快捷搜索: 诚信  善良  中国  纽约时报  自信  诚实 

从曼哈顿到南加州,游遍美国唐人街

Chinatown Revisited
从曼哈顿到南加州,游遍美国唐人街

My mother is the oldest of five siblings, most of whom grew up in New York’s Chinatown. They are voracious eaters and bargain hunters, and lifelong visitors to Chinese neighborhoods everywhere. When we talk about a good Chinatown, we point to certain signs: live fish for sale, dragon eyes in sidewalk produce displays, smokers, crowds.

我母亲在五个兄弟姐妹中是老大。他们大都在纽约的唐人街长大,喜欢大吃大喝、买便宜货,一辈子出入于各种华人社区。我们说哪个唐人街不错时,指的是一些其特有的标志:商店里有活鱼卖,路边的菜摊上有龙眼,路上有抽烟的人、而且人很多。

A few years ago, I wrote a book about American Chinatowns and my family’s history in them. People often ask, “What’s your favorite Chinatown?” or “What do you look for?” I wondered if there was a shorthand I could offer, to sum up the best of the best. And so: fish, dragons, smoke, crowds.

几年前我写过一本关于美国唐人街以及我家与其息息相关的历史的书。人们经常问我:“你最喜欢哪儿的唐人街?”或“你在唐人街主要看重哪些东西?”于是,我想是否能简短地回答这个问题,把佼佼者的特点总结出来。让我试试这几个词吧:活鱼、龙眼、吸烟、人多。

Live fish mean that there are enough people buying to make the trouble of caring for the seafood worthwhile. The dragon eye — longan in Cantonese — is a strange fruit, a sweet, subtly fragrant exotic with coarse, sandpapery skin. Shaped like, well, an eyeball, it slips out of its brown covering to reveal translucent white flesh, with a hard mahogany seed inside. You have to know how to eat it, by cracking the whole thing open like a peanut. Chinese people are crazy for longan. Like the aforementioned fish, its presence indicates a recently arrived populace desiring a range of fresh food — some of it still swimming — not usually seen in the corner grocery.

活鱼意味着这里有足够多的人来买,让照顾这些海鲜的麻烦比较值得。龙眼是一种奇怪的水果,甜甜的,有一种异域的芳香,果壳像砂纸一样粗糙。龙眼的形状看起来就像是眼球,剥去棕黄色的果壳,露出来的是半透明的白色果肉,里面包着一颗硬硬的红棕色果核。你需要知道怎么吃它,要像剥花生一样把整个壳剥开。很多华人酷爱吃龙眼。和前面提到的活鱼一样,龙眼的出现表明这里有新近到来的一群人,他们喜欢各种新鲜食品,包括水里游着的,而这些东西在街角杂货店里通常是看不到的。

The smokers? In the United States the smoking rate is at a new low. Not so in China; it’s the world’s biggest consumer of cigarettes. As strange as it may seem, smoking is a strong cultural indicator that a Chinatown continues to serve a vibrant population of immigrants. A Chinese restaurant with a bunch of cooks smoking out back, or customers puffing while waiting for a table? Worth a try! It’s one that’s less likely to be Americanized.

抽烟的人?在美国,抽烟者的比例已降到了新低。但在中国并不是这样;中国是世界上最大的香烟消费国。这看起来也许有点奇怪,不过抽烟的确是唐人街的一个重要文化标志,表明其仍继续在为生机勃勃的移民群体提供服务。在一家中餐馆的后门外有一群吞云吐雾的厨师、门前等桌子的顾客在抽烟?这家餐馆值得一试!它不太可能是一家已经美国化的餐馆。

New immigrants mean a certain density and that prices aren’t too high. The more people, the better. “The best for less,” my mom sings when she’s spotted a particularly pleasing find: swinging roast ducks in a window, the skin lacquered and crispy (just $18.50 for a whole duck!), or sprightly, rubber-banded bunches of scallions (two for a dollar!). A carefully placed elbow here, a strategically waving hand there, and she emerges, triumphant, prize in hand. Yao peng, yao leng: cheap, and pretty.

