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没有雪崩,也没有狂风,为什么他们殒命珠峰?

  New Delhi – Ed Dohring is a doctor in Arizona, USA. His lifelong dream is to climb the highest peak in Everest. But when he reached the top a few days ago, he was shocked by the sight.

  新德里——埃德·多灵(Ed Dohring)是美国亚利桑那州的一名医生,他毕生的梦想就是登上珠穆朗玛的最高峰。但当他几天前登顶时,他被眼前的景象惊呆了。

  The climbers shoved each other for self-portraits. The flat part of the peak is estimated to be as large as two table tennis tables, but it is crowded with about 15 to 20 people. To get up, he had to huddle with a group of people who were also wearing thick coats and queued for hours on thousands of feet of icy and rocky ridges.

  登山者们为了自拍而互相推搡。峰顶平坦的部分据他估计只有两张乒乓球桌那么大,但上面挤了大约15到20个人。要想上去,他得跟一群同样穿着厚厚的外套的人挤在一起,在几千英尺高、冰封多石的山脊上排几个小时的队。

  He even had to circumvent the body of a woman who had just died.

  他甚至不得不绕过一个刚刚死去的女人的尸体。

  “It’s terrible,” he said by phone during a break in a hotel room in Kathmandu, Nepal. "It's like a zoo."

  “太可怕了,”他在尼泊尔加德满都的一个酒店房间里休息时通过电话说。“就像个动物园。”

  This is one of the most deadly mountaineering seasons in Mount Everest, with at least 10 deaths. At least some of them seem to be avoidable.

  这是珠穆朗玛峰最致命的登山季之一,至少有10人死亡。而其中至少一些看起来是可以避免的。

  The problem is not an avalanche, a blizzard or a gusty wind. Senior climbers and industry leaders believe that the overall reason is that there are too many people going up the mountain, specifically too many climbers are not experienced enough.

  问题并不是雪崩、暴风雪或者狂风。资深登山者和业界领袖认为,总体而言原因在于上山的人太多,具体来说则是太多登山者经验不足。

  The expedition company that emerged overnight received untrained climbers and they threatened everyone on the mountain. Some experienced climbers say that the Nepalese government does not reject the income of mountaineering, and the mountaineering permit issued exceeds the safety bearing capacity of Mount Everest.

  一夜之间冒出来的探险公司在接收未经训练的登山者,他们对山上的每一个人都构成了威胁。一些经验丰富的登山者说,尼泊尔政府对登山的收入来者不拒,发放的登山许可证超出了珠穆朗玛峰的安全承载力。

  In addition, Mount Everest has an unparalleled appeal to the growing number of people around the world. As one of the poorest countries in Asia and the location of most climbing routes, Nepal has long been plagued by regulations, mismanagement and corruption.

  此外,对世界各地越来越多寻刺激的人来说,珠穆朗玛峰具有无可比拟的吸引力。而作为亚洲最贫穷的国家之一和大多数攀登路线所在地,尼泊尔长期存在法规粗滥、管理不善和腐败等问题。

  The result is such a crowded, chaotic scene, as if the Lord of the Flies was staged at an altitude of 29,000 feet. At this height, even a delay of one or two hours is a matter of life.

  其结果就是这样一幅拥挤、混乱的景象,仿佛《蝇王》(Lord of the Flies)在海拔2.9万英尺的高山上演。在这个高度,哪怕一两个小时的延迟都可能性命攸关。

  In order to reach the summit, the climber unloads every pound of equipment that can be lost, and only carries it to the summit and returns to the compressed oxygen tank just enough. The climber said that at that height, you can't think clearly.

  为到达峰顶,攀登者卸下了所能减掉的每一磅设备,只随身携带到达峰顶再返回刚好够用的压缩氧气罐。登山者说,在那个高度,你没法清楚地思考。

  According to Sherpa and climbers, the cause of some fatal accidents this year was at about the last 1,000 feet. People were trapped in long queues and could not go up fast enough to replenish oxygen. Still others are in a state of health that is not suitable for Mount Everest. 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  据夏尔巴人和登山者表示,今年一些死亡事故的起因是在大约最后1000英尺处,人们被困在长队中,无法足够快速地上去再下来补充氧气。还有一些人则是健康状况本身就不适合登珠峰。

  Some climbers don't even know how to wear crampons, which are studs that add friction on the soles of the soles.

  一些攀登者甚至不知道如何穿冰爪,即套在鞋底增加冰上摩擦力的鞋钉。

  Nepal has no strict rules on who can climb Mount Everest, and senior climbers say it could be a disaster.

  尼泊尔对于谁可攀登珠峰没有严格规定,资深登山者称这可能会酿成大祸。

  It is necessary to qualify for the triathlon, said Alan Arnette, a famous Everest chronologist and mountaineering expert. “I don’t need to climb the highest mountain in the world? Don’t you think there is something wrong with it?”

  “参加铁人三项赛要符合条件,”著名的珠峰年代史家、登山专家艾伦·阿尼特(Alan Arnette)说。“攀登世界上最高的山峰却不需要?不觉得这里面有什么不对劲吗?”

  The last time 10 or more people died in Mount Everest was an avalanche in 2015.

  上一次10人或更多人在珠峰死亡是2015年发生雪崩时。

  In some respects, the chaos of Everest is intensifying.

  从某些方面看,珠峰的运转混乱是愈演愈烈的。

  Last year, senior climbers, insurance companies and news agencies revealed a wide range of scams. Guides, helicopter companies and medical institutions colluded to rescue millions of dollars from climbers who had only mild altitude sickness.

