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忽必烈做了成吉思汗无法做的事情

  Leading the Mongols to defeat China,Kublai Khan fulfilled his grandfather's ambitions to rule one of history’s largest empires.

  忽必烈带领蒙古人打败了南宋,实现了他祖父的野心——统治历史上最大帝国之一。

  When the fourth Mongol great khan,Mo?ngke,died in 1259,his brother,Kublai,never doubted who was his rightful successor.While Mo?ngke had been expanding Mongol rule into Syria in the far west,Kublai had proved to be a brilliant general,conquering a swath of what is now southwestern China as well as modern-day Vietnam.He had proved his mettle,but there were others who sought to rule.

  1259年,蒙古第四位可汗——蒙哥(他的弟弟是忽必烈)死后,并没有宣告谁是他的合法继承人。虽然蒙哥将蒙古的统治扩展到遥远的叙利亚,但事实证明,忽必烈才是一位真正出色的将军,征服了如今的中国西南部地区以及当今的越南。他已经证明了自己,但还有其他人试图挑战他的统治。

  News reached Kublai that another of his brothers,Arigbo?ge,also wanted to proclaim himself emperor.Kublai,then age 45,hastily made his way to his residence at Shangdu(later immortalized as Xanadu in Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s famous poem“Kubla Khan”)to decide what to do next.

  忽必烈得到消息,他的另一个兄弟阿里不哥也想称帝。当时45岁的忽必烈急忙前往上都(后来在塞缪尔·泰勒·柯尔律治的名诗《忽必烈汗》中被称为“Xanadu”),以商讨下一步的行动。

  Kublai knew that whoever succeeded Mo?ngke would need formidable diplomatic as well as military skills to hold together a colossal patchwork of lands that stretched from northern China through Persia to Russia.To face down the threat from Arigbo?ge he chose an impressive ritual that would give him unshakable legitimacy.After consulting his advisers,Kublai decided to cement his claim by casting the I Ching,an ancient Chinese system of divination with links to both Confucianism and Taoism.The solemn rite revealed that Kublai would achieve sublime success if he persevered along the correct path.

  忽必烈知道,无论谁接替蒙哥,都需要强大的外交和军事技能,才能把从中国北方到波斯再到俄罗斯的大片土地统一起来。为了应对来自阿里不哥的威胁,他选择了一种令人印象深刻的方式,使他的统治具有不可动摇的合法性。在咨询其他人的建议后,忽必烈决定通过《易经》来增强他的决定。《易经》是中国古代的一种占卜术,与儒家和道家都有联系。通过庄严的仪式表明,如果忽必烈坚持走正确的道路,他就会取得伟大的成功。

  Kublai’s decision to choose a Chinese tradition rather than a Mongol one is a potent reminder of what would become a lifelong dilemma.Kublai was driven by the unrealized dream of his grandfather,the fearsome conqueror Genghis Khan,who desired to unite the whole of China under Mongol rule.Kublai knew that subduing China was one thing,but ruling it would be another.It would require a delicate balancing act of appealing to his new Chinese subjects while maintaining the Mongol loyalty.

  忽必烈选择中国传统文化而非蒙古文化,似乎在提醒人们,这是他一生最难抉择的决定。他的祖父成吉思汗未实现的梦想一直驱使着忽必烈(成吉思汗是一个可怕的征服者,他渴望在蒙古的统治下统一整个中国)。忽必烈知道征服中国是一回事,但统治中国又是另一回事。这需要一种微妙的平衡,既要吸引他的新臣民,又要保持对蒙古的忠诚。

  The I Ching ritual and its choreographed blend of piety and politics paid dividends:Kublai took power as Kublai Khan,defeated Arigbo?ge four years later,and became the sole ruler of the world’s largest contiguous land empire,stretching from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea.

  通过《易经》里的仪式以及其精心编排的虔诚与政治的结合产生了效果:忽必烈以忽必烈汗的身份掌权,四年后打败了阿里不哥,成为世界上最大的陆地帝国的唯一统治者——这个帝国从太平洋一直延伸到黑海。

  Raising a Khan

  成为可汗


  In 1206 Genghis Khan united the tribes of the Mongol steppe and set their warlike sights far beyond their homeland.When Genghis died in 1227,they had all but conquered the Jin dynasty of northern China,and swaths of Central Asia.(Tree rings reveal Genghis Khan's secret ally was rain.)

