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O.K.Corral的枪战到底发生了什么?

  Movies and T.V.portray Wyatt Earp and his brothers as law-abiding heroes—but the real story of the most famous shoot out in U.S.history is more complicated than that.

  电影和电视把怀亚特·厄普和他的兄弟们塑造成遵纪守法的英雄,但是,这部美国历史上最著名的电影的真实故事比这更复杂。

  The afternoon of October 26,1881,gunfire erupted in the frontier town of Tombstone.The fighting was over in less than a minute,and when the gun smoke cleared,three men lay dead.This short skirmish might have been a footnote in American history,but it grew and became a legend,perhaps the most famous in the Old West.

  1881年10月26日下午,边境小镇墓碑镇爆发了枪战。战斗不到一分钟就结束了,当硝烟散去时,有三个人躺在地上死了。这场短暂的冲突是美国历史上的一个注脚,但它却成为一个传奇,也许是旧西部历史上最著名的事件。

  A feud had been building between two rival factions in Tombstone.One was led by Kansas lawman Wyatt Earp,his brothers Virgil and Morgan,and their friend John“Doc”Holliday.The other was a loose band of outlaws called the“cowboys”:Among their members were brothers Ike and Billy Clanton and brothers Tom and Frank McLaury.The rising tensions between the two groups revealed that the line between law enforcement and vendetta was very thin in the Arizona Territory.

  在墓碑镇,敌对的两派之间已经积怨已久。其中一派是堪萨斯州的执法官怀亚特·厄普,他的兄弟维吉尔和摩根,以及他们的朋友约翰·道格·霍利迪。另一派则是被称为“牛仔”的一群不法分子:他们当中有艾克和比利·克兰顿兄弟,还有汤姆和弗兰克·麦克劳里兄弟。这两个派之间不断加剧的紧张关系表明,在亚利桑那州境内,执法部门与仇杀组织之间的界线非常狭窄。

  Tombstone was founded a few years earlier by Ed Schieffelin,a former scout with the United States Army.Schieffelin headed to the Arizona Territory in the 1870s to strike it rich in mining.He found a promising spot in what is today southeastern Arizona,about 30 miles north of the Mexican border.(See life as a cowboy nearly 100 years ago.)

  墓碑镇是几年前由美国陆军前侦察员艾德·希弗林创立的。希弗林在19世纪70年代前往亚利桑那州,希望在那里大发横财。他在今天亚利桑那州的东南部,墨西哥边境以北30英里处发现了一个有希望发财的地点。(看看100年前的牛仔生活。)

  Schieffelin was warned by soldiers that,having chosen a spot in Apache territory,he was more likely to find his own tombstone than precious metals.When Schieffelin hit on a seam of silver there in 1877,he had the last laugh and called the claim Tombstone.The name was carried over as the name of the settlement founded near the site,fueled by a silver rush that attracted fortune hunters to the new town.

  士兵警告希弗林说,他选择的阿帕奇地区的那个地点,更有可能让他找到自己的墓碑,而不是贵重金属。当希弗林在1877年偶然发现贵重金属银时,他笑到了最后,并把这个地点叫做墓碑。在该地点附近建立的定居点沿用了该名称,后来因银矿热而吸引了寻宝者到达这里。

  Brothers against brothers

  兄弟之间的对抗


  By 1881 Tombstone had a population of more than 7,000 and was the seat of the newly formed Cochise County.The area was thriving but had a notorious reputation for being rough and lawless.The Earps were drawn to Tombstone by the promise of fortune from the silver rush.Wyatt Earp had served as a police officer in Wichita and Dodge City,Kansas,before he moved to Tombstone in late 1879.With him came his brother,Virgil,a miner and soldier who would become Tombstone’s town marshal in 1880.(This is how Jesse James became an infamous outlaw.)

  到了1881年,墓碑镇的人口已经超过了7000人,是新成立的科奇斯县的所在地。这个地区繁荣昌盛,但却以粗暴和无法无天而臭名昭著。墓碑镇的居民被银矿热带来的财富前景所吸引。怀亚特·厄普在1879年底搬到墓碑镇之前,曾在堪萨斯州的威奇托和道奇城担任警察。与他同行的还有他的兄弟维吉尔,他是一名矿工和士兵,1880年成为墓碑镇的警长。(这就是为什么杰西·詹姆斯成了臭名昭著的逃犯。)

  Morgan,a younger brother of Wyatt and Virgil,joined his siblings in Tombstone that same year.Shortly after came a man who had befriended Wyatt Earp in Dodge City:Doc Holliday,a former dentist from Georgia turned gambler and gunfighter.All the brothers had other income that was unrelated to law enforcement,with stakes in mines and saloons and occasional work as bartenders and private security.

