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校车政策为何成为美国民主党初选争议焦点

  In the Democratic presidential primaries debate at the end of June, the candidate, Harris, questioned his opponent, former Vice President Biden, in the 1970s and early 1980s against the "busing" position. Biden responded that what he opposed was not the school bus policy itself, but the mandatory promotion of the policy by the education department. The verbal confrontation between the two became one of the highlights of this debate, and it also sparked a discussion about whether the school bus policy broke the American education segregation system.

  六月底的民主党总统初选辩论中,参选人哈利斯向其对手、前副总统拜登在1970年代、1980年代初期反对“校车政策”(busing)的立场提出质疑。拜登则回应道,自己反对的并非校车政策本身,而是教育部门对该政策的强制推广。两人的言词交锋成为这场辩论的亮点之一,也引发了人们对于校车政策是否打破了美国教育隔离制度的讨论。

  What is the school bus policy? According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the “school bus policy”, also known as the “desegregation busing”, relies on the practice of carrying students to the local school district to mitigate the effects of apartheid policies. Although the US Supreme Court abolished the apartheid policy in the 1954 Brown v. Topeka Education Bureau case, in reality, students of different ethnicities were largely isolated because of the separation of their home and community locations. Come. The school bus policy thus became a major remedy, but it also became the biggest source of controversy in American education in the late 20th century.

  什么是校车政策?根据大英百科全书,“校车政策”又名“消除种族隔离的巴士”(desegregation busing),该政策通过将学生载送到当地学区内外的做法,来缓和种族隔离政策带来的影响。尽管美国最高法院在1954年布朗诉托皮卡教育局案中废止了种族隔离政策,但实际上,不同种族的学生仍因其住家和社区位置相互分离的原因,在很大的程度上被隔离开来。校车政策因而成为一种主要补救办法,但其却也成为20世纪后期美国教育中最大的争议来源。

  Why is Biden questioned because of the school bus policy? In 1974, the federal court in Delaware was about to decide to apply the school bus policy to the black public school in the state of Wilmington, the state's senator, Biden, who was provoked by the relevant speech, and then embarked on a school bus. The road to policy. The Times reported that "How does Joe Biden become a fighter of the Democratic Party against school bus? (How Joe Biden Became the Democrats' Anti-Busing Crusader) pointed out that Biden believes that he is a liberal Democrat and a dedicated civil rights defender, but he has become the most politically and ethnically in the United States because of his school bus policy. One of the topics of discrimination. The report said:

  拜登又为何会因校车政策遭到质疑?1974年,特拉华州的联邦法院即将裁定将校车政策用于该州城市威尔明顿的黑人公立学校,当时是该州参议员的拜登因相关言论引发风波,之后走上了反对校车政策的道路。时报报道《乔·拜登如何成为民主党反校车的斗士? 》(How Joe Biden Became the Democrats’ Anti-Busing Crusader)指出,拜登自认为是自由派民主党人及热忱的民权捍卫者,但他却因为校车政策、一头栽进了美国最具政治色彩和种族歧视的话题之一。报道称:

  “He became a leader of the anti-school sports movement led by the Democratic Party – a position that led him to ally with the apartheids in the South, to clashed with liberal Republicans, and to help change the situation in the Senate and even to his own party. Some leaders oppose the school bus policy as a tool to eliminate apartheid."

  “他因此成为了民主党领导的反校车运动斗士——这一立场使他与南方的种族隔离主义者结盟、与自由派共和党人发生冲突,并且帮助改变了参议院的局势,甚至让他自己党内的一些领导人反对校车政策能作为消除种族隔离的工具。”

  The Times report, "It Was Never About Busing," pointed out that the school bus policy actually admitted that the court's attempt to eliminate school segregation was a failure. The report mentioned that the word "busing" is a euphemism that has nothing to do with race. The term allows people to pretend that whites are not opposed to racial integration, but simply to let their children go to community schools. In fact, since the 1920s, American schoolchildren have already taken school buses to school, and rarely do so for the purpose of racial integration.

  时报分析报道《这从不是关乎校车政策》(It Was Never About Busing)指出,校车政策实际上承认了法院试图消除学校种族隔离的举动是失败的。报道提到,busing一词是一种与种族无关的的委婉说法。这个词使人们得以假装白人反对的不是种族融合,而仅是反对让他们的孩子前往社区学校。事实上,自1920年代至今,美国学童就已经乘坐校车上学,而很少会出于种族融合的目的这么做。

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