  1206年,成吉思汗统一了蒙古大草原的部落,并将他们的战争目标转移到他们的家园外。1227年,成吉思汗去世,但他几乎征服了中国北方的金朝和中亚的大片地区。(树年轮显示成吉思汗的秘密同盟正在集结。)

  Khan means“ruler,”and was often written as khagan—the great khan.On Genghis’s death,his son,O?go?dei,became the second khagan,whose own son,Gu?yu?k,became the third.In 1251 the succession passed to Mo?ngke,son of Genghis’s son Tolui.

  可汗的意思是“统治者”,通常被写为可汗(伟大的可汗)。成吉思死后,他的儿子窝阔台成为第二个可汗,其儿子贵由成为第三个。1251年,王位传给了蒙哥——托雷的儿子。

  Kublai,Mo?ngke’s brother,was born in 1215.Their mother was Sorghaghtani,a member of an eastern Christian denomination.As Tolui’s wife,she orchestrated dynastic politics with supreme skill,ensuring that Mo?ngke succeeded as the fourth khagan in 1251.She also played a crucial role in shaping Kublai.

  1215年,蒙哥的弟弟忽必烈出生。他们的母亲是东方基督教教派成员克烈·唆鲁禾帖尼。作为托雷的妻子,她以极高的政治手段精心策划了王位的传承,以确保蒙哥在1251年成功担任第四位可汗。她在塑造忽必烈的过程中也起到了至关重要的作用。

  Sorghaghtani ensured Kublai was taught Mongol traditions.She encouraged toleration of other faiths,including Islam,and employed Chinese tutors so that Kublai could learn the local traditions and the foundations of Buddhism and Taoism.This multicultural education later helped him understand the importance of tolerating a conquered region’s traditions and faiths.
    蛐蛐英语 www.qqenglish.com


  克烈·唆鲁禾帖尼确保忽必烈学习蒙古传统。她鼓励包容其他信仰,包括伊斯兰教,并聘请汉族的导师,以便忽必烈能够学习当地的传统以及佛教和道教的文化。这种多元文化的教育后来帮助他了解包容一个被征服地区的传统和信仰的重要性。

  As a warrior,Kublai showed himself a grandson of Genghis Khan.When Mo?ngke became khagan in 1251,Kublai participated in his brother’s territorial expansion,a process driven by the tried-and-tested Mongol methods of extreme brutality.

  作为一名战士,忽必烈展示出身为成吉思汗孙子勇猛的那一面。1251年蒙哥成为可汗后,忽必烈参与了他兄长的领土扩张,久经沙场的蒙古人以极端残暴的手段驱动这一过程。

  Compared to other cultures,Mongol women during the time of Kublai Khan enjoyed higher social status within their society.They enjoyed more rights,including the ability to own and inherit property.Historians attribute their position to the Mongols’nomadic origins.When warriors were away on horseback,women organized and ran the camps.From commoners to nobility,women were encouraged and expected to be capable administrators.Kublai’s mother,Sorghaghtani,raised her sons to value education and the lessons of other cultures.Kublai’s wife,Chabi,was no different.A woman of intelligence,independence,and open-mindedness,her traits complemented Kublai’s priorities as a leader,and the two became a power couple.Chabi’s ability to navigate Chinese and Mongol culture helped her husband to do the same.

  与其他文化相比,忽必烈时期的蒙古妇女在社会中享有较高的社会地位。他们享有更多的权利,包括拥有和继承财产的能力。历史学家把她们的地位归因于游牧民族。当战士们骑马离开时,妇女们组织和管理营地。从平民到贵族,妇女都被鼓励成为有能力的行政人员。忽必烈的母亲克烈·唆鲁禾帖尼教育她的儿子重视教育和其他文化。忽必烈的妻子察必也不例外。作为一个聪明、独立、思想开放的女性,她的特质与作为领导者的忽必烈相辅相成,两人成为了一对有影响力的夫妇。察必帮助她的丈夫做到了驾驭汉族和蒙古文化。

  Tensions and triumph

  冲突和胜利


  Following his proclamation as khagan in 1260,Kublai had to deal decisively with Arigbo?ge’s claim to the throne before he could return to campaigning.Internal tensions were becoming as much of a threat as external enemies.Despite the solemnity and power attached to the title of khagan,Kublai’s accession marked the beginning of the splintering of the Mongol lands into sub-khanates:the Golden Horde on the Volga,the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia,the Ilkhanate based in Iran,and the Chinese territories ruled by Kublai himself.

