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中国城镇化中那些消失了的乡村与民俗

更新时间:2014-2-9 12:15:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In China, ‘Once the Villages Are Gone, the Culture Is Gone’
中国城镇化中那些消失了的乡村与民俗

BEIJING — Once or twice a week, a dozen amateur musicians meet under a highway overpass on the outskirts of Beijing, carting with them drums, cymbals and the collective memory of their destroyed village. They set up quickly, then play music that is almost never heard anymore, not even here, where the steady drone of cars muffles the lyrics of love and betrayal, heroic deeds and kingdoms lost.

北京——每周一到两次,十几个业余戏曲表演者都会在北京郊区的一座公路高架桥底下碰面,带着鼓、钹,还有对夷为平地的村庄的共同记忆。他们很快组成班子,然后开始表演一种几乎已经绝迹的戏曲,即使在当地也很少再听到这种曲子了——那些讲述爱情、背叛、英雄事迹,以及王朝的歌词被淹没在了持续的汽车轰鸣声中。

The musicians used to live in Lei Family Bridge, a village of about 300 households near the overpass. In 2009, the village was torn down to build a golf course and residents were scattered among several housing projects, some a dozen miles away.

这些戏曲表演者以前住在雷家桥,高架桥附近一个有着大约300户人家的小村庄。2009年,为修建一座高尔夫球场,雷家桥拆迁,村民被分散安置到几个不同的住宅区里,有的距离原来的村子有数十公里远。

Now, the musicians meet once a week under the bridge. But the distances mean the number of participants is dwindling. Young people, especially, do not have the time.

现如今,这些表演者每周在大桥底下碰面。不过,由于住得远,参与人数不断减少。尤其是年轻人,他们没时间。

“I want to keep this going,” said Lei Peng, 27, who inherited leadership of the group from his grandfather. “When we play our music, I think of my grandfather. When we play, he lives.”

“我想让表演继续办下去,”27岁的雷鹏说。他从祖父手中接管了这个剧团。“我们表演的时候,我会想到爷爷。我们演,他就活着。”

Across China, cultural traditions like the Lei family’s music are under threat. Rapid urbanization means village life, the bedrock of Chinese culture, is rapidly disappearing, and with it, traditions and history.

在中国各地,像雷家的戏曲这样的文化传统正遭受威胁。快速的城镇化意味着,作为中国文化基石的乡村生活正在迅速消失,而随之不复存在的还有传统和历史。

“Chinese culture has traditionally been rural-based,” says Feng Jicai, a well-known author and scholar. “Once the villages are gone, the culture is gone.”

“从传统上讲,中国文化一直是以乡土社会为基础的,”著名作家兼学者冯骥才说。“一旦村庄消失,文化也会随之流逝。”

That is happening at a stunning rate. In 2000, China had 3.7 million villages, according to research by Tianjin University. By 2010, that figure had dropped to 2.6 million, a loss of about 300 villages a day.

而这,正以惊人的速度发生着。根据天津大学的研究,2000年,中国有370万座村庄。到了2010年,这一数字已下降到260万,这就意味着,每天有大约300座村庄消失。

For decades, leaving the land was voluntary, as people moved to the cities for jobs. In the past few years, the shift has accelerated as governments have pushed urbanization, often leaving villagers with no choice but to move.

数十年来,人们自愿离开土地,为找工作而迁移到城市。而过去几年,随着政府大力推进城镇化,通常情况下,村民除了进城别无选择,从而使这一转变加速。

China’s top leadership has equated urbanization with modernization and economic growth. Local governments are also promoting it, seeing the sale of rural land rights as a way to compensate for a weak tax base. Evicting residents and selling long-term leases to developers has become a favored method for local governments to balance budgets and local officials to line their pockets. Numerous local officials are under investigation for corruption linked to rural land sales.

