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只有暴力胁迫才算强奸吗?

  One day in February 2017, Abigail Finney, a freshman at Purdue University in Indiana, fell asleep in her boyfriend's dormitory. In the dark night, he clung to her body, her hand touching her chest, and they began to make love.

  2017年2月的一天,印第安纳州普渡大学(Purdue University)大一学生艾比盖尔·芬尼(Abigail Finney)在男友的宿舍睡着了。漆黑的夜里,他紧贴着她的身体,手抚摸她的胸部,他们开始做爱。

  Not long after, she stopped to go to the bathroom. When she came back, she was horrified to find that she was not a boyfriend with him.

  没过多久,她停下来去洗手间,回来时,她惊恐地发现刚才跟他同床的并非男友。

  Is this a rape?

  这算强奸吗?

  Finney thought, so the police, the police arrested the 19-year-old imposter Donald Grant Ward. Ward is a friend of her boyfriend. He admits that he is deceiving Finney; he is charged with two counts of rape, with a term of 3 to 16 years.

  芬尼认为算,于是报警,警察逮捕了19岁的冒名顶替者唐纳德·格兰特·沃德(Donald Grant Ward)。沃德是她男友的朋友,他承认知道自己在蒙骗芬尼;他被控两项强奸罪名,刑期3至16年。

  Finney's family contacted Joyce Short. Schott is an activist who has been sexually assaulted and is in charge of a website called ConsentAwareness.net. The 70-year-old Schott hopes to establish a universal rule that clarifies that consent is “voluntary, understanding, and informed consent”. This sounds obvious, but it is not the case because there is no universal definition of “informed consent” in the United States. Every state is different, and some are not defined at all.

  芬尼的家人联系上了乔伊斯·肖特(Joyce Short)。肖特是一名活动人士,有过遭性侵的经历,在掌管一个名为ConsentAwareness.net的网站。现年70岁的肖特希望确立一项普适法则,明确知情同意(consent)是“自愿、了解、知情的认同”。这听来是显而易见的事情,但实情并非如此,因为在美国对“知情同意”没有一个普遍的定义。每个州都不一样,有的根本没定义。

  Most people think that all types of identity can be counted as informed consent, said Short, who wrote three books on this topic and gave a TedX speech. "But it is not the case." Short believes that gaining sex through deception is not the same as violent rape, but it should be a D or E felony, a one to four year imprisonment and a $10,000 fine.

  “大多数人都认为所有类型的认同都可算作知情同意,”就这个主题写了三本书、做过一次TedX演讲的肖特说。“但并非如此。”肖特认为,通过欺骗手段获得性不能等同于暴力强奸,但确实应该是D级或E级重罪,需处一至四年徒刑和一万美元罚款。

  Short said that there is a clear distinction between informed consent and assent. “Informed consent means 'voluntary, understanding, and informed consent.' The endorsement means 'superficial consent'. So when someone lie to you, you may seem to agree on the surface, but you are not You know, don't know. You can agree and agree, but that doesn't mean you have informed consent."

  肖特说,知情同意和赞同(assent)之间有着明显的区别。“知情同意是指‘自愿、了解、知情的认同’。赞同的意思是‘表面上的同意’。所以,当有人对你说谎的时候,你可能表面上看来是同意了,但你并不了解、不知情。你可以赞同和认同,但这并不意味着你有知情同意。”

  For example, in Missouri, "if it is caused by force, coercion or deception, then approval does not constitute informed consent." In Tennessee, if there is "intrusive sex through deception...", it is considered rape. In Alabama, if consent is obtained through fraud or fraudulent means, it is a misdemeanor and is classified as "irregularity."

