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双语教育新闻:美国研究生入学人数下降的原因

  Reasons for the decline of graduate enrollment in the United States

  美国研究生入学人数下降的原因

  Enrollment in college is still climbing,but students are increasingly saying no to graduate school in the United States.

  美国本科入学人数仍在上升,但本科毕业生对研究生教育越发敬而远之。

  New enrollment in graduate schools fell last year for the second consecutive year,according to a report from the Council of Graduate Schools.

  美国研究生院委员会(Council of Graduate Schools)发布的一份报告显示,去年美国研究生入学人数连续第二年下降。

  The declines followed surges in enrollment in 2008 and 2009 as many unemployed workers sought a haven during the recession.Financial considerations probably played a role in the shift.Students may be dissuaded from continuing their education in part because of the increasing debt burden from their undergraduate years.

  在2008和2009年,美国研究生入学人数一度猛增,原因是许多失业者把研究生院当做了经济衰退期间的避风港。经济方面的考虑可能是情况发生改变的原因之一。由于本科学业带来的债务负担越发沉重,学生们可能对继续深造望而却步。

  Additionally,state budget cuts are forcing public institutions to reduce aid for graduate students,who in some disciplines have traditionally been paid to attend postgraduate programs.

  此外,各州削减预算迫使公立高校降低了对研究生的支持力度,而此前部分专业的研究生一直可以领取补贴。

  The number of students enrolled in master’s and doctoral programs(excluding law and certain other first professional degrees like M.D.’s)declined by 1.7 percent from the fall of 2010 to fall 2011.

  2011年秋季硕士和博士课程入学人数比2010年秋季下降了1.7%(不包括法学以及医学博士[MD]等其他第一专业学位[first professional degree])。

  Among American citizens and permanent residents,matriculation fell by 2.3 percent.In contrast,temporary residents increased their enrollment by 7.8 percent.

  在美国公民和永久居民中,攻读研究生学历的人减少了2.3%。与之相反,美国临时居民的研究生入学人数增加了7.8%。

  Temporary residents made up 16.9 percent of all students in American graduate schools,and that figure has been growing as foreign governments pay for more of their citizens to obtain education in the United States,particularly in technical areas.Temporary residents represented 45.5 percent of all students enrolled in engineering graduate programs in the United States,and 42.4 percent of those in American mathematics and computer science graduate programs. 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  临时居民占美国全部在校研究生的16.9%,这个数字一直在上升,原因是其他国家和地区政府出资让更多本地公民赴美国接受教育,特别是在科技领域。在美国,临时居民占工程类研究生入学人数的45.5%,占数学和计算机科学研究生入学人数的42.4%。

  The changes in 2011 varied by discipline,with education having the biggest drop-off in new graduate enrollment at 8.8 percent.

  2011年入学人数的变化因专业而异,教育类研究生入学人数降幅最大,达8.8%。

  “The states are in financial stress,”said Debra Stewart,president of the Council of Graduate Schools.“The school systems especially are in financial stress.Teachers are no longer being provided time off to get graduate degrees,and schools are no longer funding principals to go back and get principal certificates.”

  美国研究生院委员会主席黛博拉·斯图尔特(Debra Stewart)指出:“各州均面临财政压力。教育系统的财务压力更大。教师再也没有休假深造的机会,学校也不再资助中小学校长回到校园里去拿资格证书。”

  The next sharpest decline was in programs for arts and humanities,where new graduate enrollment fell by 5.4 percent,perhaps reflecting that career prospects for such graduates are becoming more limited as colleges lay off even tenured faculty members in these areas.

  艺术和人文学科入学人数减少了5.4%,跌幅仅次于教育专业,原因可能是此类研究生毕业后的就业空间越来越小。同时,高校正在裁减艺术和人文课程教师,连终身聘任的教师也不例外。

  Health sciences,on the other hand,experienced a big increase in enrollment.The health care industry has been hiring consistently and robustly during the recession and the weak recovery.

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  而另一方面,健康科学类研究生入学人数出现大幅增长。在经济衰退和缓慢复苏阶段,医疗保健行业一直在大量创造就业机会。

  The number of new graduate students studying health care rose by 6.4 percent,which was slightly slower growth than the average in the last decade.The average annual change in new graduate enrollment in health sciences from 2001 to 2011 was 9.8 percent.

  医疗保健专业研究生的入学人数上升了6.4%,稍低于过去10年的平均增长率。从2001年到2011年,健康科学类研究生入学人数的年均增幅为9.8%。

  Enrollment showed more tepid growth in business,which was up by 2.6 percent,and in mathematics and computer sciences,up by 1.6 percent.

  商科以及数学和计算机科学研究生入学人数增长较慢,分别为2.6%和1.6%。

  While overall enrollment for graduate school declined,the number of applications rose by 4.3 percent.It was the sixth consecutive increase in application volume.

  虽然研究生总入学人数下降,但申请人数上升了4.3%。这是研究生申请人数连续第六年出现增长。

  The Council of Graduate Schools did not have data on how many schools the typical applicant applies to,so it was unclear if there were more people applying in 2011 than in the previous year.But there was an increase in the number of people taking the Graduate Record Examinations(G.R.E.),a test that many graduate schools require as part of student applications.

  美国研究生院委员会没有相关数据得知本科毕业生通常会申请几所高校的研究生课程,因此无法确定2011年的申请人数是否多于2010年。但参加美国研究生入学考试(GRE)的人数确实出现了增长。在美国,许多研究生课程都要求申请者参加这项考试。

  As the number of grad school applications has risen,the share of those applications leading to offers of admission has been falling.In 2007,the acceptance rate across all master’s and doctoral programs was 44.6 percent,whereas in 2011 it was 40.8 percent.

  随着申请人数增多,申请者的入学比例不断下降。2007年美国所有硕士和博士课程的申请通过率为44.6%,到2011年该数字降至40.8%。

  Women continued to outnumber men in the nation’s postgraduate programs,58 percent to 42 percent,in the 2011 report.

  在美国,女性读研人数仍超过男性。美国研究生院委员会2011年报告提供的男女研究生比例为42%比58%。

  The Council of Graduate Schools,a membership organization for institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada,based its findings on an annual survey of American graduate schools.The latest report reflected the responses from 655 institutions,which collectively award 81 percent of the master’s degrees and 92 percent of the doctorates each year.

  美国研究生院委员会是面向美国和加拿大高校的会员制组织,它撰写报告的依据是对美、加研究生院的年度调查。该委员会的最新报告囊括了对655所高校的调查结果,这些高校每年颁发的硕士和博士文凭分别占美、加两国所颁文凭总数的81%和92%。

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