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舞蹈如何助我思考,思考如何助我舞蹈

  I'm a lifelong dancer and a political theorist.‘Work'and‘thinking'in one part of my life are entirely physical,while in the other part they're wholly intellectual.For most of my career,dancing and academic research were two separate but equally weighted spheres.

  我是一个终生的舞蹈家和政治理论家。工作和思考在我生活的一部分完全是身体上的,而在另一部分则完全是智力上的。在我的大部分职业生涯中,舞蹈和学术研究是两个独立但同等重要的领域。

  However,over the years,I have become more and more aware that many people viewed dance as a less valuable way of thinking and working.Dance,in their minds,was a purely emotive activity consisting of uncritical,spontaneous movement or a purely athletic endeavour whose sole purpose is to defy our body's physical limits.

  然而,这些年我越发意识到,许多人将舞蹈看做是一不具备价值性的思考和工作方式。在他们脑海里,舞蹈是一种纯粹的情感活动,由不带批判性的、自发的运动或者一种纯粹的运动组成,它们努力的唯一目的是去挑战我们身体的极限。

  Part of the reason why this view of dance persists,I think,stems from a deeply rooted prejudice against embodied vocations.In Aristotle's ideal state in the Politics,for example,mechanics,farmers,shopkeepers and those living a banauson bion–a life of physical and menial labour–are excluded from full citizenship.

  我认为,这种舞蹈观之所以存在的部分原因源自一种对于其所代表的具体职业的根深蒂固的偏见。例如,在亚里士多德的政治思想状态下,机械师、农民、店主和那些生活在巴诺森比翁(音译)环境下的人——一种依靠体力和属于低下的劳动生活——他们被完全的公民身份排除在外。

  Their modes of existence leave no time for leisure,yet their physical labour is essential to support those who carry out the deliberative actions of the city.Today,we continue to stratify work into‘high-skilled'and‘low-skilled'hierarchies.We wrongly presume that those whose work is primarily physical have little to contribute to those whose work is primarily mental,and vice versa.

  他们的生活方式不存在闲暇时间,但是,他们的体力劳动对于帮助那些执行城市审慎行为的人来说是必不可少的。如今,我们继续将工作划分为“高技能”和“低技能”两个层次。我们错误地认为,那些主要是体力劳动的员工对于主要是脑力劳动的员工没有很大的帮助,反之亦然。

  Dancers exist on the cusp of this prejudice.Our bodies are the primary instruments with which we absorb,distil and produce ideas that are intangible and ephemeral.But,in doing so,we are also seen as high artists.And it is precisely our highly trained capacity to combine physical with mental thinking that makes dance not only possible but powerful.

  舞者们正处于这样偏见的边缘。我们的身体是我们吸收、提炼和产生无形和短暂思维的主要工具。但是,这样的话,我们也被看作是顶尖艺术家。确切地说,我们训练有素的能力将身体和精神思维结合起来,使得舞蹈不仅成为可能,还富有力量。

  We dancers learn,maintain and teach what's possible with physical expression.I,like many,began very young,and was quickly programmed into a world of rules,patterns and habits.Left hand on the barre to start,and always turn towards the barre to switch sides.Close in fifth position,but go through first.Front-side-back-side.Elbows,wrists,fingers;heel,arch,toes.As a dancer in training,you learn to dissociate your self from your body,to relinquish your agency to the structure and aesthetic of the form–whether that's classical ballet,modern dance or something else.

  我们舞者用肢体语言学习、维持和教导什么是具备可能性的。我,与许多人一样,很早便开始,并且很快融入一个充满规则、模式和习惯的世界里。左手放在扶手杠上开始,始终绕着扶手杠转向两边。在靠近第五个位置,还要先越过这个位置。正面——背面。手肘、手腕、手指;脚跟、足弓、脚趾,统统都要利用到。作为一个在训练中的舞者,你要学会从自己的身体里分离出来,放弃你对形体和审美结构的能动性——无论是古典芭蕾,现代舞还是其他的舞种。

  But treating dance purely as a physical form to which we subject our personhood is deeply problematic.As the American choreographer and dance writer Theresa Ruth Howard argues,it‘romanticises the dehumanisation of the body by regarding it as an instrument,a tool akin[to]clay'.It turns our physical bodies into mere instruments for the ideas,beliefs and expressions from some external source–whether the teacher,the choreographer or even our own ideal of what the technique demands.Where,then,does the dancer find space for freedom,for individual agency in the strictures of this kind of physical practice?
纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/


