Reasons for the decline of graduate enrollment in the United States
Enrollment in college is still climbing,but students are increasingly saying no to graduate school in the United States.
New enrollment in graduate schools fell last year for the second consecutive year,according to a report from the Council of Graduate Schools.
美国研究生院委员会(Council of Graduate Schools)发布的一份报告显示，去年美国研究生入学人数连续第二年下降。
The declines followed surges in enrollment in 2008 and 2009 as many unemployed workers sought a haven during the recession.Financial considerations probably played a role in the shift.Students may be dissuaded from continuing their education in part because of the increasing debt burden from their undergraduate years.
Additionally,state budget cuts are forcing public institutions to reduce aid for graduate students,who in some disciplines have traditionally been paid to attend postgraduate programs.
The number of students enrolled in master’s and doctoral programs(excluding law and certain other first professional degrees like M.D.’s)declined by 1.7 percent from the fall of 2010 to fall 2011.
2011年秋季硕士和博士课程入学人数比2010年秋季下降了1.7%（不包括法学以及医学博士[MD]等其他第一专业学位[first professional degree]）。
Among American citizens and permanent residents,matriculation fell by 2.3 percent.In contrast,temporary residents increased their enrollment by 7.8 percent.
Temporary residents made up 16.9 percent of all students in American graduate schools,and that figure has been growing as foreign governments pay for more of their citizens to obtain education in the United States,particularly in technical areas.Temporary residents represented 45.5 percent of all students enrolled in engineering graduate programs in the United States,and 42.4 percent of those in American mathematics and computer science graduate programs. 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com
The changes in 2011 varied by discipline,with education having the biggest drop-off in new graduate enrollment at 8.8 percent.
“The states are in financial stress,”said Debra Stewart,president of the Council of Graduate Schools.“The school systems especially are in financial stress.Teachers are no longer being provided time off to get graduate degrees,and schools are no longer funding principals to go back and get principal certificates.”
The next sharpest decline was in programs for arts and humanities,where new graduate enrollment fell by 5.4 percent,perhaps reflecting that career prospects for such graduates are becoming more limited as colleges lay off even tenured faculty members in these areas.
Health sciences,on the other hand,experienced a big increase in enrollment.The health care industry has been hiring consistently and robustly during the recession and the weak recovery.
The number of new graduate students studying health care rose by 6.4 percent,which was slightly slower growth than the average in the last decade.The average annual change in new graduate enrollment in health sciences from 2001 to 2011 was 9.8 percent.
Enrollment showed more tepid growth in business,which was up by 2.6 percent,and in mathematics and computer sciences,up by 1.6 percent.
While overall enrollment for graduate school declined,the number of applications rose by 4.3 percent.It was the sixth consecutive increase in application volume.
The Council of Graduate Schools did not have data on how many schools the typical applicant applies to,so it was unclear if there were more people applying in 2011 than in the previous year.But there was an increase in the number of people taking the Graduate Record Examinations(G.R.E.),a test that many graduate schools require as part of student applications.
As the number of grad school applications has risen,the share of those applications leading to offers of admission has been falling.In 2007,the acceptance rate across all master’s and doctoral programs was 44.6 percent,whereas in 2011 it was 40.8 percent.
Women continued to outnumber men in the nation’s postgraduate programs,58 percent to 42 percent,in the 2011 report.
The Council of Graduate Schools,a membership organization for institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada,based its findings on an annual survey of American graduate schools.The latest report reflected the responses from 655 institutions,which collectively award 81 percent of the master’s degrees and 92 percent of the doctorates each year.