  1260年,他宣布为可汗之后,忽必烈果断处理阿里不哥对王位的挑战。内部紧张局势已成为与外部敌人一样的威胁。尽管“可汗”的头衔庄严而有力,但忽必烈的即位标志着蒙古领土分裂的开始:伏尔加河上的金帐汗国,中亚的察合台汗国,伊朗的伊尔汗国,以及忽必烈统治下的大汗汗国。

  After Arigbo?ge’s defeat in 1264,Kublai resumed his military campaigns against the Song dynasty in southern China three years later.Ruling a populous territory of around 50 million inhabitants,the Southern Song had developed an innovative culture that carried out the first experiments in movable type long before printing techniques reached Europe.A flourishing economy boosted the growth of its cities,some of whose populations peaked at more than one million people.To Kublai,the lands of the Song seemed ripe for the taking.

  1264年阿里不哥失败后,再过3年,忽必烈重新开始对南宋展开军事攻势。南宋是一个拥有5000万人口的国家,早在印刷术传入欧洲之前,南宋就已经创造了一种发明,进行了最早的活字印刷。繁荣的经济促进了城市的发展,其中一些城市的人口达到了100多万。对于忽必烈来说,这南宋的土地似乎已经”成熟”。

  The Song had already resisted Mongol aggression for many years.They had skilled military commanders,gunpowder,and excellent military hardware,including siege engines.When Kublai resumed hostilities,it was clear that the endgame was looming.(The Great Wall of China was built to keep invaders out.Did it work?)

  南宋已经抵抗蒙古侵略很多年了。他们有熟练的将领,火药和优秀的军事装备,包括攻城机。当忽必烈恢复敌对状态时,很明显,战争即将结束。(中国的长城是用来防御侵略者的。它起作用了吗?)

  The war was long and grueling.Knowing Kublai’s strength lay in the fast Mongol cavalry attacks over open ground,the Song exploited his weaknesses by withdrawing into heavily fortified positions.Long,protracted sieges unfolded.Kublai began a campaign of coastal assaults to cut off the enemy’s supply routes.It was a risky tactic for a commander rooted in the culture of the steppes.

  战争是漫长而艰苦的。宋军知道忽必烈的力量在于蒙古骑兵对开阔地带的快速进攻,他们利用忽必烈的弱点撤退到重兵设防的地方。蒙古军展开了旷日持久的围攻。忽必烈开始了沿海的进攻,切断了敌人的补给线。对于一个植根于大草原文化的将领来说,这是一个冒险的策略。

  By 1273 Mongol perseverance led to the fall of the fortified city of Xiangyang.Little by little the rich Southern Song realms began to fall apart politically.In 1279 the Southern Song finally fell to Kublai Khan,and for the first time in several centuries China was united.

  1273年,蒙古人的坚韧不拔最终导致襄阳城被攻破。渐渐地,富裕的南宋在政治上开始分崩离析。1279年,南宋最终落入忽必烈之手,几个世纪以来,中国第一次实现了统一。

  New beginnings

  新的开始

  As Kublai Khan captured more and more of the Song lands,he declared his reign to be a new dynasty for China.In 1271 Kublai established himself as emperor of the Yuan,meaning“Great Origin.”Drawing on his education and his current advisers,Kublai knew it was even more important to embrace Chinese culture.He adopted Chinese dress and customs,incorporated Chinese methods of governing and management,and assembled a team of local advisers to help him administer the country.

  随着忽必烈占领了越来越多的土地,他宣布他的统治是中国的一个新王朝。1271年,忽必烈自立为元朝皇帝,这意味着“伟大的起源”。依靠自己所受的教育和其他人的建议,忽必烈知道接受中国文化更加重要。他采用了南宋的服饰和习俗,采用了南宋的管理方法,并组建了一个由当地文人组成的团队来帮助他管理国家。

  One of the most important of these was Liu Bingzhong.At the beginning of Kublai’s reign,Liu had persuaded the khagan to transfer the Mongol capital from Karakorum to Shangdu,anticipating the increasingly Chinese flavor of Kublai’s rule.Constructed for both government and business,its lavish facilities deeply impressed the Venetian traveler Marco Polo when he met Kublai.(Marco Polo's odyssey introduced Europe to the wonders of Asia.)

