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外星球上的奇怪天气

  We often complain about the weather,particularly as more extreme weather events become more commonplace here on Earth,but what if we spent our holiday weekends battling 5,400-mile-an-hour winds or temperatures hot enough to melt lead?

  我们时常抱怨天气,特别是随着现在极端天气事件在地球上变得越来越普遍。但是如果我们正在度假,却要面临时速5400英里或温度足以融化铅的风,我们该怎么办?

  Weather,good or bad,is not only a permanent fixture on our planet-it's prevalent,and even more extreme,out there in the depths of space.

  无论好坏,天气不仅是我们星球上的永久固定的现象,它也是普遍存在的,在太空的深处甚至更为极端。

  金星

  Let's start close to home,with our neighbour Venus,the most inhospitable place in the solar system.Basically,Venus is a biblical hellhole.Home to a thick atmosphere mostly consisting of carbon dioxide,the atmospheric pressure on Venus is 90 times that found on Earth.This atmosphere traps much of the Sun's radiation which means temperatures on Venus can reach up to 460C-so you'd be crushed and boiling within seconds if you were to set foot here.But if that doesn't sound painful enough,rain on Venus is made up of extremely corrosive sulphuric acid,which would severely burn any interstellar traveller's skin.

  让我们先从离家近的地方开始,看看我们的邻居金星(Venus)。金星是太阳系中最荒凉的地方。基本上可以说,金星就是一个圣经里描绘的地狱。它的大气层主要由二氧化碳构成,其大气压力是地球上大气压力的90倍。这种大气层会捕获大量的太阳辐射,这意味着金星上的温度可以达到460摄氏度,因此,如果您打算在这里停留,可能会在几秒钟内被压碎并煮沸。如果这听起来还不够痛苦的话,那么金星上的雨水也不是一般的雨水,而是由腐蚀性极强的硫酸构成的,可以严重灼伤星际旅行者的皮肤。

  外星球上的奇怪天气

  Due to the planet's extreme surface temperatures,this rain would evaporate before landing.Yet even more bizarrely,there is‘snow‘on Venus.Not the type that you could have snowball fight with:this stuff is made up of the basalt frost remnants of metals vaporised by its atmosphere.

  由于金星极端的表面温度,这种雨将在着陆之前蒸发。更奇怪的是,金星上有“雪”。不是那种可以打雪仗的雪,而是由多种金属在其气相环境中气化后的玄武岩凝结残留物所构成的。<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

  At the other end of our solar system you have gas giant planets Uranus and Neptune.The latter,our most distant planet,is home to frozen methane clouds and the most violent winds in the solar system.Because of the planet's,which is fairly flat,there's nothing to slow down these supersonic methane winds which can reach speeds of up to 1,500mph.

  在太阳系的另一端,有天然气态巨行星天王星和海王星。后者是离我们最遥远的星球,是冰冻甲烷云和太阳系中最猛烈的风的所在地。由于海王星相当平坦,因此没有什么可以放慢这些超音速甲烷风,它的时速可达1,500英里每小时。

  As well as being able to hear the,a visit here would also include diamond rain,thanks to the carbon in the atmosphere being compressed.But you wouldn't have to worry about being whacked by a falling stone,as you'd already have been frozen instantly.

  除了可以听到,您还可以看到钻石雨。这要归功于大气中被压缩的碳。您不必担心会被掉落的钻石砸伤,因为在被砸到之前,您就已经被冻结了。

  Tom Louden is a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Warwick,and he's a bit like an intergalactic weatherman–it's his job to find out what the atmospheric conditions are on other planets.

  汤姆·劳登(Tom Louden)是华威大学的博士后研究员,他有点像星际气象员,弄清楚其他行星的大气状况就是他的工作。

  “The upper atmosphere of Venus is actually one of the more habitable places in the Solar System,apart from the Earth,”he states.Above its sulphuric acid clouds,there's a point where the pressure is roughly that of our planet.

  他说:“除了地球,金星的高层大气实际上是太阳系中最宜居的地方之一。在它的硫酸云层之上,有一个压力大致等于地球的压力。”

  “You wouldn't be able to breathe the atmosphere,but you could imagine being in a big hot-air balloon or something filled with Earth atmosphere.And if you had an oxygen mask you could probably be OK here in a T-shirt and shorts.”

  “您无法呼吸大气,但是您可以想象在一个大气球或充满地球大气的东西中呼吸。如果您有氧气面罩,也许还能穿着T恤和短裤待在这里。”

  劳登专门研究系外行星

  Louden's speciality is exoplanets(those outside of our solar system that orbit around a sun),particularly one charismatically named HD 189733b.This deep-blue world some 63 light years away is a good candidate for being host to the most extreme known weather on another planet.It may look beautiful,but its weather conditions are apocalyptically awful.With winds of 5,000 miles per hour(the strongest recorded on Earth are 253mph)it's also 20 times closer to its sun than we are,with atmospheric temperatures of 1,600 degrees centigrade–the level of molten lava.

  劳登专门研究系外行星(那些在我们太阳系之外的绕太阳公转的行星),尤其是一个名为HD 189733b的迷人的星球。这个深蓝色的世界距离我们约63光年,是探知另一个星球上最极端的已知天气的理想之选。它可能看起来很漂亮,但其天气状况令人恐惧。每小时的风速为5,000英里(地球上记录的最强时速为253英里),它的日照距离也比我们近20倍,大气温度为1600摄氏度,相当于熔岩的水平。

  “Rocks on our planet would be vaporised into liquid or gas here,”says Louden.And it also rains molten glass.

  劳登说:“地球上的岩石会在这里蒸发成液体或气体。而且这里还下着熔融的玻璃雨。”

  Louden says there are planets similar in size and mass to the Earth orbiting smaller M dwarf,or'red dwarf',stars.Whether they are habitable is another question.To be warm enough and have liquid water on its surface,a planet must be‘tidally locked'–as our Moon is to the Earth.This means you'll get one side with permanent daylight and the other,perpetual night.

  劳登说,有一些行星的大小和质量与地球相似,绕着较小的M矮星或“红矮星”恒星运行。至于它们是否宜居是另一个问题。为了足够温暖并在其表面上有液态水,必须将行星“潮汐锁定”,就像我们的月球对地球一样。这意味着其在一面拥有永久的日光,而另一面则是永恒的夜晚。

  “When you make computer models you get hurricane-level events moving from the day to the night side.Any liquid water on the day side will evaporate into clouds,which will get blown to the night side,freeze and snow out.You'd have one side that's a desert and one side that's arctic.”

  “通过计算机建立模型,你会看到在这个行星上,飓风是从白日一侧的半球刮向黑夜半球。白日半球的液态水会蒸发成云,然后被飓风刮到黑夜半球被冷冻成为落雪。所以这个星球一半是沙漠,另一半是北极。”

  There really is no place like home.

  宇宙中真的没有像我们地球一样的家园了。
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