中国最高领导层将城镇化等同于现代化和经济发展。地方政府则把出让农村地权视为弥补税基薄弱的一种方式,也促进了城镇化的发展。驱赶住户然后将长期租赁权出让给开发商,已经成为地方政府平衡预算、官员中饱私囊所惯用的手法。很多地方官员正因和农村土地权出让有关的腐败而接受调查。

Destroying villages and their culture also reveals deeper biases. A common insult in China is to call someone a farmer, a word equated with backwardness and ignorance, while the most valued cultural traditions are elite practices like landscape painting, calligraphy and court music.

破坏村庄及其文化的现象也反映出更深层的偏见。在中国,一种侮辱人的常见方式就是称某人为农民,这个词等同于落后和无知,而最被重视的文化传统则是精英们的娱乐项目,比如山水画、书法以及宫廷音乐。

But in recent years, Chinese scholars have begun to recognize the countryside’s vast cultural heritage. A mammoth government project has cataloged roughly 9,700 examples nationwide of “intangible cultural heritage,” fragile traditions like songs, dances, rituals, martial arts, cuisines and theater. About 80 percent of them are rural.

不过近年来,中国学者开始认识到,乡村里蕴藏着巨大的文化遗产。一项浩大的政府工程收录了全国范围内约9700项“非物质文化遗产”,包括歌曲、舞蹈、风俗、功夫、菜系以及戏剧等易受破坏的传统,其中80%左右来自乡村。

In the past few years, for example, Mr. Feng has documented the destruction of 36 villages in Nanxian, a county on Tianjin’s outskirts, home to a famous center of woodblock printing.

比如,过去几年,冯骥才就记录了天津郊外南乡三十六村遭破坏的过程,而这里是著名的年画之乡。

“You don’t know if it will survive or not because when they’re in their new homes they’re scattered,” he said. “The knowledge isn’t concentrated anymore and isn’t transmitted to a new generation.”

“不知道它能否存活下来,因为这些人搬到新家后,他们就分散开了,”冯骥才说。“手艺不集中了,也不再被传给下一代。”

That is the problem facing the musicians in Lei Family Bridge. The village lies on what used to be a great pilgrimage route from Beijing north to Mount Yaji and west to Mount Miaofeng, holy mountains that dominated religious life in the capital. Each year, temples on those mountains would have great feast days spread over two weeks. The faithful from Beijing would walk to the mountains, stopping at Lei Family Bridge for food, drink and entertainment.

雷家桥的戏曲表演者也面临着同样的问题。这座村子位于原来一条从北京向北通往丫髻山、向西通往妙峰山的进香大道上。这两座圣山当时在北京的宗教活动中占据主导地位。每年,山上的寺庙都会举办长达两周的庙会。北京的信徒们会徒步朝顶进香,途经雷家桥时补充食物和水,还会观看表演。

Groups like Mr. Lei’s, known as pilgrimage societies, performed free for the pilgrims. Their music is based on stories about court and religious life from roughly 800 years ago and features a call-and-response style, with Mr. Lei singing key plotlines of the story and the other performers, decked out in colorful costumes, chanting back. The music is found in other villages, too, but each one has its own repertoire and local variations that musicologists have only begun to examine.

雷鹏所在的这类剧团被称为“香会”,免费为上香者表演。他们唱的戏基于约800年前的宫廷和宗教故事,采取相和而歌的方式。雷鹏演唱主要的故事情节,穿着亮丽戏服的其他表演者与他相应和。其他村庄也有这种戏曲表演形式,但每个村子都有自己的保留曲目和当地特色。音乐学家们才刚刚开始研究这些东西。

When the Communists took over in 1949, these pilgrimages were mostly banned, but were revived starting in the 1980s when the leadership relaxed control over society. The temples, mostly destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, were rebuilt.

1949年后,这些香会大多被取缔,但到了20世纪80年代,随着高层放松了对社会的管制,这些社团又重新活跃起来。在文化大革命期间大多遭到损毁的寺庙也得以重建。

The performers, however, are declining in numbers and increasingly old. The universal allures of modern life — computers, movies, television — have siphoned young people away from traditional pursuits. But the physical fabric of the performers’ lives has also been destroyed.