新移民也意味着一定的人口密度,以及价格不会太高。人越多越好。当我妈看到一件让她特别开心的东西时会唱起来:“好货更便宜。”比如,橱窗里挂的烤鸭,鸭皮油亮松脆,一整只才卖18.5美元( 约合110元人民币)!或是橡皮筋扎起来的一把把青翠的小葱(1美元两把!)她小心翼翼地用胳臂肘在这里一挤,用手在那里战略性地一挥,就拿着战利品得胜而归。又平又靓:又便宜又好。

These are signs to look for in a good Chinatown, especially as Lunar New Year celebrations on Jan. 31 bring a crush of visitors. Of course, Chinatowns in this country come in markedly different incarnations these days.

这些都是好的唐人街里应该看到的东西,尤其是随着1月31日农历新年的到来把大群游客吸引到唐人街的时候。当然,如今美国各地的唐人街已有了明显不同的特色。

Years ago, they were dense neighborhoods in cities like San Francisco and New York, serving as refuges from racism, entry points to America, residential and cultural epicenters of Chinese-American life. This is the rule no longer. Many historic Chinatowns, like those in Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Portland, Ore., have faded. New patterns of Chinese migration send upwardly mobile populations straight to houses in the suburbs and job opportunities in cities far from the coasts. In those places, large Asian shopping malls and supermarkets are the gathering place. Some Chinatowns spring fully formed from the suburban asphalt, with pagoda roofs and paifang, or welcome gates, spearheaded by a local government or business association hoping to draw visitors.

好几年前,唐人街是旧金山和纽约这样的城市中拥挤的社区,是躲避种族主义的避难所,是进入美国的切入口,也是美籍华裔生活的文化中心。但这个常规已经被打破了。很多历史上著名的唐人街,比如洛杉矶的、费城的、俄勒冈州波特兰的那些,已经淡出。中国移民的新模式让那些向社会经济地位上层升迁的人群,直接进入郊区的住房,在远离海岸的城市中找到就业机会。在这些地方,大型的亚洲购物商场和超市成了他们聚集的地点。有些唐人街从郊区的柏油路上破土而出,宝塔和牌楼一应俱全,这种唐人街一般得到在当地政府或商会组织的支持,为的是吸引更多的游客。

“This ethnic community today is a spectrum, from the most concentrated to the most dispersed,” said Wei Li, a professor of Asian Pacific American studies at Arizona State University whose work focuses on the geography of ethnic communities. “What each one looks like depends on the geography of a particular city, and the maturity of the Asian population there.”

亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)的李唯是研究亚太裔美国人的教授,主要从事民族社区的地理研究,她说,“如今的民族社区各种各样,从特别集中的到特别分散的都有。社区的样子取决于其所在城市的地理条件、以及那里的亚裔人口成形的时间长短。”

But in their own ways, they all fill cultural as well as commercial needs, she said.

但是,她说,这些社区都以其特有的方式来满足人们的文化和商业需求。

The Chinatown brand, in fact, has come to mean something more than just Chinese. Later this year, “North Carolina Chinatown” is to open near the Raleigh-Durham airport. Even though developers are calling it a Chinatown, their design deliberately encompasses all Asian cultures.

唐人街这个牌子其实早就不仅仅意味着只与华人有关。今年晚些时候,“北卡罗来纳唐人街”将在罗利-达勒姆机场附近开张。尽管开发商称之为唐人街,但他们的设计却明显包含着所有的亚洲文化。

Though many newfangled Chinatowns may be retail instead of residential, the signs hold true. You’ll find tanks of live blue crabs and geoduck, a species of large clam, at Shun Fat Supermarket in Monterey Park, Calif.; heaping displays of longan and long beans at MT Supermarket in the Chinatown Center mall in Austin, Tex.; clouds of smoke in the parking lot of Chinatown Plaza in Las Vegas, where folks perch with the local Chinese newspaper. And plenty of people, speaking all kinds of dialects and hailing from all over China. They come by car now, not on foot.

虽然很多新的唐人街也许只是为了零售业务,而不再是居住区,但我说的那些标志仍然有效。在加利福尼亚州蒙特雷帕克的顺发超市(Shun Fat Supermarket)中,你仍能看到水槽里的活蓝蟹和活象拔蚌(一种大型贝类);在德克萨斯州奥斯汀唐人街中心购物商场的美成超市(MT Market)里,有成堆的龙眼和豇豆;在拉斯维加斯唐人街广场的停车场上,腾起一团团的烟圈,人们坐在那里读当地的中文报纸。而且人很多,他们讲着各种方言,来自中国各地。他们现在开车、而不是走路来唐人街。

That’s all fine and good, you say, but what’s the best? To me, the differences between Chinatowns are to be celebrated; the good ones reflect life in all its rhythms. To that end, I recently revisited the question of my favorites with a “best in class” approach. I went in search of fish and dragons. Here’s what I found.