  去年,资深登山者、保险公司和新闻机构揭露了一场涉及广泛的骗局,导游、直升机公司和医疗机构串通一气,对只是有轻微高原反应的登山者进行转移救援,从中骗取数百万美元。

  The climber complained of thieves on the mountain and piles of rubbish. Earlier this year, government investigators revealed that there are a lot of problems with the life-saving oxygen systems used by many climbers. The climber said that the oxygen tank has been found to have problems such as air leaks, explosions or improper filling on the black market.

  登山者投诉在山上有窃贼,还有成堆的垃圾。今年早些时候,政府调查人员揭露称,许多登山者用的救生氧气系统存在大量问题。登山者称,已发现氧气罐存在漏气、爆炸或在黑市上不当充装等问题。

  But even if it has received complaints about security negligence, the Nepalese government has issued a record 381 licenses this year, which is part of the overall operation of Everest Commercialization. Climbers say the number of permits issued is rising steadily every year, and this year's congestion is more serious than ever.

  但即便已接到安全疏忽的投诉,尼泊尔政府今年发放的许可证仍达到了破记录的381份,这是珠峰商业化的整体行动的一部分。登山者称许可证签发数量每年都在稳步上升,今年的拥堵比以往任何时候都更严重。<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

  “This situation will not improve,” said guide Lukas Furtenbach, who recently shifted his team of climbers due to the overcrowding on the Nepalese side and the surge in the number of inexperienced climbers. On the Chinese side of Mount Everest.

  “这种情况不会改善的,”导游卢卡斯·富尔登巴赫(Lukas Furtenbach)说,由于尼泊尔一侧过度拥堵以及缺乏经验的登山者数量激增,他最近把自己带队的登山者转移到了珠峰的中国一侧。

  “The Nepalese government has many corruption problems,” he said. "They are how much they can fish."

  “尼泊尔政府存在很多腐败问题,”他说。“他们是能捞多少捞多少。”

  Nepalese officials denied any misconduct and said that the safety of Everest should be the responsibility of the travel agency.

  尼泊尔官员否认存在任何不当行为,他们表示珠峰的安全问题应由旅行社负责。

  Of course, the action of the summit depends on the weather. May is the best time to reach the summit in a year, and even during this time, visibility and wind are just a few days to try to climb.

  当然,登顶的行动取决于天气。五月是一年中登顶的最佳时节,而即使是这段时间里,能见度和风力适合尝试登顶的也只有那么几天。

  But senior climbers say one of the most serious problems of the year seems to be that there are especially many people trying to climb Mount Everest. There is no government traffic police on the mountain. When the mountaineering teams try to climb the last paragraph, they have to rely on the judgment of the mountaineering company.

  但资深登山者说,今年最严重的问题之一,似乎是同时试图攀登珠峰的人特别多。山上不存在政府的交通警察,各登山组何时尝试攀登最后一段,不得不取决于登山公司的判断。

  At this time, the climbers themselves are eager to complete their own adventures, whether they have experience or not, so that they see the danger increase, but they continue to move forward.

  此时登山者本身则无论有经验与否,都急于完成自己的这段探险,以致于眼见危险增加,却仍继续向前。

  A few decades ago, most of the climbers of Everest were experienced mountaineers who were willing to invest a lot of money. However, senior climbers said that in recent years, the low-cost street shops in the capital Kathmandu, even high-paying foreign companies that do not pay attention to safety, have entered the market and offered to provide summit services to almost anyone.

  几十年前,攀登珠峰者大都是经验丰富、愿投入大量资金的登山运动员。但资深的登山者称,近年来首都加德满都那些低成本运营的街边小店,甚至不重视安全性的高收费外国公司,都纷纷进入市场,主动向几乎任何人提供登顶服务。

  Sometimes there are extremely terrible conditions.

  有时候会出现极其可怕的状况。

  From the interviews of several climbers, it seems that as the pressure is getting closer and closer to the summit, some people will not be able to take care of the minimum.

  从几名登山者的采访来看,似乎随着离峰顶越来越近,压力陡增,一些人会顾不上起码的体面。

  Experienced Lebanese mountaineer Fatima Deryan recently climbed to the top of the mountain and found that the inexperienced climber began to fall in front of her. The temperature dropped to minus 30 degrees Celsius. The oxygen cylinder is also exhausted. About 150 people huddled together and squatted on the same safety cable.

  经验丰富的黎巴嫩登山运动员法蒂玛·德尔雅(Fatima Deryan)最近快登到山顶时,发现经验欠缺的登山者开始在她面前倒下。当时气温降到了零下30摄氏度。氧气瓶也在耗尽。约150人挤到一起,拴在同一条安全索带上。

  “A lot of people are panicked and start worrying about themselves – no one has to control those who fall,” Delja said.

  “很多人陷入惊慌,开始为自己担忧——没人要管那些倒下的人,”德尔雅说。

  “This is an ethical issue,” she said. "We all rely on oxygen. You know that if you help others, you will die."

  “这是个伦理问题,”她说。“我们都靠氧气撑着。你知道如果你帮别人,你就会丧命。”

  She said that she had proposed to help some sick people, but immediately realized that this was putting herself in danger and she continued to move to the top of the mountain, at a height of 29,029 feet. On the way down the mountain, she had to squeeze a path out of the crowd again.

  她说她提出过要帮一些生病的人,但随即意识到,这是在将自己置于险境,于是继续向山顶前行,当时的高度为29029英尺。下山途中,她不得不再次从人群中挤出一条路来。

  It’s terrible, she said.

  “太可怕了,”她说。

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