  例如在密苏里州,“如果由武力、胁迫或欺骗所致,那么赞同并不构成知情同意”。在田纳西州,如果存在“通过欺骗进行插入式性行为……”,就被视为强奸。在阿拉巴马州,如果同意是通过欺诈或骗取手段所得,则属于轻罪,被归类为“不当性行为”。

纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com

  In some states - not including Indiana - if you pretend to be a spouse or partner, you will be considered a deceitful rape. This also applies to those who abuse medical privileges, such as Larry Nassar, a team doctor for the American women's gymnastics team, who tells patients that touching their genitals is medically necessary. He was sentenced to 40 to 175 years in prison.

  在一些州——不包括印第安纳州——如果你冒充配偶或伴侣,就会被视为欺骗强奸。这也适用于那些滥用医疗特权的人,比如美国女子体操队的队医劳伦斯·纳萨尔(Larry Nassar),他告诉病人触摸她们的生殖器在医学上是必要的。他被判处40至175年监禁。

  Concealing HIV-positiveness is also a crime in the United States, although states have differences in concealing other sexually transmitted diseases, such as herpes.

  在全美范围内,隐瞒HIV阳性也是一种犯罪行为,虽然各州在隐瞒其他性传播疾病方面存在差异,比如疱疹。

  “Gender Fraud” – the misrepresentation of the potential partner’s gender at birth – is still in the grey zone. In 1996, Sean O’Neill of Colorado was sentenced to gender fraud. Since 2012, five people in the UK have been convicted of this crime.

  “性别诈骗”——对潜在性伴侣不实表述出生时的性别——同样仍处于灰色地带。1996年,科罗拉多州的肖恩·奥尼尔(Sean O’Neill)被判处性别欺诈罪,自2012年以来,英国已有5人被判犯有此罪。

  Although there are laws to prevent "catfishing", which is the act of impersonating others on the Internet, Brad Shear, a lawyer in Bethesda, Maryland, specializing in privacy and cybersecurity law, said They tend to focus on identity theft for profit or fraud.

  虽然已有法律防范“网络自夸”(catfishing),即在网上冒充他人的行为,但专长性隐私和网络安全法领域的马里兰州贝塞斯达市律师布拉德·希尔(Brad Shear)说,它们往往侧重于为获利或诈骗而实施的身份盗窃。

  But what if there is no economic benefit? It depends on where you live. In some states, "If you pretend to be a person, such as Tom Brady, and another person agrees to have a sexual relationship based on this, it may be considered a sexual assault," Hill said.

  但如果没有获得经济利益又会怎样?这取决于你的居住地。在某些州,“如果你假装成一个人,比如汤姆·布雷迪(Tom Brady),而另一个人根据这一说法同意发生性关系,这可能会被视为性侵犯,”希尔说。

  In April 2015, in Iowa, Michael Kelso-Christy, 23, created a fake Facebook account with the name of a man who had been in the same high school. He used this name to send letters to a number of women. A woman really agreed to meet him at her house. At his request, she was blindfolded at home. They had a sexual relationship and then he left. Not long after, his Facebook account disappeared and he stopped sending letters to her. At that time, the woman realized that he was an imposter, and reported to the police.

  2015年4月在爱荷华州,时年23岁的迈克尔·凯尔索-克里斯蒂(Michael Kelso-Christy)创建了一个假Facebook账号,用的是和他上过同一所高中的某男子姓名。他用这个名字给多名女性发了信,一名女性真的同意了和他在她家见面,依他的要求,她当时在家中蒙上眼等他。他们发生了性关系,然后他离开。没过多久,他的Facebook账号消失,他不再给她发信。那时这名女性才意识到他是冒名顶替者,于是报了警。 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  After Kelso-Christie’s appeal, Chief Justice Mark Cady finally ruled that the woman won the case, pointing out that Kelso-Christie deprived her of her “free choice to inject vitality into our sexual abuse statutes. '". He was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

  在凯尔索-克里斯蒂上诉后,首席法官马克·卡迪(Mark Cady)最终判定这名女性胜诉,指出凯尔索-克里斯蒂剥夺了她的“给我们的性虐待成文法注入生机的‘自由选择权’”。他被判处10年监禁。

  But in many places, the law is still ambiguous.