  维吉尔和怀亚特的弟弟摩根也在同一年加入了他们的行列。不久之后,来自乔治亚州的前牙医道格·霍利迪在道奇城与怀亚特·厄普成为朋友:最后他变成了一名赌徒和枪手。兄弟俩还有其他与执法无关的收入,比如在矿山和酒吧里拥有股份,偶尔还做过调酒师和私人保安。

  The Earp-Holliday faction had rivals in Tombstone:the cowboys.The Clanton and the McLaury brothers had a reputation as outlaws and were known to make their living thanks to cattle rustling.Beef shortages in the growing towns had given them a way of making easy money.They would rustle cattle on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border.

  厄普霍利迪派系在墓碑中有竞争对手:牛仔。克兰顿和姆克劳里兄弟是出了名的罪犯,他们靠偷牛为生。新兴城镇的牛肉短缺给了他们一种轻松赚钱的方式。他们会在美国和墨西哥边境的两边散养牛群。

  Keen to meet demand,the butchers in Tombstone were not particularly fussy about the meat’s origins,particularly if it was from the other side of the frontier.The first source of tension between the cowboys and the Earps was over some stolen mules that the Earps tracked down to the McLaury ranch.The McLaurys,meanwhile,accused the Earps of acting for their own benefit instead of acting as law officers.(Will cowboy poetry survive the modern era?)

  为了满足需求,墓碑镇的屠夫们对肉的来源并不是特别挑剔,尤其是来自边境的另一边的肉。牛仔和厄普兄弟之间的紧张关系的第一个来源是:厄普兄弟从McLaury牧场找到的一些被盗的骡子。与此同时,McLaury家族指责厄普兄弟的行为是为了自己的利益,而不是充当法律官员。(牛仔诗歌能在现代社会生存下去吗?)

  Politics and pistols

  政治和手枪


  Wyatt Earp developed a professional rivalry with a fellow politician,Johnny Behan.Ten months before the shoot-out,Behan and Earp had both run for sheriff in Cochise County.Partway into the race,Behan had convinced Earp to pull out,promising him the job of under sheriff in return.After securing the office of county sheriff,Behan reneged on the deal and appointed another man to the position,leading to the two men’s mutual enmity.

  怀亚特·厄普与另一位政客约翰尼·贝恩展开了一场职业竞争。在枪击事件发生前十个月,本汉和厄普都曾竞选过科奇斯县的治安官。在竞选进行到一半时,本汉说服了厄普退出比赛,作为回报,他答应让厄普担任副治安官的职务。在获得县治安官的职位后,本汉食言,任命了另一个人担任该职位,导致两个人相互敌视。

  Guns in tombstone

  墓碑上的枪


  In October 1881 an ordinance was passed in Tombstone prohibiting the carrying of weapons in town.This riled the cowboys,who were used to carrying their weapons wherever they pleased.As town marshal,Virgil Earp was responsible for enforcing the law and wanted to disarm the offenders.

  1881年10月,在墓碑镇通过了一项法令,禁止在城里携带武器。这激怒了牛仔们,他们过去喜欢带着武器到处跑。作为镇治安官,维吉尔·厄普负责执法,并希望解除罪犯的武装。

  A heated argument took place between Doc Holliday and Ike Clanton at the Alhambra saloon on the night of October 25,1881.The fight was broken up,but Clanton continued to drink into the morning.Making threats against Holliday and the Earps,Clanton was armed with several guns,accounts say.

  1881年10月25日晚,道格·霍利迪和艾克·克兰顿在Alhambra saloon发生了激烈的争论。战斗结束了,但克兰顿继续喝到天亮。据报道,克兰顿手持数支枪,对道格和厄普兄弟进行了威胁。

  Virgil Earp disarmed Clanton,took him before a judge,who imposed a fine before letting him go.Ike,infuriated,sought out a group of five cowboys,including his brother Billy and the McLaurys,and went with them to Fremont Street.They spread the word that they were armed and intended to remain so.Sheriff Behan met the cowboys and tried to talk them into surrendering their weapons but failed.Sources differ:Some say the cowboys either denied having guns on them or refused to surrender them.(This 81-year-old cowboy still has lessons to share.)
    蛐蛐英语 www.qqenglish.com


  维吉尔·厄普解除了克兰顿的武装,带他去见法官,法官判了他罚款,才放他走。艾克被激怒了,他找到了五名牛仔,包括他的兄弟比利和麦克卢里一家,和他们一起去了弗里蒙特街。他们散布消息说,他们打算继续武装。县治安官本汉与牛仔们见了面,试图说服他们交出武器,但没有成功。来源不同:有人说,这些牛仔要么否认自己身上有枪,要么拒绝投降。(这位81岁的牛仔仍然有很多值得分享的经验。)

  Behan then met with Virgil Earp,who had deputized his brothers and Doc Holliday.The sheriff tried to convince the Earps to back off,but they pressed on,finding the Clantons and the McLaurys in a lot near the Old Kindersley Corral.

