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谋杀、性侵……女性独身旅行者的恐怖经历

  Carla Stefaniak's approach is "correct," her best friend said.

  卡拉·斯特凡尼亚克(Carla Stefaniak)的做法都“正确”,她最要好的朋友说。

  In November last year, during the five-day holiday to Costa Rica to celebrate his 36th birthday, Stefaniac, who had dual citizenship in Venezuela and the United States, chose a walled villa near the airport from Airbnb. The villa has security. Located in a secure community. She also managed to ensure that she returned to her place before dark.

  去年11月,在赴哥斯达黎加庆祝36岁生日的5天假期期间,拥有委内瑞拉和美国双重国籍的斯特凡尼亚克从爱彼迎(Airbnb)上选择了机场附近一栋有围墙的别墅。别墅有保安。位于安全社区。她也设法保证在天黑之前回到住的地方。

  The night before she flew back to Florida, she made a video call with Laura Jaime, her best friend, on the FaceTime app. She showed off the crocheted earrings she bought at the local market and took a video of her friends to visit the villa she lived in. The two friends plan to meet the next day, when Jamie will pick her up at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport.

  在即将飞回佛罗里达的前一天晚上,她在FaceTime应用上与最要好的朋友劳拉·杰米(Laura Jaime)通了视频电话。她显摆了在当地市场买的钩编耳坠,带朋友视频游览了一番她住的别墅。两位好友计划次日见面,届时杰米将在劳德代尔堡-好莱坞国际机场(Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport)接她。

  But on November 28th, Stefaniak did not board her flight back home.

  但11月28日,斯特凡尼亚克没有登上她回国的航班。

  In their conversation, Stefanac said a puzzling word. She said that she felt that something was wrong, but did not elaborate.

  在她们的通话中,斯特凡尼亚克曾说了句令人不解的话。她说感觉情况有些“不对劲”,但没细说。

  Karla was aware that something was wrong at 8:20 that evening, Jamie said. “Sometimes we will justify our intuition. But when something is triggered, our intuition that something is wrong, you have to pay attention.”

  “卡拉那天晚上8点20分是意识到了有些不对劲,”杰米说。“有时候我们会为自己的直觉辩解。但当有什么东西被触发,我们的直觉认为有些事儿不对劲时,你不得不留意。”

  A week later, people found the body of the murdered Stefanac. The body was wrapped in plastic and half buried in the woods on the slopes near Shepburn, where she rented. The Costa Rican police arrested the security guard of the villa in connection with the murder case.

  一周后,人们找到了斯特凡尼亚克被残杀后的尸体,尸体用塑料包裹着,半埋在她租住的爱彼迎附近坡地上的树林里。哥斯达黎加警方逮捕了与杀人案有关的该别墅保安。

  The recent headline on the deadly violence of women who traveled alone in the media has raised some questions: How does the world react to the rise in the number of female solo travelers with digital evidence? What role does social media play in promoting the idea of ??being easy to go and safe in remote places?

  近期媒体上有关独自出游的女性遭受致命暴力的大字标题引来一些问题:这个世界对有数字为证的女性独自旅行者人数的上升如何反应?社交媒体在宣传遥远的地方很容易去而且安全的观念上,起了什么作用?

  These violent cases also reveal the persistence of gender-based violence worldwide, and the cultural and social expectations that expose foreign single travelers are not always consistent with local perceptions of women's status in the world – and whether she should The problem of travel.

  这些暴力案件也揭示了世界范围内性别暴力的持久性,暴露了外国独身旅行者的文化与社会期待并不总是与当地人对女性在世界上的地位的看法相符——以及她究竟是否应该旅行的问题。

  Every year, countless women travel abroad without accidents. Many women have experienced snoring and other forms of harassment during their travels; women of color have written experiences that they have not been ignored or neglected because of their ethnicity. While violence against male visitors is equally alarming, the horror experience of female single travelers can still be horrifying.

