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用做中式烤鸭的方法做一只感恩节火鸡

  Three days before Thanksgiving, there was a flurry of activity at the Kau Kau BBQ Market & Restaurant, a signature Seattle Chinatown Restaurant specializing in Chinese barbecue. The restaurant hired at least two extra cooks to wash, pickle and dry the Turkey 24 hours a day and then brush the juice into an already full oven: qiaoqiao used the same process to make the roast duck, the crispy spiced Turkey.

  感恩节前的三天,巧巧海鲜烧腊饭店(Kau Kau BBQ Market & Restaurant)一片忙乱,这是西雅图华埠主打中式烧烤的一家招牌餐厅。餐厅至少多雇了两名厨师,帮忙一天24小时清洗、腌渍、风干火鸡,然后刷汁塞进已经满满当当的烤箱里烤:巧巧用制作烤鸭的同样流程制作的脆皮五香火鸡。

  For that reason, the restaurant can only sell about 80 turkeys a year at most, said Richard Chang, who co-owns qiaoqiao with his wife, Lynn eng-chang.

  与妻子张林英(Lynn Eng-Chang,音)共同拥有巧巧的理查德·张(Richard Chang,音)说,出于这个原因,餐厅每年最多只能卖大约80只火鸡。

  We have to stop there because we can't do any more, he said.

  “我们必须就此打住,因为再多我们做不了,”他说。

  The restaurant, owned by his father-in-law, has been cooking Turkey for the holiday since the 1970s, initially in response to requests from some customers, Mr. Zhang said. Today, they typically receive a first-come-first-served Turkey order in early November, either from a new customer or a regular customer -- a tradition they helped create.

  理查德·张说,这家餐厅是岳父开的,从上世纪70年代起一直在为这个节日做火鸡,起初是为响应一些顾客的要求。如今,他们一般在十一月初会收到先到先得的火鸡订单,有些是初尝这种做法的新顾客点的,有些是老主顾——这项传统就是他们促成的。

  If they don't order, we're usually a little worried, Mr. Zhang said. "We hope they're all right."

  “如果他们没点,我们通常会有点担心,”理查德·张说。“我们希望他们平安无事。”

  At cantonese barbecues, Asian supermarkets and Chinese restaurants across the United States, one day of the year, roast duck, soy-sauce chicken, char siu and crispy pork may be thrown aside for a round Turkey. The chinese-style roasted Turkey, available at 99 Ranch Market and mom-and-my stores, is often served with glutinous rice, steamed buns and hoisin sauce, and for many Chinese americans, they are a good way to inject their influence into Thanksgiving. Customers of all backgrounds are embracing this innovative dish that was born in the United States.

  在美国各地的粤式烧烤店、亚洲超市和中餐馆,一年中总有一天,烤鸭、酱油鸡、叉烧和脆皮烧肉可能会被人们抛到一边,转而享用圆滚滚的火鸡。这种中式烧烤火鸡可以从大华超级市场(99 Ranch Market)和夫妻档店铺买到,一般会配上糯米、馒头和海鲜酱,对很多华裔美国人而言,它们是往感恩节中注入自己的影响的一个好办法。各种背景的顾客都在接受这道诞生于美国的创新菜。

  Every place does it slightly differently. But the main attraction of a Turkey cooked in China's long process of professional grilling is juicy, delicious meat.

  每个地方的做法都稍有不同。但按照中国专业烧烤的漫长程序烤制的火鸡,主要吸引力是多汁、美味的肉。

  The U.S. approach could be a little dry, Mr. Chang said. "Chinese style method wants embellish a few."

  “美国的做法可能会有点干,”理查德·张说。“中式做法要润一些。”

  Chinese barbecue chefs typically fill the Turkey cavity with a wet paste of marinade, which may include roasted dried spices, Onions, garlic, ginger and a lot of salt, hours in advance, and then close the cavity with skewers instead of filling it with bread stuffing.

  中国的烧烤厨师通常会提前几小时用湿糊状的腌料填满火鸡腔,其中可能包括烘烤过的干香料、洋葱、大蒜、姜和大量的盐,然后用串肉扦把内腔合上,而不是用面包填料填满腔体,进行烤制。

  This technique is called "in-curing," in which the Turkey is cured while it is hung -- usually with its neck -- to dry, which is necessary to make the skin crisp. The marinade also helps keep the meat moist when it is roasted. (unlike the American style of dry-marinated Turkey, in which the skin is coated with a drier layer of salt and spices, this Chinese marinade only goes into the Turkey's cavity.)

