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美国最强大的数字隐私法已经在加州生效

America's strongest digital privacy law has taken effect in California.The law,known as the California Consumer Privacy Act(CCPA),requires businesses to inform consumers about the ways in which they collect and share personal information.

美国最强大的数字隐私法已经在加州生效。这项被称为《加州消费者隐私法》(CCPA)的法律要求企业向消费者告知他们收集和分享个人信息的方式。

The law gives consumers the right to request that companies not sell or share their data.It also requires businesses to destroy information already collected if the consumer asks to have it removed.

法律赋予消费者权利,要求公司不要出售或分享他们的数据。如果消费者要求删除已经收集的信息,它还要求企业销毁这些信息。

The law covers the sale of data related to almost any sharing of information that can help a business.This includes information-sharing between companies as well as the selling of data by third-party businesses.

这项法律涵盖了与几乎任何有助于企业的信息共享相关的数据销售。这包括公司之间的信息共享以及第三方企业销售数据。

Large online businesses,such as Facebook and Google,are affected by the law.So are major retail companies.

Facebook和Google等大型在线企业都受到法律的影响。大型零售公司也是如此。

Walmart and Home Depot,among others,say they have added"Do Not Sell My Info"links to their websites to make it easier for consumers to exercise their rights.The businesses said they have also put the information on signs inside their stores.

沃尔玛(Walmart)和家得宝(Home Depot)等公司表示,他们在网站上添加了“请勿出售我的信息”链接,以方便消费者行使权利。这些商家表示,他们还将这些信息贴在了店内的招牌上。

Digital experts say it remains unclear how the CCPA will affect the kind of targeted advertising commonly used by companies like Facebook and Google.

数字专家表示,目前尚不清楚CCPA将如何影响Facebook和Google等公司常用的定向广告。

Facebook collects large amounts of personal data and uses the information to direct ads at different groups of people.The data could include someone's sex,race or religion.Facebook says it does not share that kind of personal information with advertisers.

Facebook收集了大量个人数据,并利用这些信息在不同人群中发布广告。数据可能包括某人的性别、种族或宗教。Facebook表示,它不会与广告商分享此类个人信息。
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The experts say that,because the law covers any company that meets conditions for interacting with state residents,the California law might end up serving as a legal model for other states.

专家们说,由于法律涵盖了任何符合与州居民互动条件的公司,加州法律最终可能成为其他州的法律模式。

"If we do this right in California,"said California attorney general Xavier Becerra,the state will"put the capital'P'back into privacy for all Americans."

加州总检察长贝塞拉(Xavier Becerra)说:“如果我们在加州做到这一点,加州将把首都‘P’重新纳入所有美国人的隐私。”

California's legislation is the nation's biggest effort yet aimed at fighting against so-called"surveillance capitalism."This term describes the business of profiting from data that most Americans give up—often unknowingly—in exchange for free and often ad-supported services.

加州的立法是美国迄今为止最大的一项旨在打击所谓“监视资本主义”的努力。这个词描述的是从大多数美国人放弃的数据中获利的业务,通常是在不知不觉中,以换取免费的、通常是广告支持的服务。

In a statement about the CCPA in October,Becerra said that personal data is what is powering today's wealthy digital economy."It's time we had control over the use of our personal data.That includes keeping it private,"he said.Becerra added that he sees the law as"a historic step forward"in putting the people of California"first in the age of the internet."

贝塞拉在10月份发表的一份关于CCPA的声明中说,个人数据是当今富有的数字经济的动力。”是时候控制个人资料的使用了。这包括保密。”。贝塞拉补充说,他认为这项法律是“一个历史性的进步”,使加州人民“在互联网时代处于第一位”
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Some experts have noted that some parts of the law will likely bring legal challenges.One such challenge could center on constitutional concerns related to the many different areas covered by the law.The experts say the law's many exceptions could also be problematic,as well as the fact that it only affects information collected by businesses—not the government.

一些专家指出,法律的某些部分可能会带来法律挑战。其中一项挑战可以集中在与法律所涵盖的许多不同领域有关的宪法问题上。专家们说,这项法律的许多例外情况也可能有问题,而且它只影响企业收集的信息,而不是政府收集的信息。

Critics say the law's exceptions permit companies to keep holding personal information on consumers in some situations,even after individuals request that the data be destroyed.For example,a company can keep personal data if it decides it needs it to finish the sales process.A company could also continue to hold information in a way that the consumer would"reasonably expect"them to.

批评者说,法律的例外允许公司在某些情况下保留消费者的个人信息,即使在个人要求销毁这些数据之后。例如,如果公司决定需要个人数据来完成销售过程,它可以保留个人数据。公司还可以继续以消费者“合理预期”的方式保存信息。

Joseph Jerome is a policy director at the privacy group Common Sense Media/Kids Action.He told The Associated Press that the law is"more of a'right to request and hope for deletion.'"

Joseph Jerome是隐私组织Common Sense Media/Kids Action的政策主管。他对美联社说,这项法律“更多的是一种‘请求和希望删除的权利’。”

The law offers stronger protections for children.For example,it bans the sale of data on children under 16 without permission.

法律对儿童提供了更有力的保护。例如,它禁止未经许可出售16岁以下儿童的数据。

Digital experts also noted that the law leaves it up to California citizens themselves to exercise their new rights.To make the law effective,consumers will need to take direct action to"opt out"of data sales or request collected information.

数字专家还指出,这项法律让加州公民自己行使他们的新权利。为了使法律生效,消费者需要采取直接行动“退出”数据销售或要求收集信息。

Margot Kaminski is a professor of law at the University of Colorado who studies legal technology issues.She told the AP that many people currently do not take the time to read existing privacy agreements because they are long and complex.

玛戈特卡明斯基是科罗拉多大学的法学教授,研究法律技术问题。她告诉美联社记者,目前很多人并不花时间阅读现有的隐私协议,因为这些协议既长又复杂。

Kaminski said,"If you aren't even reading privacy agreements that you are signing,are you really going to request your data?"

卡明斯基说:“如果你甚至不阅读你正在签署的隐私协议,你真的会要求你的数据吗?”
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