  每年有无数女性出国旅行而没有出现意外。许多女性在旅行期间遭受过嘘声及种种其他形式的骚扰;有色人种女性写过因自己的种族在国外不被理会或被忽视的经历。虽然针对男性游客的暴力同样令人震惊,但女性独身旅行者的恐怖经历仍能令人毛骨悚然。

  There is no doubt that women face unique risks when traveling alone, experts say.

  毫无疑问,女性在独自旅行时会面临特有的风险,专家们说。

  “We have evidence that women face risks that men do not have in public places, at home, and where they may be,” said Phumzile Mlambo, Executive Director of UN Women. Ngcuka) said the organization is committed to promoting women's equality. Increasingly, "where they may be" includes being alone in a foreign country.

  “我们有证据显示,女性在公共场所、家中以及她们可能在的地方都面临着男性所没有的风险,”联合国妇女署执行主任普姆齐莱·姆兰博-恩格库卡(Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka)说,该组织致力于促进女性平等。越来越多地,“她们可能在的地方”包括独自在外国。

  But Mlambo-Nguekuka said violence against female tourists is part of a general situation of violence against women around the world. Experts point out that violent incidents may also occur in wealthy Western countries such as France, Italy and Germany, similar to the possibilities in developing countries.

  但姆兰博-恩格库卡说,针对女性游客的暴力是世界各地针对女性暴力的普遍情况的组成部分。专家指出,暴力事件也可能在法国、意大利和德国这些富裕的西方国家发生,与在发展中国家发生的可能性差不多。

  “The root causes of violence against women in communities, public and private places are largely related to potential gender stereotypes, social norms, what people think they have access to, and patriarchal systems,” Mlambo - Englukka said.

  “社区、公共和私有场所这类针对女性的暴力,其根源在很大程度上与潜在的性别刻板印象、社会规范、人们认为自己有权得到的东西,以及父权制度有关系,”姆兰博-恩格库卡说。

  Before the British pioneer Fraya Stark traveled to Turkey and the poor women in the Middle East, before the Irish travel writer Dervla Murphy took a bicycle around the world, women They have always been explorers, both on a spectacular level and on a personal level.

  早在英国开路先锋弗雷娅·史塔克(Freya Stark)前往土耳其和中东不好女客的地区之前,也在爱尔兰旅行作家戴芙拉·墨菲(Dervla Murphy)骑自行车周游世界之前,女性都一直是探险者,无论是在壮观层面还是在个人层面。

  Today, women's increased spending power allows them to spend more on leisure and adventure travel. The Western shift in attitude toward who can travel alone has further advanced a growing industry. Social media also plays a huge role in showing people the warm feelings of a distant country. Take a look at millions of topics on Instagram such as "#LadiesGoneGlobal", "We Are Traveling Girls" (#WeAreTravelGirls) and "Travel Women" (#TheTravelWomen). The photo shows women posing on the sparkling beach, trekking in the mountains, strolling on cobbled streets, a collective, coveted temptation.

  如今,女性消费能力的提高让她们有钱做更多休闲和探险旅行。西方对谁能独自旅行的态度转变进一步推进了一个正在增长的行业。社交媒体也起着巨大的作用,向人们展示着遥远国度的温馨感受。浏览一下Instagram上诸如“环游过世界的女性”(#LadiesGoneGlobal)、“我们是爱旅行的女生”(#WeAreTravelGirls)以及“旅行女性”(#TheTravelWomen)这些话题标签,就能看到数百万照片,展示着女性在亮闪闪的海滩摆拍、在山间跋涉、在鹅卵石街道上漫步,这是一种集体的、令人梦寐以求的诱惑。

  But some women have discovered horror when traveling abroad, such as Hannah Gavios, 26, of Queens.

