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同是10度天,为何秋天感觉比春天冷?

  This season's first cold wave, always let a person feel particularly cold.

  这一季的第一次寒潮,总让人觉得分外的冷。

  If you've ever wondered if you've been overreacting to the cold weather in early autumn while wearing several layers of clothing, don't give it a second thought. It may not just be your brain, but your body needs time to get used to the cold.

  如果你曾经想知道,穿着好几层衣服的你,是否对初秋的寒冷天气反应太过强烈,还是别想太多。可能不仅仅是你的大脑,你的身体也需要时间来适应寒冷。

  We have a holistic response to winter over time, so if we have a 10-degree weather in February, we feel warm, but if we have a 10-degree weather at this time of year, we feel cold. Said John Castellani, a cold-weather physiologist at the United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Massachusetts.

  “随着时间的推移,我们对冬天产生了一种整体性的反应,所以,比如说二月里碰到一个10摄氏度的天气,我们会觉得很暖和,但如果每年的这个时候碰到,就会觉得好冷,”马萨诸塞州美国陆军环境医学研究所(the United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine)研究寒冷天气的生理学家约翰·卡斯泰拉尼(John Castellani)说。

  Some experts believe the shift in perception is mostly psychological, but others, including Mr. Castellani, think it's not that simple: there is evidence that the body ADAPTS to cold over time.

  一些专家认为,这种感知上的转变主要是心理上的,但包括卡斯泰拉尼在内的另外一些人则认为,事情没有那么简单:有证据表明,随着时间的推移,身体对寒冷有一个逐渐适应的过程。

  Here's a quick look at how our response to the cold in autumn differs from spring, and what we already know and what we still have to learn.

  下面简单介绍一下我们在秋天对寒冷的反应和春天有什么不同,其中哪些是我们已经知道的,又有哪些是我们还有待了解的。

  We are all delicate snowflakes

  我们都是娇气的雪花

  As anyone who has ever argued with someone about the temperature of a room knows, people experience temperature differently, sometimes dramatically.

  为了房间温度的高低设定而跟人发生争执的人都知道,人们对温度的感受是不同的,有时候差异非常剧烈。

  The reasons vary. Studies have found, for example, that larger bodies lose more body heat than smaller ones because they have more surface area. People with thick subcutaneous fat have better body insulation. The old are more cold than the young.

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  个中原因不尽相同。比如,研究发现,因为体表面积更大的缘故,大块头比小身材会散失更多的身体热量。皮下脂肪厚的人身体保温效果更好。老人比年轻人更怕冷。

  Psychology is also a factor. And the same goes for behavior: humans are adept at avoiding cold environments, which also reduces the effects of cold.

  心理也是其中一个因素。还有行为也是如此:人类擅长避开寒冷的环境,这也会减弱寒冷的影响。

  There's an old saying that 'the body is cold, the heart is hot,' said Mike Tipton, a professor of physiology at the University of Portsmouth in England who studies the body's temperature regulation.

  “老话说‘身体是冷的,心是热的’,”英国朴茨茅斯大学(University of Portsmouth)研究人体温度调节的生理学教授迈克·蒂普顿(Mike Tipton)说,“我们把自己裹得严严实实,给房子供暖,穿上衣服,我们在周身重现了我们的热带起源。”

  How the body reacts

  身体会做何反应

  When the temperature drops, sensors on the skin, called temperature sensors, detect the change and send signals to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a small, versatile area of the brain sometimes called the body's thermostat.

  温度下降的时候,皮肤上的传感器,即所谓的温度感受器就会检测到这种变化,并向下丘脑发送信号。下丘脑是大脑中一个多用途的小区域,有时被称为人体的恒温器。

  To maintain a safe core body temperature, the hypothalamus directs the body to do one of two things. The main response is a process called vasoconstriction: the constriction of blood vessels on the surface of the body, allowing warm blood from the extremities and skin to return to the core. The body also generates heat by shivering.

纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com

  为了保持安全的核心体温,下丘脑会引导身体做下面两件事中的一件。主要的反应是一个叫做血管收缩的过程:收缩体表血管,让温暖的血液从四肢和皮肤回到核心部位。身体还会通过发抖的方式产生热量。

  When the skin feels cold, its first reaction is to protect the body, says castellani.

  “当皮肤感受到低温时,它的第一个反应就是保护体内,”卡斯泰拉尼说。

  How does the body adjust

  身体如何调适

  However, these reactions may change over time.

  不过,随着时间的推移,这些反应可能会发生变化。

  Studies of people around the world have found that people who are regularly exposed to the cold become more resistant to the cold simply by shivering or constricting their blood vessels.

  对世界各地的人们进行的研究发现,那些经常暴露在寒冷环境中的人,仅仅是通过发抖或收缩血管就能变得更加耐寒。

  Aboriginal people in Australia, the African desert and the arctic, for example, had significantly fewer physical responses than people who were not exposed to the same cold conditions (deserts tend to drop in temperature at night).

  比如说,澳大利亚、非洲沙漠和北极地区的原住民,跟那些没有处在相同寒冷条件下的人相比,显著的身体反应要少(沙漠到了晚间往往气温骤降)。

  The same was found even in people exposed to the cold in certain ways. For example, fishermen and workers who process fish need to keep their hands in cold water for long periods of time, but studies have found that their hands are warmer in icy water than those of a control group. Similar conditions have been found in slaughterhouse workers who often have to deal with frozen meat.

  甚至在那些以特定方式暴露于寒冷中的人群身上,也发现了同样的情况。例如,渔民和处理鱼的工人需要把手长时间泡在冷水中,但研究发现,在冰冷的水中,他们的手温要高于对照组对象的手温。经常需要处理冻肉的屠宰场工人,也发现存在类似的情形。

  Castellani says this explains how a person in a cold climate ADAPTS to winter.

  卡斯泰拉尼说,这正好解释了一个在寒冷气候里的人是如何慢慢适应冬天的。

  We're going to be cold all winter, but basically we're not going to have a lot of skin shrinkage, he said. 'our area is used to it and we feel warmer because our skin is warmer.' That's why people feel colder about the same temperature in October than they do in February.

  “整个冬天我们都会感到寒气扑脸,但皮肤基本上不会有太大收缩,”他说。“我们的那个区域已经习惯了,由于皮肤温度更高,所以我们感觉也会更暖和。”这就是为什么人们对于同样的温度,出现在十月会比出现在二月让人觉得更冷。

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