  然后,本汉会见了维吉尔·厄普,后者代理他的兄弟们和道格·霍利迪。本汉试图说服厄普兄弟后退,但他们不肯罢休,并发现在the Old Kindersley Corral附近有很多克兰顿和麦克劳里的兄弟。

  Shots erupted,but no one knows who fired first.The fight was over as quickly as it began.Billy Clanton and Tom and Frank McLaury were dead.Ike Clanton and two other cowboys had escaped the same fate.On the Earps’side,all survived,but only Wyatt remained unharmed.

  随后枪声响起,但没人知道是谁先开的枪。战斗一开始就结束了。比利·克兰顿、汤姆和弗兰克·麦克劳里都死了。艾克·克兰顿和另外两个牛仔逃脱了。在厄普这边,所有人都存活下来,只有怀亚特没有受伤。

  Under Tombstone law,policemen were in the right if they shot armed opponents threatening to kill.After the shooting,Ike Clanton accused the marshal’s group of firing at five unarmed men,leading Sheriff Behan to arrest the Earp brothers and Holliday,accusing them of murder.During a preliminary hearing that lasted a month,it was proven that two of the cowboys had been armed.The judge threw out the trial,but lingering doubts about the Earps’true intentions that day would remain.

  根据墓碑镇法律,如果警察向对自己威胁的武装对手开枪,他们是对的。枪击事件发生后,艾克·克兰顿指控法警小组向五名手无寸铁的男子开枪,并指控他们谋杀,导致警长本安逮捕了厄普兄弟和霍利迪。在持续了一个月的初步审讯中,两名牛仔被证实携带武器。法官驳回了审判,但人们仍然怀疑那天法官的真实意图。

  The shooting brought terrible consequences for both the Earps and the cowboys.On December 28,1881,Virgil Earp was ambushed and shot in the back on his way home.His injuries left him alive,but seriously injured.In March of the following year,Morgan Earp was killed.The assailants were never positively identified,but many believe the two Earps were gunned down as revenge for the events at the O.K.Corral.

  枪击事件对厄普和牛仔都造成了可怕的后果。1881年12月28日,维吉尔·厄普在回家的路上遭到伏击,背部中弹。他虽然活了下来,但伤势严重。次年3月,摩根·厄普被杀。袭击者的身份从未得到确认,但许多人认为,这两名警察在O.K.Corral.被击毙是出于报复。

  Shortly after these events,Wyatt Earp became a deputy U.S.marshal.He deputized several men,including Doc Holliday,and set out on a vendetta against the men he believed responsible for the death of his brother.Four cowboys,including one of Sheriff Behan’s aides,were killed.Behan acquired an arrest warrant and pursued Earp and his men,without success.Wyatt Earp left Arizona Territory in April 1882,later settling in California with his partner,Josephine Marcus,Behan’s former girlfriend.(Saddle up with Hawaii's cowboys.)

  这些事件发生后不久,怀亚特·厄普成为美国副元帅。他代表包括霍利迪等人,对那些他认为要为他哥哥的死负责的人展开了一场仇杀。四个牛仔,包括治安官本汉的一名助手,被杀。本汉获得了一张逮捕令,并追捕了厄普和他的人,但没有成功。怀亚特·厄普于1882年4月离开亚利桑那州,后来与他的伴侣约瑟芬·马库斯——本的前女友定居在加利福尼亚。(和夏威夷的牛仔们一起骑马。)

  Men and myths

  人与神话

  The story of the O.K.Corral soon became part the frontier myth.Wyatt Earp’s colorful life as a lawman,gambler,miner,pimp,and saloon owner made him a natural target for colorful anecdotes,but he was reluctant to discuss openly what happened during those fateful seconds in Tombstone.

  O.K.Corral的故事很快成为边境神话的一部分。怀亚特·厄普作为执法者、赌徒、矿工、皮条客和酒馆老板的丰富多彩的生活,使他成为各种奇闻轶事的天然目标,但他不愿公开讨论在墓碑镇中那些决定命运的几秒钟里到底发生了什么。

  In 1931,two years after Earp’s death,Stuart N.Lake,a former press aide to President Theodore Roosevelt,published Wyatt Earp,Frontier Marshal,a biography that included a dramatic telling of the shoot-out at the O.K.Corral and other events in Earp’s life.The book was extremely successful and elevated Earp to almost mythic status by simplifying the story.Lake made Wyatt the hero and the cowboys the villains.The truth,however—like the line dividing law and vengeance in those wilder times—is much blurrier.

  1931年,也就是厄普去世两年后,西奥多·罗斯福总统的前新闻助理斯图尔特·N·莱克出版了《边境元帅怀亚特·厄普传》,这部传记包括了戏剧性讲述一场关于O.K.Corral枪战和厄普生活中的其他事件。这本书非常成功,通过简化故事,把厄普提升到近乎神话的地位。莱克把怀亚特塑造成英雄,把牛仔塑造成恶棍。然而,真相就像法律与复仇之间的分界线一样,在那个更为混乱的时代,它也更加模糊。
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