  这种技术被称为“内腌”,这样火鸡在挂起来——通常是挂着脖子——晾干的同时也在腌制,而晾干是让火鸡皮变脆的必要步骤。腌泡汁也有助于肉在烘烤时保持湿润。(与美式的干腌火鸡不同,即在火鸡外皮上涂抹一层更干的盐和香料,而这种中式的盐卤汁只会进入火鸡的腔内。)

  It's a practice that has been honing for years at Hing Lung, a cantonese grill in Chinatown, San Francisco, owned by brothers Eric and Simon Cheung. Their father started working at the store in the 1980s, studying to become a grill master. He passed this knowledge on to his two sons, although the brothers made minor changes to the classic recipes. That includes the restaurant's Thanksgiving Turkey, which was served before their father came to work.

  这是兴隆(Hing Lung)多年来一直在改进的一种做法,这家旧金山华埠的粤式烧烤店店主是埃里克·郑(Eric Cheung)和西蒙·郑(Simon Cheung)兄弟俩。他们的父亲于20世纪80年代开始在这家店工作,学习成为一名烧烤师傅。他把这些知识传给了两个儿子,尽管兄弟俩对这些经典食谱做了些小的修改。其中包括这家店的感恩节火鸡,这道菜在他们的父亲进入这家店工作之前就已经有了。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  For their popular Turkey, the zhengs dry coat the inside of the cavity with Chinese spices like star anise and licorice, then fill it with a mixture of Onions, garlic and celery. Next, string the Turkey like a duck, close the chamber, blanch it in hot water, tighten the skin, remove any seasoning mixture, coat with vinegar, and hang for 12 hours. There has been a lot of trial and error over the years; The Turkey had to be thrown away because it was too heavy and fell off the hook. But the brothers are now able to cope with larger birds.

  对于他们的热销火鸡,郑氏兄弟将八角和甘草等中国香料干擦在火鸡腔内壁,再用洋葱、大蒜和芹菜的混合物填满火鸡腔。然后,把火鸡像鸭子一样串起,合上腔体,用热水烫一下,收紧鸡皮,清理掉任何调料混合物,涂上醋,挂起来晾12个小时。这些年来有很多尝试和失败;火鸡因为太重从钩子上掉下来,不得不扔掉。但是兄弟俩现在已经能对付更大的禽类。

  To further differentiate himself from other Chinese barbecue restaurants in the region, Eric zheng used chicken neck, gizzard and liver to make a southern-style creamy gravy to match their Turkey -- a change he said was inspired by his favorite Fried chicken steaks at restaurants like IHOP.

  为了进一步将自己与该地区其他中国烧烤餐厅区分开来,埃里克·郑用鸡脖、胗和肝制作了一道南方风味的奶油肉汁来搭配他们的火鸡——他说,这一变化的灵感来自于他喜欢吃的IHOP等餐厅的炸鸡排。

  For prosperous customers, who are mostly chinese-americans, Turkey provides a balance that allows them to incorporate American holiday customs without sacrificing flavor. After all, what could be more American than doing what you want?

  对于以美籍华人为主的兴隆的顾客而言,火鸡实现了一种平衡,让他们在不牺牲口感的同时融入美国的节日习俗。毕竟,还有什么比随心所欲更具美国特色呢?

  They want to celebrate the Thanksgiving tradition, but they can't accept the American Turkey, Eric chung said.

  “他们想要庆祝感恩节的传统,但是他们接受不了美国的火鸡,”埃里克·郑说。

  And American turkeys are hard to make. Large turkeys tend to make light, dry chests and blackened wing tips, a challenge for any home cook. This is especially true when Turkey is not part of your cultural culinary tradition.

  而且美国火鸡也很难做好。大块头的火鸡容易做出淡而干燥的胸脯肉和变黑的翼尖,对所有的家庭厨师来说都是一个挑战。当火鸡不是你的文化烹饪传统的一部分时尤其如此。

  Justine Lee, who grew up in the bay area in the 1980s and 1990s with parents who immigrated from Taiwan, said her mother tried to cook Turkey with an American cookbook one year. 'it was torture,' he said.