然而,这些表演者却在不断减少,年龄也越来越大。在现代生活无所不在的诱惑——电脑、电影和电视的吸引下,年轻人渐渐远离传统艺术。这些表演者生活的场所也同样遭到了破坏。

One recent afternoon, Mr. Lei walked through the village, now reduced to rubble and overgrown with wild grass and bushes. He started singing with his grandfather when he was 2. He now has an office job in the city’s public transportation company and spends all his vacation time working on the troupe.

不久前的一个下午,雷鹏回到原来的村子里走了一圈。现在,那里已变成一堆瓦砾,野草灌木丛生。雷鹏两岁时就跟着祖父一起唱戏。他如今在北京公交公司做办公室工作,不上班的时候就全用来忙剧团的事。

“This was our house,” he said, gesturing to a small rise of rubble and overgrown weeds. “They all lived in the streets around here. We performed at the temple.”

“我们的房子原来就在那儿,”雷鹏指向一片长满杂草的碎石堆说道。“他们都住在这附近的街上。我们在庙里演。”

The temple is one of the few buildings still standing. (The Communist Party headquarters is another.) Built in the 18th century, the temple is made of wooden beams and tiled roofs, surrounded by a seven-foot wall. Its brightly painted colors have faded. The weather-beaten wood is cracking in the dry, windy Beijing air. Part of the roof has caved in, and the wall is crumbling.

这座寺庙是当地少数没被拆毁的建筑之一。(党支部所在地是另外一座。)寺庙建于18世纪,木梁柱,瓦屋顶,周围有大约两米高的院墙。外面刷的亮漆已经褪色,饱经风霜的木梁柱在北京干燥多风的气候下裂开,屋顶有一部分塌了下去,墙体也开始剥落。

“It used to be on a list of historic preservation,” Mr. Lei said. “The government says it will be rebuilt, but no one seems to know anything.”

“寺庙原来还在历史遗产保护名单上,”雷鹏说。“政府说会重建,但好像没人知道现在到底什么情况。”

Government urban-planning officials could not be reached for comment on the village.

记者未能联系到政府的城市规划官员对雷家桥的事情予以置评。

Evenings after work, the musicians would meet in the temple to practice. As recently as Mr. Lei’s grandfather’s generation, the performers could fill a day with songs without repeating themselves. Today, they can sing only a handful. Some middle-aged people have joined the troupe, so on paper they have a respectable 45 members. But meetings are so hard to arrange that the newcomers never learn much, he said, and performing under a highway overpass is unattractive.

傍晚工作结束后,这些表演者就会聚在庙里练习。就在雷鹏祖父那一代,这些人还能不重样地唱一整天。而如今,他们只能唱几个曲目。一些中年人加入了剧团,因此名义上他们共有45名成员。雷鹏说,由于很难组织大家聚到一起,新来的人学不到太多东西,而且,在高架桥底下表演本来也不怎么吸引人。

“I guess for a lot of us it’s a hobby,” said Li Lan, 55, a cymbalist and singer. “It’s just so inconvenient now to come out here and practice.”

“可能对我们很多人来说,这是个爱好,”55岁的李兰(音译)说。李兰在剧团里负责敲锣和演唱。“就是现在出来练习太不方便了。”

Over the past two years, the Ford Foundation underwrote music and performance classes for 23 children from migrant families from other parts of China. Mr. Lei taught them to sing, and to apply the bright makeup used during performances. Last May, they performed at the Mount Miaofeng temple fair, earning stares of admiration from other pilgrimage societies also facing aging and declining membership.

过去两年间,福特基金会(Ford Foundation)出资供外来打工家庭的23名儿童学习音乐与表演。雷鹏教他们唱戏,以及如何画上表演时的鲜艳扮相。去年5月,他们在妙峰山庙会上表演,让同样面临老龄化和减员困境的其他香会艳羡不已。

But the project’s funding ended over the summer, and the children drifted away.