  但一些女性却在国外旅行时发现了恐怖,比如皇后区26岁的汉娜·加维奥斯(Hannah Gavios)。

  Gavios discovered his passion for traveling alone through a short-term overseas course when he was in college. “I think it gives me the luxury of local culture in the way I want, and it allows me to portray my own experiences,” she said.

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  加维奥斯在上大学时通过短期海外课程发现了自己对独自旅行的热爱。“我觉得它能给我以自己想要的方式体验当地文化的奢华,也让我能够描绘我自己的经历,”她说。

  After graduating from college, she traveled to Southeast Asia alone. In 2016, she went to Thailand during her English vacation in Vietnam. One night, she was walking alone after eating dinner in Krabi, which is famous for her beaches and loved by young tourists. A local man offered to bring her back to the hotel.

  大学毕业后,她独自到东南亚去旅行,2016年,她利用在越南教英语休假期间去了泰国。一天晚上,她在以海滩闻名、深受年轻游客喜爱的甲米吃完晚饭后正独自行走,一名当地男子主动提出给她带路回酒店。

  She said that because she was afraid of getting lost, she went with him. But when she felt more and more wrong, he started.

  她说,因为害怕迷路,所以就跟他走了。但就在她感到越来越不对劲时,他动手了。

  Gavios struggled to escape, fell off the cliff, and had a broken spine. She lay helplessly on the ground and lay for 11 hours, during which the man sexually assaulted her.

  加维奥斯拼命逃脱,从悬崖上摔了下来,脊椎骨折。她无助地躺在地上,躺了11个小时,其间那名男子对她实施了性侵犯。

  When it was dawn, he left - but surprisingly, he came back with the help.

  天亮时,他离开了——但令人惊讶的是,他带着帮忙的人回来了。

  Gavios lived in hospital for several months, first in Thailand, and later in New York, she had to learn to walk again with the help of crutches and custom leg supports. The person who attacked her was eventually arrested and sentenced to five years in prison.

  加维奥斯住了好几个月的医院,先是在泰国,后来在纽约,她不得不在拐杖和定制的腿部支架的帮助下再次学习走路。袭击她的人最终被逮捕并被判处五年监禁。

  In the week of Stefaniak’s disappearance, her friends and family rushed to the Costa Rican authorities. They organized a campaign called "Looking for Cara" on Facebook. The US State Department quickly intervened and the FBI put pressure on local officials.

  斯特凡尼亚克失踪的那周,她的朋友和家人赶紧向哥斯达黎加当局报警。他们在Facebook上组织了名为“寻找卡拉”的运动。美国国务院很快介入,联邦调查局向当地官员施压。

  When her body was found near the villa, her relatives were completely killed.

  当她的尸体在别墅附近找到时,她的亲属彻底被击垮了。

  Her best friend Jamie said that the authorities in the country should have done more work to let women know the risks they face in the country. “They have a responsibility to tell visitors all the risks, but they didn’t do that,” she said.

  她最要好的朋友杰米说,该国当局本应做更多的工作,让女性知道在该国面临的风险。“他们有责任告诉游客所有的风险,但他们没有这么做,”她说。

  Stefaniac is the third foreign woman killed in Costa Rica in three months. But the country is also working to resolve a deeper, more systematic problem, which is violence against women in the country. These women did not help to provoke a US passport such as the State Department or the Federal Bureau of Investigation to defend their rights.

  斯特凡尼亚克是三个月来在哥斯达黎加遇害的第三名外国女性。但该国也在努力解决一个更深层次、更系统的问题,那就是对本国女性的暴力行为。这些女性没有有助于激起国务院或联邦调查局等机构出面维护其权益的美国护照。

  From January to August 2018, at least 14 women in the country lost their lives in gender-based violence. Last September, the Costa Rican government announced that violence against women was a national issue.

