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这个现代世界的边缘是人类的摇篮之一

  But community-based tourism is helping to keep ancient traditions alive in Ethiopia’s Omo River region.

  但是以社区为基础的旅游业正在帮助埃塞俄比亚的奥莫河地区保持古老的传统。

  At the end of a long day,we walked up to the village of Korcho.Tropical boubou birds were singing their duets on the edge of a lake.Circular huts,made of sticks and crowned with grass roofs,lay scattered along a ridge.Boys were herding cattle toward the family stockades for the night.

  在漫长的一天结束后,我们走到Korcho村。热带的boubou鸟在湖边唱着二重唱。圆圆的棚屋,用树枝搭成,有草屋顶,零星散布在山脊上。孩子们正赶着牛群回家过夜。

  Kara族是居住在埃塞俄比亚Omo-Turkana盆地的16个民族之一

  Korcho is a village of the Kara people,one of the 16 ethnic groups said to inhabit Ethiopia’s Omo-Turkana Basin.Ethiopia may be known for its rich and varied mix of ethnicities,but the diversity in the lower Omo River Valley in the southwest of the country,home to more than 200,000 people,is unparalleled.

  Korcho是Kara族的一个村庄,Kara族是居住在埃塞俄比亚Omo-Turkana盆地的16个民族之一。埃塞俄比亚以其多种多样的民族而闻名,该国西南部奥莫河谷下游的民族多样性更是丰富,并且在那里居住着20多万人口。

  One of the cradles of humankind,the valley was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1980.Ancient stone tools unearthed there“offer evidence of the earliest known technical activities of prehistoric beings,”the UNESCO citation reads.The discovery of several hominid fossils has provided vital keys to an understanding of human evolution.

  作为人类的摇篮之一,这个河谷在1980年被联合国教科文组织宣布为世界遗产。联合国教科文组织在引文中写道,在那里出土的古代石器为我们提供了已知的史前人类最早的技术活动的证据。几块原始人类化石的发现为理解人类进化提供了关键的钥匙。

  Such has been the isolation of these peoples that until fairly recently few had even heard of the nation of which they were a part.For them,the capital of Addis Ababa might have been another world.To outsiders,the valley appears little compromised by the trappings of modernity.

  这些民族是如此的孤立,以至于直到最近,甚至很少有人听说过他们所属的国家。对他们来说,首都亚的斯亚贝巴可能是另一个世界。在外人看来,河谷似乎没有受到现代化的影响。

  But inevitably the modern world has edged in.The Ethiopian government is creating a cascade of five dams on the upper Omo,a mighty river that winds for 500 miles through the central highlands and empties on the border with Kenya into Lake Turkana,the world’s largest desert lake.

  但不可避免的是,现代世界已经逐渐融入到这里。埃塞俄比亚政府正在奥莫河上游建造五座水坝,这条大河流经中部高地,蜿蜒500英里,注入肯尼亚边境的图尔卡纳湖,这是世界上最大的沙漠湖。

  The Gibe III dam in particular,opened in 2015,has already had a profound effect on the hydrology of the lower Omo,disrupting the annual floods that support cultivation and pasturage and undermining a way of life that has flourished here for many centuries.Power lines now stretch across green hillsides flanking the dam reservoir.Some communities are being resettled.
纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com


  特别是Gibe III大坝,于2015年开放,已经对奥莫河下游的水文产生了深远的影响,破坏了支持耕种和放牧的河水,破坏了在这里传播了几个世纪的生活方式。电缆线现在搭建到大坝水库两侧的绿色山坡上。一些社区正在被重新安置。

  I had come to the Omo from Addis Ababa,driving for three days across the agrarian landscapes of the Ethiopian highlands on roads where most of the traffic was pedestrian.Young men strolled arm in arm while women staggered in their wake beneath heavy sacks.A few horsemen passed.A white-robed priest appeared beneath a splendid parasol.

  我从亚的斯亚贝巴来到奥莫,开了三天的车,穿过埃塞俄比亚高原的农业景观,路上大部分都是行人。年轻男子挽着胳膊散步,而妇女则在沉重的麻袋下蹒跚而行。几个骑马的人路过。一位身穿白袍的牧师在一把华丽的遮阳伞下出现了。

  Ethiopia strains the imagination.The presence of what is believed to be the Ark of the Covenant,housed in an unassuming chapel in the northern town of Aksum,offers a hint of what this world of cloud-high plateaus and plunging gorges,of peaks and blistering salt deserts,of monasteries and castles,would reveal to me.