  成长于上世纪八九十年代的旧金山湾区、父母从台湾移民过来的贾斯汀·李(Justine Lee,音)说,有一年,她母亲尝试用美国烹饪书做火鸡。他说,那完全是一种折磨。

  She was so worried about the Turkey that she didn't have time to think about much else, Ms. Lee said. "I remember it was ok at the end, but at the end my mom said, 'I just don't think it's worth the effort. '" since then, the family has been buying Thanksgiving turkeys from Marina Food, a small California grocery store.

  “她太担心火鸡了,以至于没有时间想太多其他事情,”贾斯汀·李说。“我记得最后结果还好,但到最后我妈妈说,‘我只是觉得不值得费这个功夫。’”从那以后,这家人一直从加州的小型食品连锁店永和超市(Marina Food)买感恩节火鸡。

  While many chinese-american families choose not to bother with the Turkey, in some cases it is inevitable. About 30 years ago, chinese-americans in Chicago began taking raw turkeys from their employers to Sun Wah BBQ's for Thanksgiving. Many were completely unaccustomed to using their ovens, let alone such a large chicken, so they turned to the restaurant for help. (ovens are not typical of Chinese kitchens, where most cooking takes place on the hearth.)

  虽然许多华裔美国家庭选择不去为火鸡费心,但在某些情况下,这无法避免。大约30年前,芝加哥的华裔美国人开始带着从雇主那里得到的感恩节礼品生火鸡去新华烧腊(Sun Wah BBQ)店。许多人完全不习惯使用他们的烤箱,更不用说这么大的鸡,于是他们向餐厅求助。(烤箱并非中国家庭厨房的典型配置,大多数中国家庭烹饪都在灶台上进行。)

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  Asians generally don't really know how to cook a Turkey, said Kelly Cheng, whose family runs the xinhua roast. "That's not what we usually eat."

  “亚裔一般真的不知道怎么做火鸡,”郑文慧(Kelly Cheng)说,新华烧腊是她家的生意。“那不是我们通常吃的东西。”

  But xinhua has a professional kitchen and oven. Have the wisdom of roasting poultry. The only thing to be replaced is the type of poultry. 'that's where the roast Turkey comes from,' says Ms. Zheng.

  但新华有专业的厨房和烤箱。有烤家禽的智慧。唯一要替换进去的只是禽肉的种类。郑文慧说,这就是这家餐厅烤火鸡的由来。

  The restaurant now handles about 120 Thanksgiving Turkey orders. Ms. Zheng, a second-generation member of the company, acknowledged that the operation had become a "nightmare," but said her family enjoyed doing it for loyal customers.

  如今餐厅约处理120份感恩节火鸡订单。郑文彩是这家企业的第二代成员,她承认,这件事在操作上已经变成了“噩梦”,但她说,她的家人喜欢为忠实客户做这件事。

  Their diets have gradually changed to accommodate the oversized birds. They started with the standard spiced sauce for roast duck, but found that it wasn't enough to spice up the whole Turkey, which has more meat and less skin and bones than the duck. They add ginger and cilantro to the marinade to enhance the overall flavor and make it more full-bodied.

  他们的食谱也逐渐改变,以便适应这种超大禽类。他们一开始用的是适合烤鸭的标准五香调料,但发现这不足以给整只火鸡调味,因为和鸭子相比,它们肉多,皮和骨头少。他们在卤汁中加入生姜和香菜,提高整体调味效果,使其更加浓郁。

  Ms. Cheng's brother, Michael Cheng, who operates the roast chicken, said the family enjoyed discussing ways to improve the quality of the bird.

  负责操作烤鸡工序的是郑文彩的兄弟迈克尔·郑(Michael Cheng),她说全家人都喜欢讨论如何改善火鸡质量。

  As the diet changes, so does xinhua's customer base. Cheng estimates that Chinese americans now make up just under half of customers.

  随着食谱的改变,新华的客户群也在改变。郑文彩估计,如今美籍华人在顾客中所占比例略低于一半。

  Bryan Cardenas, who is not Chinese, has been eating xinhua Turkey for Thanksgiving for more than a decade. He has also incorporated Chinese flavors into his holiday cooking, tinkering with his own fresh cranberry sauce and other dishes.