  但在很多地方,法律依然模糊不清。

  Some people are worried about the landslide effect of cheating behavior legislation, because how to distinguish it? If a woman is dating two men at the same time and they don’t know each other’s existence, is this a deception? Or if you give Botox to the crow's feet, then say a age below the actual age, or say "I love you" for a sexual relationship rather than a sincere heart, what? In 2014, after a man who falsely claimed to be a British spy made a woman pregnant, New Jersey filed a fraudulent infringement bill. But failed to pass.

  一些人担心将欺骗行为立法存在滑坡效应,因为该如何区分呢?如果一名女性同时约会两名男性,而他们互不知道对方的存在,这是欺骗吗?或者如果你给眼角鱼尾纹注射肉毒杆菌,然后说一个低于实际年龄的岁数,或者为发生性关系而非出于真心说出“我爱你”,又当如何?2014年,在一名谎称是英国间谍的男子让一名女子怀孕后,新泽西州提出了一个诈骗性侵法案。但没能通过。

  In February 2018, Donald Ward was acquitted and cleared the case in the Indiana case. His lawyer, Kirk Freeman, argues that lying and deception do not constitute rape. In January of this year, the legislators proposed two bills to increase the definition of deception in the Indiana rape law and to define any sexual act without consent. Neither of the two proposals entered the hearing process.

  2018年2月,唐纳德·沃德在上述印第安纳案件中被无罪释放并清除案底。他的律师柯克·弗里曼(Kirk Freeman)辩称,撒谎和欺骗不构成强奸。是年1月,立法者提出了两项议案,在印第安纳强奸法中增加对欺骗的定义,并将未征得知情同意的任何性行为定义为强奸。两项议案均未进入听证程序。

  This did not prevent other legislators in other states from trying to solve this problem. Given the Finney case in Indiana, South Carolina Democratic Party member Mandy Powers Norrell proposed her own fraud rape motion, which should be submitted for discussion in the coming months.

  这并未阻止其他州的其他立法者尝试解决这一问题。鉴于印第安纳州的芬尼案,南卡罗来纳州民主党议员曼蒂·鲍尔斯·诺雷尔(Mandy Powers Norrell)提出了她自己的诈骗强奸议案,应该会在未来几个月里提交讨论。

  “Most states have 'forced kidnappings' and 'fraud kidnappings,'” Colin Miller, a law professor at the University of South Carolina School of Law, who drafted the bill. Say. "The former is kidnapping. Fraudulent kidnapping is like lie to me and lie to me to go somewhere. This is the same thing as deceiving rape. If someone pretends to be someone's boyfriend or spouse, they think they have gotten with this person. Informed consent for sexual relations, this should be fraudulent rape, and fraudulent kidnapping is a truth."

  “大部分州都有‘强行绑架’和‘诈骗绑架’,”参与该议案起草的哥伦比亚南卡来罗纳大学法学院(University of South Carolina School of Law)法学教授科林·米勒(Colin Miller)说。“前者是绑架。诈骗绑架是比如我通过说谎,骗他们随我到某地。这和欺骗强奸是一回事。如果有人假装成某人的男友或配偶,他们认为他们得到了与此人发生性关系的知情同意,这应该是诈骗强奸,和诈骗绑架是一个道理。”

  SCHOTT hopes that this bill will be passed. “No one should be sexually tempted by being tricked, deceived, coerced, violently suppressed, prescribed, or drunk,” she said. “Everyone has the right to decide who they have sex with, based on their knowledge of the act itself, and a clear, informed understanding of the subject.”

  肖特希望这项议案能获得通过。“任何人都不应当在被诱骗、欺骗、胁迫、暴力压制、下药或灌醉的情况下进行性行为,”她说。“人人都有权决定他们和谁发生性关系,依据对行为本身的知情,以及对行为对象清楚、知情的了解。”

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