

  专家表示,中国设立该项目的动机可以部分解释为希望软化其国际形象,近来关于其大规模拘禁维吾尔少数民族穆斯林,以及在许多人看来是中国日益强硬的海外姿态的披露,使其形象受损。

  China is very ambitious, said jean-philippe Beja, a professor emeritus of Chinese political science at the National Center for Scientific Research in Paris. "On the one hand, it has become increasingly authoritarian and closed, and on the other, it wants to portray itself as a very modern, avant-garde country."

  “中国的雄心很大,”巴黎国家科学研究中心(National Center for Scientific Research)中国政治学荣休研究教授白夏(Jean-Philippe Béja)说。“一方面,它变得越来越专制和封闭,另一方面,它想把自己描绘成一个非常现代、前卫的国家。”

  On Monday morning, there was a flurry of activity at the west bank art gallery, where a small group of workers were working on the final details of the installation ahead of President macron's arrival. (as if to highlight the need for professionalism, only one Chinese gallery worker dozed off in the midst of the bustle, basking in the soft glow of a video artwork.)

  周一上午,西岸美术馆的现场一片忙乱,一小群工人正赶在马克龙总统到来之前进行装展的最后一些细节工作。(仿佛是为了凸显提升专业性的必要,在这一片繁忙景象中,唯独有一个中国的美术馆工人悠闲地打起了瞌睡,沐浴在一件录像艺术作品发出的柔和光芒中。)

  The opening of the museum may be one of the few happy moments for Mr. Macron in what is expected to be a difficult few days of talks with Chinese officials on trade and climate change. Sino-french relations have been further strained in recent months by France's decision to grant asylum to the Chinese wife of the former head of Interpol.

  对马克龙而言,同中国官员就贸易和气候变化进行为期几天的商谈预计会十分艰难,而博物馆的开幕,恐怕是其中不多的一个其乐融融的时刻。近几月来,由于法国决定对前国际刑警组织(Interpol)主席的中国妻子提供庇护,中法关系进一步紧张。

  For pompidou, Shanghai is just the beginning of what is bound to be a busy international agenda for years to come. Last year, the museum signed another five-year cooperation agreement with malaga's partners. A project is also under way in Brussels, and the museum is still in negotiations for branches in Seoul and the Czech republic, Mr. Lavine said.

  对蓬皮杜而言,上海只是未来几年注定繁忙的国际日程的开始。去年,该馆与马拉加的合作伙伴签署了另一份五年合作协议。拉维涅表示,布鲁塞尔的一个项目也在进行中,博物馆目前还正在就首尔和捷克共和国的分馆进行谈判。

  Bernard Blistene, director of the National Museum of Modern Art in the pompidou centre, rejected Suggestions that the team was building a global pompidou empire.

  蓬皮杜中心国家现代艺术博物馆(National Museum of Modern Art)馆长伯纳德·布利斯特内(Bernard Blistène)否认了这个团队正在建起一个全球蓬皮杜帝国的说法。

  It's about building something, testing something, trying something out, Mr. Blisterner said. "Otherwise you're stuck in your castle with your collection."

  “这是为了建造一些东西,检验一些东西,尝试一些东西,”布利斯特内说。“否则你只能和你的藏品待在你的大城堡里,一成不变。”

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