  埃塞俄比亚让人难以想象。在北部城镇阿克苏姆的一个不起眼的教堂中,有一个名为“约柜”的圣物,给我提供了一个线索,告诉我这个有高原和陡峭的峡谷,有山峰和酷热的盐碱地,有修道院和城堡的世界会向我揭示什么。

  埃塞俄比亚是“蓬特之地”

  To ancient Egyptians,Ethiopia was the Land of Punt,a mysterious world where the Nile River flowed from fountains.Medieval Europeans believed it was a place inhabited by unicorns and flying dragons,birthplace of Prester John,keeper of the Fountain of Youth,protector of the Holy Grail,and a supposed descendant of one of the three magi.

  对古埃及人来说,埃塞俄比亚是“蓬特之地”,这是一个神秘的世界,尼罗河从喷泉中流出。中世纪的欧洲人认为这是一个住着独角兽和飞龙的地方,Prester John的出生地,青春之泉的守护者,圣杯的守护者,三位贤士之一的后代。

  Thanks to a remarkably inhospitable geography—Ethiopia is where Africa’s Great Rift Valley gets its start—isolation was total.“The Ethiopians slept near a thousand years,”wrote historian Edward Gibbon in 1837,“forgetful of the world,by whom they were forgotten.”
纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com


  得益于极其荒凉的地理环境——埃塞俄比亚是非洲大裂谷的发源地——与世隔离是彻底的。历史学家Edward Gibbon在1837年写道,埃塞俄比亚人沉睡了近一千年,忘记了世界,被世界遗忘。

  But increasingly travelers are beginning to find this storied realm.On the third day of my slow-paced journey,somewhere beyond Jimma,fields and villages fell away as we dropped out of the highlands.Views lengthened as the landscape unfolded toward distant escarpments.This was an emptier Africa of savanna and acacia.

  但越来越多的游客开始发现这个传奇的国度。在我慢速旅行的第三天,在Jimma以外的某个地方,当我们离开高地时,田野和村庄都消失了。随着风景逐渐向远处的悬崖峭壁延伸,视野也拉长了。这是一个更空旷的非洲,到处是稀树大草原和金合欢树。

  Some hours later I was ensconced in the sylvan setting of Lale’s Camp,a canvas-tented complex in the shade of wild figs on the east bank of the Omo.A collaboration between local Kara and sustainable travel outfitter Wild Expeditions,the camp is part of a strategy to mitigate the disruptions caused by the dams as well as an attempt to develop a tourism model that extends the economic benefits of travel to host communities.

  几个小时后,我安坐在Lale营地的森林里。Lale营地位于奥莫东岸,是一片野果树荫下的帆布帐篷。该营地是当地卡拉人与可持续旅游装备供应商Wild expedition的合作项目,是一项缓解大坝造成破坏的战略的一部分,也是开发一种旅游模式的尝试,旨在将旅游的经济效益扩大到接待社区。

  The project provides revenue and employment for the Kara.Funds have been directed toward solar-powered irrigation systems that will allow,in the wake of the disruption of the dams,the continued cultivation of sorghum on the riverbanks,in addition to fruits,vegetables,and herbs that can be sold to the camp kitchens.

  该项目为Kara提供收入和就业机会。资金已用于太阳能灌溉系统,这将在大坝破坏后允许在河岸上继续种植高粱,此外还可将水果,蔬菜和草药出售给营地厨房。

  Travel from the camp is often by boat,making for less intrusive arrivals in remote communities.One morning we made our way downriver into the channels of the delta.Colobus monkeys quarreled in the forests that lined the banks.Children splashed distressingly close to basking crocodiles.A group of teenage boys peered through the trees.

  从营地出发的旅行通常是乘船,这样可以减少偏远社区的侵扰。一天早上,我们沿着河进入下游三角洲。疣猴在河岸的森林里吵架。孩子们泼着水,靠近正在晒太阳的鳄鱼。一群十几岁的男孩从树丛中窥视。

  Some 50 years ago,not far from Lale’s Camp,remnants of one of the earliest examples of Homo sapiens were found.The area’s frequent volcanic eruptions over millennia created layers of debris and soil,which have helped scientists date the hominid and animal fossil fragments preserved in each layer.Almost 200,000 years old,the finds revealed the Omo valley to be one of the first landscapes to be inhabited by our human ancestors.

  大约50年前,在离Lale营地不远的地方,发现了最早的有智人样本之一的遗迹。数千年来,该地区频繁的火山喷发形成了一层层的碎片和土壤,这帮助科学家确定了每一层中保存的原始人和动物化石碎片及其对应的年代。这些发现表明,距今近20万年的奥莫山谷是人类祖先最早居住的地方之一。

  It is a landscape now changing but ever nurturing,teaching,remembering.

  这是一个不断变化但不断滋养、教导和记忆的世界。
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