  其中最重要的文人是刘炳忠。在忽必烈统治初期,刘炳忠说服可汗把蒙古的首都从哈拉和林转移到上都,因为他预料到忽必烈统治会越来越有中国特色。威尼斯旅行家马可·波罗见到忽必烈时,对这里奢华的建设留下了深刻的印象。(马可·波罗的《奥德赛》使欧洲了解了亚洲的奇观。)

  Shangdu(anglicized as Xanadu in Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s famous 1816 poem“Kubla Khan”)became Kublai’s summer capital in 1274.Little remains of its splendor today;dark brick walls still stand,but the magnificent palace with marble and gold-plated rooms described by Marco Polo is gone.After the Yuan dynasty fell in 1368,the city lingered but was most likely abandoned by 1430.Today the site is designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.

  1274年,上都(塞缪尔·泰勒·柯尔律治1816年的著名诗歌《忽必烈汗》中,上都的英文名为Xanadu)成为忽必烈的夏都。今天它的辉煌已所剩无几;黑色的砖墙依然矗立着,但马可波罗描述的那个有着大理石和镀金房间的宏伟宫殿已经不复存在了。在1368年元朝灭亡后,这座城市仍然存在,但很可能在1430年就被废弃了。今天,该遗址被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。

  To center the empire more in Chinese territory,the capital shifted southeast to Dadu(today the site of Beijing),also on the advice of Liu.Marco Polo became famous for having served in the court of Kublai,an event that demonstrates the khagan’s openness to foreign customs.Whether marked by notable military failures—such as his attempted invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281,or successes such as the conquest of Vietnam and Burma—Kublai’s later reign relied heavily on non-Mongol military personnel and on foreign advisers.

  为了将帝国更多地集中在中国境内,在刘炳忠的建议下,都城东南方迁至大都(今天的北京旧址)。马可波罗因曾在忽必烈朝廷做过官而出名,这一事件表明了可汗对外国文化的包容。无论是以军事失败为标志的事件(例如他在1274年和1281年入侵日本),还是以征服越南和缅甸等成功的标志事件,忽必烈后来的统治时期都严重依赖非蒙古士兵,将军和军师。

  Even so,the Yuan hierarchy was rigid:Mongols occupied the top of the heap,followed by Central Asians and then the Chinese.Despite Kublai’s reliance on some Chinese as close advisers,Chinese nobles resented how they were shut out of the top positions in the Yuan government,and how the Yuan abolition of the civil service exams essentially cut off the chance of employment and social ascent for the brightest and best in Chinese society.Mongols,meanwhile,resented the increasingly China-centered nature of Kublai’s imperial power structure.

  即使这样,元朝的等级制度还是严格的:蒙古人占据了金字塔的顶端,其次是中亚人,然后是汉族人。尽管忽必烈依赖一些汉族官员,而汉族贵族对被排除在元朝最高职位的政府如何反感,但元朝废除科举考试基本上切断了部分汉人当官的机会,对忽必烈来说这在那个时代的社会是最聪明的和最好的方法。与此同时,蒙古人对忽必烈统治下的权力中心日益向汉族靠近感到不满。

  Kublai had already chosen his grandson Temu?r as his successor when he died at age 79,in 1294.He said that his body—the location of which is now lost—should rest alongside that of his grandfather Genghis in Burkhan Khaldun,a mountain in northeastern Mongolia.In spite of the years he lived in China,Kublai’s heart always belonged to the Mongol steppe.

  1294年,79岁的忽必烈去世时,他已经选择了他的孙子铁穆耳作为他的继承人。他说,他的遗体应该与他的祖父成吉思汗合葬在不儿罕合勒敦山(位于蒙古东北部的一座山上)。尽管忽必烈在中国生活了许多年,但他的心始终属于蒙古大草原。

  The conquest of China,where he forged the Yuan dynasty,would stand as his greatest achievement.Yet he could not have done so without adopting Chinese customs,thus alienating Mongol aristocrats who regarded the Chinese as inferior.This tension between the Mongol elite and its subject peoples—especially the Chinese—played a major role in destabilizing Mongol rule.Although at his death Kublai would leave an empire that was relatively stable and prosperous,it would survive him by less than a century.

  他在中国建立了元朝,统一中国是他最大的成就。然而,如果不采用中国的风俗习惯,他不可能做到这一点,因此疏远了认为汉族人低人一等的蒙古贵族。蒙古精英和臣民之间的紧张关系,尤其是在分拆蒙古统治的过程中当时的汉臣扮演了重要角色。虽然在他死后,忽必烈留下了一个相对稳定和繁荣的帝国,但这个帝国比他多活了不到一个世纪。
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