这些唐人街都不错,你或许会说,但哪个最好呢?对我来说,唐人街与唐人街之间的差别应该被当成好东西来庆祝;好的唐人街反映了生活的各种节奏。为此,我最近本着寻找“同类中最佳”的方法重温了那些我最喜欢的东西。我去寻找了活鱼和龙眼。下面是我的发现。

Traditional

传统类

New York City for its milieu, markets and history.

纽约唐人街以其社会背景、市场及历史为传统类的首选。

Manhattan’s longstanding Chinatown has a centrality and a feeling of constant renewal, a vibrant depth, that beats out other historic Chinatowns in cities like San Francisco and Chicago.

曼哈顿历史悠久的唐人街给人以中心地位的感觉,也给有一种不断更新、充满生机的气息,这让旧金山和芝加哥等其他城市那些同样历史悠久的唐人街相形失色。

The New York chef Wylie Dufresne, of the restaurants WD-50 and Alder, regularly walks around Chinatown sniffing out weird, beautiful, bright ingredients in places like Hong Kong Supermarket on Hester Street.

纽约市WD-50餐厅和阿尔德餐厅(Alder)的主厨怀利·迪弗雷纳(Wylie Dufresne)会定期去逛唐人街,在像海斯特街的香港超市这样的地方寻找奇怪、美妙而鲜艳的配料。

“By going there, you can pick it out yourself,” he said. “You can hold it in your hand. And there is always the opportunity you’ll come across not just one or two, but 20 things you’ve never encountered before.”

他说,“在那里你能自己挑选。你可以把它们拿在手里。而且总有那样的机会,让你不仅仅发现一两种、而是20种你以前从没见过的东西。”

For Mr. Dufresne, celebrated for his novel approaches to cooking — palm seeds infused with Angostura bitters, a pig in a blanket that features Chinese sausage and bread pushed through a pasta maker — the surprising “urban pantry” that is Manhattan’s Chinatown is a jolt to creativity.

迪弗雷纳因其创意的烹饪方式而闻名,他曾用安哥斯图拉苦酒泡棕榈籽,将乳猪包在一个用中国式香肠做的毯子里,还曾让面包穿过意大利面条轧机。对迪弗雷纳来说,曼哈顿唐人街是一个充满出人意料的东西的“城市尺度的食品贮藏室”,是激发创意灵感的地方。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

Chinese or not, people make daily pilgrimages to this neighborhood to shop, to eat, to wander. It has been home to successive waves of Chinese immigration dating back to the 1870s, when the hunt for new employment started to pull Gold Rushers and railroad workers east. Today, the New York metro area has the biggest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, and includes booming enclaves in Queens, Brooklyn, even Harlem.

不管是不是华裔,每天都有大批的人到纽约唐人街来购物、吃饭或闲逛。这里从1870年代以来就一直是一波波中国移民的居住地,当时新的就业机会将淘金者和铁路工人吸引到了东海岸。如今,整个纽约大都市地区有着亚洲以外最多的华人,包括皇后区、布鲁克林区甚至哈勒姆区里人口激增的华人居住片。

Lower Manhattan’s Chinatown, roughly bounded by Delancey and Chambers Streets on the north and south and stretching from Broadway to the East River, is still a central hub connecting those spokes (though the 2010 census found about 48,000 residents in the neighborhood, experts caution that figures are under-reported). Everybody has an opinion of what’s worth the trip. For my aunt, it’s the dried shrimp and mushrooms. For the woman walking in front of me on Hester, it’s tofu, with a couple of spiky dragon fruit for good measure. The teenagers on the corner? Bubble tea from Silkroad Place, on Mott.