  但是将练习舞蹈纯粹作为一种上升到自己个性的形体模式,这是一非常错误的。正如美国编舞兼舞蹈作家特蕾莎·露丝·霍华德(Theresa Ruth Howard)所说,“舞蹈作为一种工具,一种类似于黏土的工具,将其非人性化。”它将我们的身体仅仅变成来自一些外部资源的想法、信仰和表达的工具——无论是老师、编舞甚至是我们自己对技术要求的理想化。那么,在这种肢体实践的约束下,舞者在哪里能找到自由和个人能动性的空间呢?

  The practice of cultivating agency and autonomy is essential to our physical and moral selves.I learned how to appreciate and respect agency relatively late in my dance career,but relatively early in my work as a political theorist.In 2013,I'd started graduate school and was continuing to dance and perform contemporary works,though the majority of my routine practice was in classical ballet.I had sustained multiple injuries and undergone a surgery.

  激发能动性和自主性的实践对于我们自己身心都是至关重要的。在我相对后期的舞蹈生涯里,我学会了如何欣赏和尊重能动性这一点,但是在我的政治理论家的工作中便很早就意识到这一点。2013年,我开始读研,继续钻研舞蹈和展现当代作品,尽管我的大部分日常练习是古典芭蕾。我受了很多伤,也经历过手术。

  I became anxious that my body was past its prime,no longer suited to the demands of the art form,and that it was time to quit and find a different outlet.But a moment in a ballet class changed my mind.

  我变得很焦虑,我的身体过了黄金时段,不再适合艺术形式的需求,是时候停止并另辟蹊径。但是在芭蕾舞课上的一个瞬间改变了我原先的想法。

  Muriel Maffre,a former principal dancer at San Francisco Ballet and my then-ballet teacher at Stanford University,called our attention between combinations.‘Dancers,'she said,‘get into the habit of breaking habits.Demonstrate you have agency over your body.'There was only a brief pause before the accompanist gave us four counts before the battement-tendu combination started again,but the words resonated in my mind and my body for the rest of class.

  前旧金山芭蕾舞团首席舞者、我当时在斯坦福大学的芭蕾舞老师,穆里尔·马弗雷(Muriel Maffre)提醒我们关于舞蹈组合的关系。她说,“舞者,要打破习惯的习惯。通过你们的肢体来表现你们的能动性。”在伴奏者给我们四次计数之前,只有一个短暂的停顿,巴特芒汤纠(芭蕾舞术语音译)才开始,但这句话在的心里和接下来的每堂课里,都产生了共鸣。

  For most of my life,I believed that dancing consisted solely of building particular physical habits–habits that I could unthinkingly execute as soon as I crossed the threshold between the‘real world'and the dance studio.But Maffre's admonition helped me see the wisdom in questioning and even undoing some of the habits,both physical and mental,I'd worked for decades to build.This didn't mean that suddenly ballet itself–its organisation,combinations,its vocabulary and its grammar–was turned upside down.Instead,it meant that even the most technical,formal structures of the form had to be filled with my own agency.

  在我一生的大部分阶段里,我认为舞蹈仅仅是由建立特别的肢体习惯而组成的——一旦我跨过“现实世界”和舞蹈工作室的门槛,我就可以不假思索地展示这些肢体习惯。但是马弗雷(Maffre)的告诫使我看到了质疑的智慧,甚至消除了一些几十年来养成的身心上的习惯。这并不代表着芭蕾本身——它的组织、组合、它的术语和文法——突然间便颠覆了。相反,她意味着,即使是最专业、正规的形体结构,也必须由我自己的能动性来完成。
纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com


  I scrutinised my movements from the largest jumps to the tiniest gestures,wondering about their origins.An overextended port-de-bras in an arabesque–the iconic ballerina pose–puzzled me:it threw off my balance,but somehow I thought it looked beautiful.Where did the integrity of arabesque come from:my sternum,my standing leg,or my fingertips?Other times,things that manifested themselves as physical ticks or involuntary movements were actually within my control,but had a long physical history that I needed to investigate.I scrunched my toes too much,even when I didn't need to balance.I premeditatively‘fell'out of an additional turn even though I had the physical power for one more revolution.

