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柏林墙倒塌30年:改变世界的一场意外

  BERLIN – When East German pastor and dissident Werner Kr?tschell heard that the Berlin Wall was open, he did not believe it. But he still took his daughter and her friend to the nearest checkpoint to see it.

  柏林——当东德牧师、持不同政见者沃纳·克拉舍尔(Werner Kr?tschell)听说柏林墙开放了时,他并不太相信。但他还是带着女儿和她的朋友开车到最近的检查站亲自看了看。

  It was the night of November 9, 1989. When their yellow Wartburg car unimpeded into the safe zone that had been banned from entering, Clarke shook the window and asked a border guard: "Is it dreaming or is this true?" ”

  那是1989年11月9日的晚上。当他们黄色的瓦尔特堡牌汽车畅通无阻地开进一直以来都被禁止进入的安全区时,克拉舍尔摇下车窗,问一名边防警卫:“是我在做梦还是这是真的?”

  You are dreaming, the guard replied.

  “你在做梦,”警卫回答。

  This is a towering symbol of no freedom, like a scar of cement and barbed wire, passing through the heart of this home city. For a long time, East Berliners like Krasher have always dreamed of dismantling it.

  这是一个象征着无自由的高耸符号,像一道水泥和铁丝网组成的伤疤,穿过这座故乡城市的心脏,长久以来,克拉舍尔这样的东柏林人一直梦想着将它拆除。

  However, the realization of this dream, the opening of the most notorious armed guards in the Cold War era overnight, and the dismantling of the next few days, is not the result of some well-planned geopolitical deal.

  然而这个梦想的实现,这座冷战时代最臭名昭著的武装把守边境在一夜之间的开放,以及接下来几天的拆除,并不是某种精心策划的地缘政治大交易的结果。

  At least at the most basic level, this is a wonderful result of human error, spontaneity and personal courage.

  至少在最基本的层面上,这是人为过失、自发性和个人勇气作用下的奇妙结果。

  This is not a destined ending, said historian and columnist Anne Applebaum. "This is not a good victory against evil. Basically someone is derelict - and then happens to happen."

  “这不是个注定的结局,”历史学家、专栏作家安·阿普尔鲍姆(Anne Applebaum)说。“这不是善对恶的胜利。基本上是有人失职——然后碰巧发生的。”

  In the extraordinary evening of November, a press conference had a historic turn.

  在11月那个非同寻常的傍晚,一场新闻发布会出现了具有历史意义的转折。<-->纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com<-->

  In the context of mass protests and a wave of East German refugees fleeing from Hungary through Hungary and then Czechoslovakia, East Berlin Communist Party leader Gunter Schabowski called a reporter to announce a series of relaxed travel restrictions. Reform measures.

  在大规模抗议活动和一波东德难民通过匈牙利和当时的捷克斯洛伐克逃离德国的背景下,东柏林共产党领导人君特·沙博夫斯基(Gunter Schabowski)召集记者,宣布了一系列放宽旅行限制的改革措施。

  When asked about when the new rules came into effect, Shabowski stopped for a moment and frowned and studied the notes in front of him. Then he stammered and said an answer that people didn't understand, claiming: "As far as I know, it takes effect... now... immediately."

  被问及新规定何时生效,沙博夫斯基停顿了一下,皱着眉头研究了一下面前的笔记。然后,他结结巴巴地说出了一个让人听不太懂的答案,宣称:“据我所知,生效是在……现在……马上。”

  This is a mistake. The Politburo has no such plan at all. What they want is to calm down the growing resistance movement, make some minor adjustments to the visa rules, and retain the power to ban.

  这是个错误。政治局根本没有这样的打算。他们想的是为了平息愈演愈烈的抵抗运动,对签证规则做一些小小的调整,同时保留禁止通行的权力。

  But many people take Shabowski's words seriously. The main evening news program in West Germany is very popular among East Germans, because East Germans have long ceased to believe in the media controlled by their country. When the show essentially declared the opening of the Berlin Wall, the crowd began to check around the Berlin Wall. Station, request to pass.

  但很多人把沙博夫斯基的话当真了。西德的主要晚间新闻节目在东德人中间很受欢迎,因为东德人早就不再相信自己国家控制的媒体,当这个节目实质上宣布柏林墙开放后,人群开始前往柏林墙附近的检查站,要求通过。

  At one of the checkpoints, a Stasi official who has been loyal to the regime is working night shifts. His name is Lieutenant Colonel Harald J. Ger. (Lt. Col. Harald J?ger). The order he got was to drive people away.

  在其中一个检查站,一名一直忠于政权的斯塔西官员正在上夜班。他的名字叫哈拉尔德·雅格中校(Lt. Col. Harald J?ger)。他得到的命令是把人们赶走。

  More and more people, the Lieutenant Colonel constantly reports to the higher level. But there are no new orders. He once heard a call to the ministry and accidentally heard a senior official question his judgment.

  人越来越多,中校不断向上级汇报最新情况。但没有新的命令。他一度听了一个打给部方的电话,无意中听到一名高级官员质疑他的判断。

  “There was a question in the ministry whether Comrade Yage had the ability to properly assess the situation, or just because of fear,” recalls Yage, who was interviewed by Der Spiegel many years later. "I feel enough when I hear this sentence."

  “部里有人问,雅格同志是否有能力恰当地评估形势,抑或只是因为恐惧,”多年后,在接受《明镜周刊》(Der Spiegel)采访时,雅格回忆说。“听到这句话,我觉得受够了。”

  You don't believe me, then listen to yourself! he shouted at the phone, then picked up the receiver and lifted it out the window.

  “你们不相信我,那自己听听看!”他在电话那头喊道,然后拿起听筒,把它举到窗外。

  Soon after, Jager defies the superior, opened the transit passage, triggered the domino effect, and finally hit all checkpoints in Berlin. At midnight, the victorious East Germans had climbed the city walls, opened champagne, and set off fireworks to celebrate.

  不久之后,雅格违抗上级,打开了过境通道,引发了多米诺骨牌效应,最终冲击了柏林的所有检查站。到了午夜,胜利的东德人已经爬上城市中心的城墙,打开香槟,燃放烟花庆祝。

  No shots were made during the whole process. No Soviet tanks appeared.

  全过程未发一枪。没有苏联的坦克出现。

  Axel Klausmeier, president of the Berlin Wall Foundation, said this was perhaps the biggest miracle of the night. "This is a peaceful revolution, unprecedented," he said. "They are prepared to deal with everything except candles and prayers."

  柏林墙基金会(Berlin Wall Foundation)会长阿克塞尔·克劳斯迈耶(Axel Klausmeier)表示,这或许是当晚最大的奇迹。“这是一场和平的革命,史无前例,”他说。“他们做好了应对一切的准备,除了蜡烛和祈祷。”

  In the history of the Berlin Wall, more than 140 people died under the wall, the vast majority of whom were trying to escape.

  在柏林墙的历史上,有140多人死于墙下,其中绝大多数是试图逃跑的人。

  The 58-year-old Ida Siekmann was the first victim, August 22, 1961, just nine days from the Berlin Wall. Her front side of the house on Bernauer Street became part of the border, the front door was filled with bricks, and she fell off when she jumped off the window on the third floor.

  58岁的艾达·西克曼(Ida Siekmann)是第一个受害者,那是1961年8月22日,距离柏林墙建成仅仅9天。她位于贝尔瑙尔大街的房子前侧成了边境的一部分,前门被砖块填满,她从三楼的窗户上跳下时摔死。

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