曼哈顿下城的唐人街南北大致以德兰西街和钱伯斯街为界,西起百老汇大道,东至东河,这里仍是连接上述新区的中心纽带。(虽然2010年人口普查结果显示,在这里的长住人口为4.8万,但专家警告说,该数字低于实际人口。)每个人对什么东西值得让他来这里一趟的看法各不相同。对我的姨妈来说,来这里是为了买干虾米和干蘑菇。对在海斯特街上走在我前面的女子来说,是豆腐,顺便买几个外皮带刺的火龙果。对街角的青少年来说呢?是莫特街丝路吧(Silkroad Place)的珍珠奶茶。

Though there are numerous central subway stops along traffic-glutted Canal Street, the best entry to Chinatown is an oblique one, like the Grand Street station on the B and D lines. Get out there, and you are where Chinatown lives and breathes: Hester Street Playground. Small, human-scale dramas unfold: Teenage boys battle on the basketball courts, girls at the handball walls. Old men hold forth on benches, arguing companionably over cards. Young children govern the slides and swings.

虽然车水马龙的运河街沿途有很多处于中心地带的地铁站,但是,进入唐人街的最佳入口却在不那么明显的地方,而是在比如B线和D线的格兰街站。在这里下车,出站后你就到了唐人街的纵深之处:海斯特街游戏场。眼前上演的是小型人间戏剧:十几岁的男孩在篮球场上激战,女孩在手球墙前竞赛。老年男子坐在长凳上滔滔不绝地就牌局展开友好的争论。小孩子们则占领了滑梯和秋千。

Depending on what street you’re on, Chinatown is Cantonese and Taishanese: Mott Street, the historic center of the neighborhood, is home to these two longstanding populations from Guangdong province. Or it is Fujianese, along East Broadway, the more recently established main drag that emerged with the influx of immigrants from Fujian province in the early 1990s. Mandarin, the official dialect of China, is now the default everywhere at shops in between. The richness of experience, like New York itself, is what makes this old-school Chinatown so great.

你在唐人街能听到哪种方言取决于你在哪条街上,广东话或台山话集中在莫特街,这里是纽约唐人街的历史中心,一直住着来自广东省两个地方的群体。沿东百老汇大道听到的是福建话,那里是更近期的移民聚居的主要街道,他们于20世纪90年代初从福建省大批涌入。中国的官方语言普通话则是位于这两条街之间的各家商店的默认语言。这种丰富多彩的体验,正如纽约市本身,让这个古老的唐人街如此地美好。

Suburban

郊区类

Monterey Park, Calif., “the Chinese Beverly Hills,” for its variety of food and epic concentration of Chinese.

加利福尼亚州蒙特雷帕克是所谓的“中国贝弗利山”(Chinese Beverly Hills),这里的食物品种之多、华人之集中别处无可比拟,因此是郊区类的首选。

At the freeway exit for Atlantic Boulevard, I’m tailing a van for Noodle World, a local chain whose logo is a spiky-haired cartoon boy excitedly slurping a bowl of noodles. As I wander on Atlantic and then head on to Garvey Avenue, the main drag, Monterey Park’s other nicknames — the first suburban Chinatown, Little Taipei — ring true with the soundtrack of the place, which is Mandarin, Cantonese, Taiwanese, Vietnamese ... everything but English.

在通往大西洋大道的高速公路出口,我紧跟在一辆小货车的后面,货车厢上有当地连锁店”皇上皇面家”(Noodle World)的标志,画的是一个留着刺头的卡通男孩兴奋地吃着一碗面。我在大西洋大道上开着车,向这里的主要街道加维大街驶去,蒙特雷帕克的另外几个绰号逐一变得名副其实,比如第一个郊区唐人街、小台北等,因为你在依次听到普通话、广东话、台湾话、越南话…… 就是没有英语。

Ten miles east of downtown Los Angeles, Monterey Park is the first American city with a majority population of Asians; nearly 50 percent are of Chinese descent (in 2010, the city’s total population was 60,269). A trip here is a special experience, different from traveling abroad, because in many ways it is just like any American suburb, except that everyone is Asian and businesses have Chinese signage and are housed in mini-mall complexes with names like Jade Plaza.