  2018年1月至8月,该国至少有14名女性在基于性别的暴力中丧生。去年9月,哥斯达黎加政府宣布,针对女性的暴力是一个全国性的问题。

  The National Women’s Institute of the government’s government cited a statement in the statement that the foreigners were killed last summer to explain the problem: “The fact that we face is that in addition to potentially damaging the image of the country, they are still victims of violence against women. A striking example of a serious situation that is the most cruel in killing women."

  该国政府部门国家女性研究所在一份声明中引用用去年夏天外国人被杀的事情来说明这个问题:“我们面对的事实是,除了可能有损国家形象外,它们还是暴力侵害女性行为严重状况的鲜明例子,该状况在杀害女性方面表现得最为残酷。”

  Despite this, Costa Rica is still considered to be one of the safest countries in Central America, especially for tourists, where the murder rate is lower than in many neighbouring countries. Officials in the country say they have made progress in combating gender-based violence.

  尽管如此,哥斯达黎加仍被认为是中美洲最安全的国家之一,尤其是对游客而言,该国的谋杀率低于许多邻国。该国官员说,他们在打击基于性别的暴力方面已取得了进展。

  Experienced solo travelers say that being prepared is the key to minimizing risk.

  经验丰富的独自旅行者说,有所准备是将风险降到最低的关键。

  For 29-year-old Cassie DePecol, traveling alone means preparing a long list of precautions. Di Pecor created a Guinness World Record in 2017 and became the first woman to have been in all countries. The Connecticut-born activist practiced Israeli self-defense techniques in close combat (Krav Maga). She also carries a GPS tracker with her. Always make sure anyone knows where she is.

  对于29岁的卡西·迪佩科尔(Cassie DePecol)来说,独自旅行意味着要准备好一长串的预防措施。迪佩科尔在2017年创造了一项吉尼斯世界纪录,成为有据可查的首位到过所有国家的女性。这位康涅狄格州出生的活跃分子练习以色列自卫技术近身格斗(Krav Maga)。她还随身携带一个GPS跟踪器。总是确保随时有人知道她在哪里。

  “Some practices may sound a bit extreme,” she said. “But I attributed the safe travel alone in 196 countries to these specific practices.”

  “有些做法听起来可能有点极端,”她说。“但我把独自在196个国家安全旅行归功于这些具体的做法。”

  Di Pecor said that gender-based violence is an unfortunate reality for women who like to travel.

    蛐蛐英语 www.qqenglish.com

  迪佩科尔说,基于性别的暴力对喜欢旅行的女性来说,是一个不幸的现实。

  When we are alone or in public, we need to be on the lookout for attacks. This kind of awareness is not necessary for men, she said.

  “我们独自一人或在公共场合时,需要时刻提防遭到袭击,这种意识在男性身上是不必有的,”她说。

  The 34-year-old Jessica Nabongo has set herself the task of becoming the first black woman to have been to all countries in the world. She was born in Detroit and has traveled to 158 countries to date, 54 of which are gone alone. She hopes to complete her travel mission in October this year.

  34岁的杰西卡·纳邦戈(Jessica Nabongo)给自己定的任务是成为首位到过世界上所有国家的黑人女性。她出生在底特律,迄今已去过158个国家,其中54个是独自去的。她希望能在今年10月完成自己的旅行任务。

  Her safety guide includes staying in a hotel with 24-hour security as much as possible. If you live in Airbnb, the landlord must be well-received and reach the level of “super landlord”. She plays Uber so she can track her position.

  她的安全指南包括尽可能住在有24小时保安的酒店。如果住爱彼迎的话,房东必须是获得一致好评的,并达到了“超级房东”的级别。她打优步(Uber),这样就能追踪到她的位置。

  Most news headlines love highlighting the experiences of young, white or Western victims, in part because of the lack of public data on the experiences of women of color who are traveling alone. But Nabango pointed out that as a black woman who travels alone, she must deal with another completely different level of security concerns, anxiety and fear.