不过,项目资助于去年夏天截止,孩子们便作猢狲散。

“I think it’s pointless because you have to be from our village to understand how important this is,” Mr. Lei said. “Anyway, those children will move somewhere else and won’t learn long enough to become real members. It was nice but didn’t fix the problem.”

“我觉得没有意义,因为得是我们村的人,才明白这有多重要,”雷鹏说。“不管怎么说,那些小孩都会走的,学的时间不长,成不了气候。事情是很好,但是解决不了问题。”

One of the oddities of the troupe’s struggles is that some traditional artisans now get government support. The government lists them on a national register, organizes performances and offers modest subsidies to some.

剧团的困境中还有一个怪异之处,就是一些传统艺人如今会得到政府的资助。政府将他们列入国家名录中,组织表演,并给部分人发放微薄的补贴。

Last month, Mr. Lei’s group was featured on local television and invited to perform at Chinese New Year activities. Such performances raise about $200 and provide some recognition that what the group does matters.

上个月,雷鹏所在的剧团上了当地的电视,并受邀在庆祝农历新年的活动中表演。这样的演出获得了合200美元左右的收入,对剧团的重要性也是一种承认。

Du Yang, director of the district office of intangible cultural heritage protection, said the group’s music was among 69 protected practices in her district.

朝阳区非物质文化遗产保护中心主任杜洋表示,这个剧团是辖区内69项受保护的遗产之一。

“The goal is to make sure these cultural heritages don’t get lost,” she said. “It would be a great pity if they are lost just as our country is on the road to prosperity.”

“我们的目标是保障这些文化遗产不会消失,”她说。“我们国家正走在繁荣昌盛的大道上,如果它们消亡的话,就太可惜了。”

Mr. Lei said that keeping their village life intact would have helped most.

雷鹏认为,最有效的办法是保持他们的乡村生活方式不受影响。

“It was really comfortable in the old village,” he said back in his new home, a small two-bedroom apartment high up in an apartment block a half-hour drive away. “We had a thousand square meters and rented out rooms to migrants from other provinces. Lots of buses stopped nearby, and we could get into the city easily.”

在自家的新公寓里,他靠在椅子上说,“老村镇真是舒服啊。”他家的两居室在一个公寓楼小区的一座高层建筑里,离原来的地方开车要半小时。“我们以前有1000平米的房子,把空房间租给外来民工。好多大巴车在附近停,进城很方便。”

Like all rural residents, the Leis and their neighbors never owned their land; all land in China belongs to the state. So when the plans were announced to build the golf course, they had little choice but to move. “No one protested,” he said. “We knew we didn’t have a choice. You have to just go with the flow.”

与所有的农村居民一样,雷家和邻居们并非土地的主人。中国所有的土地均属于国家。因此,当修建高尔夫球场的计划公布的时候,他们别无选择,只能搬迁。“没人反对,”他说。“我们知道没别的办法,只能随大流。”

Everyone got free apartments and $50,000 to $100,000 in compensation.

每个人都得到了免费住房,以及价值5万到10万美元的补偿。

Strangely, however, the golf course has never been built, and the village still lies in ruins. No one here can figure out if this is because the development was illegal, or perhaps part of a corrupt land deal that is under investigation. Such information is not public, so villagers can only speculate. Mostly, they try to forget.

不过,奇怪的是,高尔夫球场并未动工,村里还是一片废墟。没人知道这到底是因为违法开发,还是可能牵涉到正在接受调查的一桩腐败土地交易。此类信息不会公开,因此村民们只能猜想。不过,他们通常是努力忘记此事。

“I try not to think about these things too much,” Mr. Lei said. “Instead, I try to focus on the music and keeping it alive.”

“我尽量不想太多这种事,”雷鹏说。“还是要把精力放在表演和传承上。”

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