蒙特雷帕克位于洛杉矶市以东约16公里的地方,是第一座多数人口为亚裔的美国城市;这里有近一半的人是华裔(2010年,该市的总人口为60269)。来这里旅行是一种特别的经历,不同于去国外的旅行,因为这里在很多方面都与其他美国郊区没有差别,只是在这里看到的都是亚裔,这里的商店都有中文招牌,而且都开在名字诸如白玉广场(Jade Plaza)之类的微型购物中心内。

In north Monterey Park at Atlantic Times Square, a luxury mall and condominium complex, a man sells Chinese newspapers at the parking garage, and the movie theater shows films such as “Linsanity,” a documentary on Jeremy Lin and his memorable N.B.A. start with the New York Knicks two years ago. Residents live in fancy condos above the 24 Hour Fitness, come down to work out and head next door to the dim sum palace to meet friends afterward. At the entrance to the Wing Hip Fung herbal market, a prominently placed sign practically shouts: “NO SMOKING Within 20 Feet of The Entrance.”

在蒙特雷帕克北部的大西洋时代广场(Atlantic Times Square),一名男子在停车场里兜售中文报纸。这里的影院在放映诸如《林来疯》(Linsanity)这样的电影。这是一部关于林书豪(Jeremy Lin)的纪录片,讲述他本人的故事,以及他两年前在纽约尼克斯队(New York Knicks)开始难忘的美国职业篮球联赛(NBA)征程的经历。大西洋时代广场是一座集奢华的购物中心和公寓为一体的建筑。居民们住在高档公寓,楼下有家24小时健身中心(24 Hour Fitness)。他们走下楼来,到外面去上班,之后到隔壁的点心铺里和朋友会面。在永协丰参茸行(Wing Hip Fung)的入口处,立着一块显眼的招牌,大意是:“入口20英尺范围内严禁吸烟。”

I watched a tour guide emerge from the escalator and lead a group of wide-eyed non-Chinese visitors on a lunchtime stroll around the shops. It’s a tourist destination, much the way a traditional Chinatown is.

我看到一名导游出现在自动扶梯上,带着一队大开眼界的非华人旅行团,午餐时间到店里闲逛。这里是一个旅游景点,与传统的唐人街没什么两样。

David Chan, a third-generation Chinese-American and accountant in Los Angeles who writes a food blog and is famous for eating at and documenting 6,000-plus Chinese restaurants around the world, has said that what qualifies as “authentic” Chinese cuisine is whether a Chinese person living in Monterey Park would deign to dine there. Right here in town, you can eat your way across China. But he also told me that Monterey Park has grown into a bigger metaphor, representing the whole of what the San Gabriel Valley has become.

第三代华裔美国人戴维·陈(David Chan)是洛杉矶的一名会计师,也是美食博客专栏的作者,因为品尝并记录了全球6000余家中餐馆而闻名。他说,判断一家中餐馆的菜肴是否“地道”,要看住在蒙特雷帕克的华人是否会大驾光临地到那里就餐。在这里,你能尝遍大江南北的佳肴。不过,他还对我说,蒙特雷帕克已经变成一种寓意更广泛的象征,代表着圣盖博谷目前的整体形象。

“Somebody once described San Gabriel Valley as a Chinatown the size of Manhattan,” he said. “One street can have 200 Chinese restaurants. The demographics make it very different from New York; the Chinese community in L.A. is more middle class and upper middle class, and it’s contiguous, less fragmented. And you have the second generation, the ‘626 generation’ ” — named for the area code — “that’s very food-centric.”<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

他说,“有人曾说,圣盖博谷是有着曼哈顿规模的唐人街。一条街上能有200家中餐馆。人口构成让它大大有别于纽约;洛杉矶县的华人社区有更多的中产阶级和中上阶层,街区绵延成片,分散性小。那里住着第二代华裔移民,所谓的‘626世代’”——626是区域代码——“餐馆非常密集。”

Across the street from Atlantic Times Square is Huge Tree Pastry, a popular and inexpensive Taiwanese breakfast place where I ordered hot soybean milk and you tiao, a long, fried Chinese cruller. The décor is no-frills (utilitarian tables, fluorescent lights, ceiling fans), but the service is warm and gracious. The all-Chinese crowd was mixed in age: a trim businesswoman in heels; a man with an iPad; an extended family of grandmother, infant and sleepy-eyed parents. I left through a cloud of smoke exhaled by a 20-something couple outside, working their smartphones.