  大多数新闻标题爱突出强调年轻、白种或西方受害者的经历,部分原因是缺乏关于独自旅行的有色人种女性遭受暴力经历的公开数据。但纳邦戈指出,作为一名独自旅行的黑人女性,她必须应对另一个完全不同层面的安全担忧、焦虑和恐惧。

  “In many European cities I have been to, such as Barcelona, ??Madrid, Rome and Milan, women of color are at greater risk because many people think we are prostitutes,” she said. “I always worry that if I have something happening in a city in Europe, no one cares. For example, I might scream and run on the streets of Italy, but the onlookers don’t care because I am black.”

  “在我去过的许多欧洲城市,比如巴塞罗那、马德里、罗马和米兰,有色人种女性面临的危险更大,因为很多人认为我们是妓女,”她说。“我总担心,如果我在欧洲的某个城市发生了什么事,没人会在乎。比如我可能会尖叫着跑在意大利的大街上,但旁观者不会在乎,因为我是黑人。”

  To help each other navigate the world safely, women have established their own online communities.

  为了帮助彼此安全地穿越世界,女性建立了自己的在线社区。

  Dianelle Rivers-Mitchell founded the Black Girls Travel Too company to coordinate group tours to serve a growing market. On her company's Facebook page, thousands of women share advice on where to stay, eat and visit, and discuss security issues.

  黛安娜尔·里弗斯-米切尔(Dianelle Rivers-Mitchell)创办了“黑人女生也旅行”(Black Girls Travel Too)公司,来协调组团旅游,为一个不断增长的市场提供服务。在她公司的Facebook网页上,数千名女性分享在哪里住宿、吃饭和参观的建议,并讨论有关安全的问题。

  We are the guards of each other, especially when traveling, Rivers-Mitchell said.

  “我们是彼此的看守人,特别是在旅行时,”里弗斯-米切尔说。

  The app provides another level of support for women traveling alone. Free apps like Chirpey, RedZone, MayDay, Tripwhistle and Noonlight allow women to flag events and danger zones and contact local law enforcement.

  应用程序为女性独自旅行提供了另一个层面的支持。像Chirpey、RedZone、MayDay、Tripwhistle和Noonlight这样的免费应用让女性可以标示事件和危险区域,并联系当地执法部门。

  Even if you do the best preparation, you may have a situation on the road.

  即使做了最好的准备,旅途中也可能出状况。

  Moscow-born Vasilisa Komarova grew up behind the Soviet Iron Curtain in the 1980s. She read the law, moved to London, studied English, and became a British citizen. But she dreams of traveling to a wider world.

  莫斯科出生的瓦西莉萨·科玛洛娃(Vasilisa Komarova)是在20世纪80年代的苏联铁幕后长大的。她读了法律,搬到了伦敦,学习了英语,成了一名英国公民。但她梦想着去更广阔的世界旅行。

  In 2016, at the age of 35, she began to ride a motorcycle alone through the Americas.

  2016年,35岁的她开始骑摩托车独自穿越美洲。

  She went to Cuba and spent some time in the Atacama Desert and Chilean Patagonia. She has established contacts with other motorcyclists and worked part-time, such as working in a bicycle shop or fitness training. She is realizing her dreams and recording all this with photos on Instagram and posts on Facebook.

  她去了古巴,并在阿塔卡马沙漠和智利的巴塔哥尼亚度过了一段时间。她与其他摩托车手建立了联系,打过零工,比如在一家自行车店,或健身训练方面的工作。她在实现自己的梦想,并用Instagram上的照片和Facebook上的帖子来记录这一切。

  One day, everything changed.

  有那么一天,一切都改变了。

  “At some point, maybe because everyone I met was very friendly, I feel that I am a little relaxed and vigilant,” she said.

  “在某个时刻,也许是因为我遇到的每个人都很友好,我觉得,自己有点放松了警惕,”她说。

  On June 4, 2017, when she camped in a place in northern Bolivia where people told her to be safe, three men with a machete dragged her out of the tent. They beat her and caused her arms to dislocate. Two of them put her on the ground and let another person rape her. Then they broke her motorcycle, stole her things, sprinkled urine on her tent, and then went away, whether she was dead or alive.