  布莱恩·卡德纳斯(Bryan Cardenas)不是华裔,十多年来,他感恩节吃的一直是新华供应的火鸡。他还将中国风味融入到自己的假日烹饪中,用他自己的新鲜蔓越莓酱等菜式进行小小修改。

  I added a tablespoon of Chinese five-spice powder, he said. "It feels great."

  “我加了一大勺中国五香粉,”他说。“感觉太棒了。”

  Still, zheng doesn't like Turkey, which she thinks is too thin. For years, her grandmother cooked a whole Turkey for the whole family on Thanksgiving Day because a relative could get it for free from the company. But no one was particularly concerned about whether it was good or bad: "the only reason we wanted her to do it was to make porridge the next day," Mr. Zheng said with a smile.

  尽管如此,郑文彩并不喜欢火鸡,她觉得火鸡太瘦了。多年来,她的祖母在感恩节那天都为全家烤整只火鸡,因为一个亲戚可以从公司免费得到火鸡。但是没有人特别在意它是好是坏:“我们想让她做的唯一原因就是第二天可以做粥,”郑文彩笑着说。

  But for other chinese-american families, the fear of missing out on a national pastime can be a powerful motivator. The generation that grew up in the United States learned about Thanksgiving in school and drew turkeys by hand, often at the dinner table at home, encouraged by them.

  不过,对其他华裔美国家庭来说,担心错过一项全国性娱乐活动可能是一种强大动力。在美国长大的这代人在学校里学习感恩节的相关知识,还有用手作模子画火鸡这样的手法,在他们鼓动下,火鸡经常会出现在家中的餐桌上。

  It's such an ingrained part of American culture that we want to take home, but it's completely new to my parents, said Andrew Shiue, a chinese-american writer who writes the blog Beyond Chinatown. "We want to join this American tradition."

  “这是美国文化中根深蒂固的一部分,我们想把它带回家,但这对我的父母来说还是完全陌生的,”博客“城里城外”(Beyond Chinatown)的博主,华裔美国作家薛唯中(Andrew Shiue)说。“我们想加入这个美国传统。”

  Wilson Tang, the owner of Nom Wah Tea Parlor in Manhattan's Chinatown, said his family tried roasting Turkey at home as a child and "played it by luck."

  曼哈顿华埠南华茶室(Nom Wah Tea Parlor)的老板邓伟(Wilson Tang)说,在他小时候,他的家人曾在家里尝试烤火鸡,最终结果如何要“看运气”。

  Yee Li, a nearby butcher shop on yaya street, is the family's main Turkey buyer. The meat is juicier than American Turkey, Mr. Deng said, and the bird is cut neatly into smaller pieces, like roast duck or chicken in soy sauce.

  附近摆也街上的裕利肉铺(Yee Li)是他家购买火鸡的主要去处。邓伟说,那里的肉比美式火鸡多汁,而且店家还会把火鸡切成整齐的小块,就像烤鸭或豉油鸡一样。

  John Chan, a descendant of its owner, opened New Yee Li in January in dyck heights, brooklyn, filling a small market in a region with a growing Chinese immigrant population with traditional cantonese barbecue and other specialties.

  裕利在摆也街上经营了30多年,于今年关门歇业,其所有者的后裔约翰·陈(John Chan)于1月在布鲁克林的戴克高地开了新裕利(New Yee Li),用传统粤式烤肉和其他特色菜填补这个中国移民人口不断增长地区的小市场。

  As a young man, Mr. Chen said, he avoided working in his store during Thanksgiving, when customers were busy buying Turkey. Now, he's looking forward to continuing the Turkey tradition at his new store -- although, he admits, it's not his favorite dish.

  约翰·陈说,年轻时,他尽量避免感恩节期间在自家店内工作,因为那里的顾客都忙着买火鸡。现在,他期待着在新店里延续火鸡的传统——尽管他承认,这不是他最喜欢的菜。

  Actually, I prefer our Italian neighbor's Turkey, Mr. Chen said. "I liked the way they cooked it, but they told me they liked it."

  “实际上,我还是更喜欢我们意大利邻居的火鸡,”陈先生说。“我喜欢他们做火鸡的方式,可他们告诉我,他们喜欢我做的火鸡。”

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