大西洋时代广场对面的街上有一家广受欢迎的平价台湾早餐店,名叫大树豆浆点心(Huge Tree Pastry)。我在那里点了热豆浆和油条,那是一种长条状的油炸饼。店内装潢简朴(只有实用的桌子、荧光灯和吊扇),不过服务亲切,温暖人心。就餐的顾客都是华人,年龄各异:有穿着高跟鞋的苗条女商人;有带着iPad的男子;还有浩浩荡荡的一家子,祖母、小宝宝和睡眼惺忪的父母全齐了。店外,一对20来岁的伴侣一边吸烟, 一边摆弄着自己的智能手机。我穿过二人喷出的烟雾离开了那里。

Monterey Park is packed with places like Kam Hong Garden, a specialist in knife-cut Shanxi noodles and hot, gamy broths, and Elite Restaurant, a tidy, upscale dim sum establishment that eschews the traditional rolling trolleys for a more civilized made-to-order experience. The glazed roast pork buns are soft and chewy, the wok-tossed Chinese broccoli crunchy and fresh. Wherever I went I spent little, and departed with leftovers.

蒙特雷帕克遍布着像家乡小馆(Kam Hong Garden)这样的餐馆。这是一家专做山西刀削面和重口味热汤的餐馆。还有名流山庄(Elite Restaurant),一家环境整洁的高档点心馆。它没有采用传统的手推餐车,提供了更为文明的点餐体验。油亮的叉烧包松软耐嚼,白灼芥兰鲜嫩爽口。每到一处我花的钱都是少之又少,离开时却总要打包。

At Shau May, hidden away in a sprawling strip-malled block of medical offices, clothing shops, Yunnan restaurants and travel agencies, I ordered a Taiwanese shaved ice to go. All eyes were glued to the Chinese soap opera airing on a flat-screen television on the wall. The shaved ice, with sweet red beans, almond jelly, lychee and condensed milk, was the perfect dessert beverage to take on the road.

在康康小美(Shau May),我点了一碗台湾刨冰带走。这家小店藏身于一大片商铺区,周围全是医馆、服装店、云南菜馆和旅行社。所有人的目光都被墙上的平板电视里播放的中文肥皂剧给吸引住了。刨冰是适合带上路的完美甜品,里面混着红豆沙、杏仁冻、荔枝和炼乳。

Fabricated

人造类

Las Vegas, for pioneering an invented Chinatown mall experience that has come to be its own authentic creation. Honorable mention for most promising micro-Chinatown: Austin.

拉斯维加斯开创了在仿制版唐人街体验购物的先河,已经成为实打实的创举,因此是人造类唐人街的首选。此外,入围最有前途迷你唐人街荣誉候选名单的是:奥斯汀。

Las Vegas is known for all things man-made. In 1995, inspired by his experience in Los Angeles’s Chinatown in the 1970s, a Taiwanese developer named James Chen opened a shopping complex, Chinatown Plaza, just west of the neon lights of the Vegas Strip. Since then, a bona fide Chinatown has unexpectedly bloomed in the desert, with the area’s fast-growing community turning Spring Mountain Road into a busy three-mile stretch of Asian businesses. A sign this Chinatown is legit? A stop here is now de rigueur for tourists from China, who come to eat, take photos and check the attraction off their lists.

拉斯维加斯因为各种人造景观而闻名。1995年,台湾开发商陈之诚(James Chen)受自己上世纪70年代在洛杉矶唐人街经历的启发,在拉斯维加斯大道的霓虹灯以西创建了中国城商场(Chinatown Plaza)。自那时起,一座真正的唐人街出人意料地在沙漠里兴盛起来,迅速发展的当地社区把春山路变成了一条三英里长的繁华的亚洲商业街。要问表明这座唐人街货真价实的标志是什么?它现在是中国游客必经的旅游目的地。他们到这里用餐、拍照,照着行程单核对景点。

It was perhaps inevitable that other cities would attempt to capitalize on the Chinatown marquee, whether or not the places actually had historic ties to Chinese immigrants. In 2002, in the land of Disney, a Chinese developer bestowed Orlando, Fla., with a shopping center with a Chinese bookstore and supermarket, plus Vietnamese, Korean and Indian businesses. Last year, it got a brand-new set of welcome arches, made in China.