  2017年6月4日,当她在玻利维亚北部一个人们告诉她很安全的地方露营时,三名手持砍刀的男人把她从帐篷里拖了出来。他们殴打她,导致她的胳膊三处脱臼。其中两人把她按在地上,让另一个人强奸了她。然后他们弄坏了她的摩托车,偷走了她的东西,还在她的帐篷上撒了尿,然后扬长而去,不管她是死是活。

  Komalova quietly lay down for a night because she was afraid that they would return. When the sun rose, she used her laptop computer for help, and the person who attacked her missed the computer.

  因为害怕他们再会回来,科玛洛娃静静地躺了一夜。当太阳升起时,她用自己的笔记本计算机求救,袭击她的人漏掉了这个计算机。

  But she said that the next step is an experience of impunity.

  但她说,接下来是一段有罪不罚的经历。

  The authorities did not want to take her to the doctor; the doctor did not want to treat her because she could not afford the money.

  当局不想带她去看医生;医生不想给她治伤,因为她付不起钱。

  Only after the intervention of the Russian Embassy, ??the police began to pay attention to this matter, Komalova said.

  “只有到俄罗斯大使馆介入后,警方才开始重视这件事,”科玛洛娃说。

  With the help of the British Embassy, ??Komalova got in touch with an advocate. The person helped her to initiate criminal proceedings and began a legal battle with the attackers.

  在英国大使馆的帮助下,科玛洛娃与一名权益倡导者取得了联系。该人帮助她提起刑事诉讼,开始了一场与袭击者的法律斗争。

  Komalova said she knew she must be her biggest advocate; she could not continue to travel or go home without justice being promoted in some form. But she said that in the face of local bureaucracy and corruption, this is an arduous struggle.

  科玛洛娃说,她知道自己必须成为自己最大的倡导者;她不能在正义没有得到某种形式伸张的情况下继续旅行或回家。但她说,面对地方官僚和腐败,这是一场艰苦的斗争。

  That attack, the whole process made me collapse, Komalova said. "But I have to find strength in my heart."

  “那次袭击、那个整个过程让我崩溃,”科玛洛娃说。“但我必须在我的内心深处找到力量。”

  A year later, the court sentenced the attackers to 42 years in prison and she attended the verdict.

  一年后,法院判袭击者共计42年监禁,她旁听了判决。

  In November, Komalova left Bolivia on a motorcycle. She admitted that she was scared when she put the tent up on the first night after she left. But she did not give up the next trip and hoped that other women would travel, but be vigilant – always be vigilant.

  11月,科玛洛娃骑着摩托车离开玻利维亚。她承认,离开后的第一天晚上把帐篷搭起来时,她很害怕。但她没有放弃接下来的行程,并希望其他女性去旅行,但要保持警惕——永远保持警惕。

  My vigilance is now very high, Komalova said in Skype in Ecuador. "People don't always deserve my doubts, but this is the case now. I have to do this."

  “我的警惕性现在很高,”科玛洛娃在厄瓜多尔通过Skype说。“人们并不总是值得我怀疑,但现在的情况就是这样。我不得不这样做。”

  As for Gavios, she is still in a state of shackles, but after the attack, she became a yoga instructor and learned about Israeli melee fighting. Last fall, she completed the New York City Marathon with a cane.

  至于加维奥斯,她仍然处于半瘫痪的状态,但那次袭击发生后,她成为了一名瑜伽教练,并且学习了以色列近身格斗术。去年秋天,她拄着拐杖完成了纽约市马拉松。

  “This didn’t stop me from moving on or traveling alone,” she said. "I don't think I was defeated."

  “这并没有阻止我继续前进或独自旅行,”她说。“我不觉得自己被打败了。”

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