  我仔细钻研我的每一个从最大的跳跃到最小的姿势的动作,想知道他们的起源。一个阿拉贝斯克舞姿(芭蕾舞术语音译)里伸展过度的手臂动作——标志性的芭蕾舞姿势——让我困惑:它让我失去了平衡,但不知怎么,我觉得它看起来很美。这个阿拉贝斯克舞姿的融合度来自哪里?:我的胸骨、我的腿姿还是我的指尖?某些时候,其表现为身体节拍或不自主动作的事情实际上在我的掌控之中,但是我需要一段很长的肢体动作验证过程。我的脚趾扭得太厉害,即使当我不需要保持平衡的时候仍然如此。尽管我有肢体力量进行更大的旋转,但我有意识地的“掉”出一个额外的转体。

  And I thought I cast my gaze downward as a stylistic choice,but really I was checking out my feet.I started noticing and observing dance differently on my own body and on other dancers.The simplest movements,gestures and steps could convey such a wide range of textures,sensations and feelings.Tendus,I decided,were a display not of the arch of my feet but of the floor's resistance.A renversé–my favourite step–was not just a shape I could make with my legs and arms,but an expression of my back body moving forward in space.Instead of striving for an appearance of weightlessness,I practised giving in to gravity and harnessing the power of my weightedness.

  我想,我把目光向下看作为一种风格上的选择,但实际上我在检查我的步伐。我开始分别注意并观察我自己身上和其他舞者身上的舞姿。最简单的动作、姿势和步骤能传达出如此广泛的神韵和感觉。我认为,汤纠(芭蕾舞术语音译)不是利用到我的足弓,而是地板的阻力。一个朗威尔赛(芭蕾舞术语音译)——我最喜欢的一步——不仅是我能用腿和胳膊做出的动作,还是一个我的后半身在空间里向前移动的表现。我没有努力表现出失重的样子,而是练习承受住重力,并控制重力的力量。

  That all these qualities,which constituted the dancer's artistry,were subject to choice inspired me.Dance,then,was my physical practice of independent and critical reflection–on received ideas,on formed habits,on the basic values and beliefs I held–not just about dance but also on what it means to be a flourishing human being.

  所有这些构成舞者艺术性的品质,都是来源于激励我的选择。那么,舞蹈是我独立和批判性思考的肢体实践——对已接受的思想,已形成的习惯,所持有的基础价值观和信念——不仅有关舞蹈,而且有关成为一个成功人士所饱含的意义。

  It was at that moment that I realised that my education as a dancer and scholar were converging and becoming inseparable ways of investigating ideas about personhood and the good life.The knowledge I acquired as a dancer physically expressed ideas about autonomy and freedom that I was investigating as a political theorist.

  就在那一瞬间,我意识到作为一名舞者和学者所受到的教育正在融合,并成为研究个性和美好生活理念的不可分割的方式。作为一名舞者,所学到的知识实际上表明了作为一名政治理论家所正在研究的自主和自由的观点。

  My dance practice was an everyday,real and,above all,physical experience of what it means to have the capacity to direct one's life,to be able to redirect it,and to see those capacities‘as testimony of the strength rather than fragility'of our fundamental personhood,as Rob Reich puts it in his book Bridging Liberalism and Multiculturalism in American Education(2002).

  我的舞蹈练习是一种日常且真实的,总之,是身体上的体验,意味着有能力指导一个人的生活,能够改变方向和把这些能力看作是我们基本个性的“力量证明而不是弱性”,正如罗伯·里奇(Rob Reich)在他的《美国教育中的自由主义和多元文化主义的桥梁》(2002)一书所说的那样。

  We learn by practice,the American dancer and choreographer Martha Graham once said.Our practices–both physical and intellectual–can be so much more than routine work and the accretions of habits.By choosing to perform the‘dedicated precise sets of acts'that we do,we can access‘achievement,a sense of one's being,a satisfaction of spirit'.We embody our autonomy and our humanity.

  美国舞蹈家兼编舞玛莎·格雷厄姆(Martha Graham)曾经说,我们在练习中学习。我们的练习——包括体力上和脑力上——都远远超过日常工作和习惯的累积。通过选择执行我们所做的“专门精确的行为集合”我们能获得“成就、存在感、精神满足感”。我们代表了属于自己的自主和人性。
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