不管实际上是否和华人移民存在历史上的关联,其他一些城市试图利用唐人街片区的现象或许都在所难免。2002年, 一名中国开发商在佛罗里达州奥兰多的迪士尼乐园里建造了一家购物中心,里面有一家中文书店和超市,还有越南、韩国和印度商铺。去年,这座中心装了一组崭新的、中国制造的牌坊。

Cities like Houston, Atlanta, Salt Lake City — as well as the Raleigh-Durham area in North Carolina — have tried to market their Chinese-themed malls to tourists, as if having a Chinatown lends cachet (Atlanta’s has a six-restaurant food court and a koi pond). Some developers have built for an Asian audience that is diverse, scattered or small, but the mall has become a gathering ground.

休斯顿、亚特兰大和盐湖城等地,还有北卡罗来纳州的罗利-达勒姆地区,都在试图向游客推销他们的华人主题购物中心,仿佛有唐人街就会平添几分魅力(亚特兰大的购物中心里有一条由六家餐厅组成的美食街和一个锦鲤池塘)。一些开发商针对亚裔群体进行开发,不论这一群体的背景多么不同、居住多么分散,或是规模多么小,但商场本身都变成了聚集地。

Worth noting for a fledgling Chinatown in this manufactured, pan-Asian category is Austin, a laid-back city, home to the University of Texas, that in recent years has seen its tech industry and South by Southwest festival take off. The Chinatown there may still be emerging, but the cabdrivers know it. Fifteen minutes north of downtown, the centerpiece is Chinatown Center, a mall that opened in 2006 and is anchored by the gargantuan MT Supermarket. The area is a work-in-progress, fueled by the booming Asian population: 6.5 percent of the total population, far above the national 4.2 percent, with numbers expected to double by 2020.

在这种人造的泛亚洲类别中,最值得注意的新兴唐人街就在奥斯汀。这座城市很悠闲,德克萨斯州大学也位于此处。近年来,这里的科技行业和西南偏南音乐节都得到了快速发展。奥斯汀的唐人街或许仍处于初步发展阶段,但出租车司机对它还是了解的。在市中心以北15分钟路程的地方,地处中央地带的是中国城(Chinatown Center)。这家商场于2006年开业,主打巨大的美成超市。这个区域目前仍在发展,不断增加的亚洲人口也对其起了促进作用:亚裔在总人口中占6.5%,远高于全国4.2%的平均水平,而且预计将在2020年翻番。

Like Las Vegas’s Chinatown Plaza, Chinatown Center in Austin hosts a Lunar New Year celebration. At the entrance to MT Supermarket, Dorothy Huang greeted me with a hug. For 30 years, she has been the pre-eminent authority on Chinese cooking in Texas; for the last decade, she has taught classes and led dim sum and market tours in Austin. That she is the de facto ambassador for Chinatown and Chinese cooking there speaks to the small-town feel of the community.

与拉斯维加斯的中国城商场一样,奥斯汀的唐人街也会举办活动来庆祝农历新年。在美成超市入口,多萝西·黄(Dorothy Huang,音译)用拥抱对我表示了问候。30年来,她一直是德州中餐烹饪的著名权威人士;过去10年间,她不仅授课,而且还带人在奥斯汀品尝点心并参观市场。她实际上扮演了当地唐人街和中式烹饪的大使一职,这恰恰体现了社区的小城感觉。

“It’s not the traditional Chinatown; it’s different because it’s commercial but not residential, not yet,” Ms. Huang said as we took a lap through the aisles and passed an impressive display of all manner of fish ball (essentially a meatball made with fish, it’s an addition to Chinese soups). The diversity of the district reflects where many Chinatowns have gone: Chinatown Center was developed by Cambodians, is anchored by a Vietnamese tenant and hosts Chinese and Korean-owned restaurants.

“它不是传统的唐人街;不同之处在于它是商业性的,而不是供人居住的,至少目前还没有,”多萝西·黄边说,我们边绕着走廊转了一圈,还看到了一个漂亮地摆放着各种鱼丸的摊位(鱼丸即用鱼肉做成的丸子,是中餐里用来做汤的材料)。这个区域的多样性反映了许多唐人街的现状:柬埔寨人开发,由越南人承租,里面有中餐馆和韩国料理店。

Ms. Huang said that the Chinese population — indeed, the Asian population overall — is at a tipping point, and it’s what makes the area intriguing to visit now.

多萝西·黄说,华人——实际上是整个亚裔团体——正处于迅速增加的阶段,这也是这些地方现在值得一去的原因。

“You are watching change happen right in front of you,” she said.

她说,“你能在眼皮底下看着变化发生。”

That afternoon, we explored North Lamar Boulevard, Burnet Road and the stretch of U.S. 183 between them. We ate lobster, straight from the tank and delicately wok-fried, and fresh roast duck at First Chinese BBQ, and examined the leaf-wrapped rice jung at Texas Bakery. Evidence of Austin’s fast-changing demographics could be seen just past the Austin Chinese Church, which Ms. Huang attends (“on the weekends, all the Chinese go to the supermarket after church”), at the new Asian American Resource Center, an expansive, elegant community center run by the city’s parks department. The center opened in September, hosting tea social hours, culinary classes, festivals and exhibitions; its mission, as surprising as it may be to visitors, is to introduce them to all things Asian in Austin.

下午,我们去了拉玛北大道、伯内特路,以及它们之间的183国道。我们吃了从水槽里直接捞出来再经过精心烹制的龙虾,在第一烧腊(First Chinese BBQ)吃了刚出炉的烤鸭,还在德州烘焙(Texas Bakery)品尝了粽子。奥斯汀华人教会(Austin Chinese Church)——这是多萝西·黄做礼拜的地方(“每到周末,所有华人都会在做完礼拜后去超市”)——过去一点,就能找到该市人口构成正在迅速变化的证据。那里是新亚裔资源中心(Asian American Resource Center),一个巨大而考究的社区活动中心,由奥斯汀公园管理处负责运营。该中心于去年9月开业,活动包括茶话会、烹饪课、节庆活动和展览。它的任务或许会让游客感到惊奇——让他们了解奥斯汀所有具有亚洲特色的事物。

There’s something real to be found in these made-up Chinatowns. In Las Vegas, with its extravagant five-star dining, people go to Chinatown for the simple reason that no other part of the city offers such great food at such a good price. The restaurants in Chinatown have quality chefs, the malls are walkable, the streets are clean and there’s plenty of parking.

这类人造唐人街上也有一些真东西。在满是豪华五星级饭店的拉斯维加斯,人们来唐人街只有一个简单理由,那就是,这座城市没有其他任何地方能提供如此物美价廉的食物。唐人街的厨师手艺精湛,商场适合步行,街道干净,而且还有充足的车位。

This kind of Chinatown is the future, Mr. Chen, its founder, told me: a modern Chinatown befitting this modern city. The distinctive feeling of standing slightly apart from the urban milieu is still there, but it’s mostly due to the language of the place; these new Chinatowns make a concentrated effort to invite the surrounding community. Five thousand people attend the Lunar New Year celebrations each year, and Chinatown Plaza’s parking lot is packed with performers and food vendors. It’s a refreshingly earnest hit of culture in a place that’s always pretending to be something else.

这种唐人街才符合未来的趋势。其创立者陈先生告诉我:现代的唐人街适合这座现代化的城市。那种与都市生活稍微拉开距离的特殊感觉仍然存在,但这基本是因为当地的语言。为了吸引周围的人们,此类新式唐人街做出了巨大的努力。每年都有5000人参加拉斯维加斯的农历新年庆祝活动,中国城商场的停车场里挤满了表演者和小贩。在这个总是伪装自己的地方,唐人街是一种真实而新鲜的文化冲击。

“Chinatown,” then, has become a cultural shorthand for many things in America. Not everyone agrees on what they are, but the draws of the place — good food, promise for the recently arrived, density of experience — are the few constants, and proven comfort, no matter what the origin story.

这样,“唐人街”便成了美国许多东西的文化符号。并非每个人都认可它们,但是这里的吸引力就在于几项经久不变而令人舒心的东西——高品质的食物、初来乍到的新鲜感,以及丰富的体验——不论它们的起源是怎样的。

网站部分信息来源于自互联网和网友上传,只为方便大家查询浏览,请自行核对信息的真实情况,本站将不承担任何责任!

您可以还会对下面的文章感兴趣:

  • 36小时环游新加坡
  • 辞掉工作、花了57天,他们找回了走失的狗
  • 中国颁布新规,限制未成年人玩游戏
  • 5个要点,迅速了解特朗普弹劾调查最新关键证词
  • 改善健康也许很简单:每天少吃300卡
  • 最新评论

    留言与评论(共有 条评论)
       
    验证码: