快捷搜索: 纽约时报  抗疫  疫情  经济学人  武汉  香港 

为什么像大象和犰狳这样的哺乳动物很容易喝醉

  Differences in a gene for breaking down alcohol might help explain which mammals get tipsy

  分解酒精的基因差异可能有助于解释哪些哺乳动物会喝醉

  大象的酒精耐受性可能很低

  A new genetic study suggests that elephants could have low alcohol tolerance,reopening a long-running debate over whether the animals ever get drunk.

  一项新的基因研究表明,大象的酒精耐受性可能很低,这重新引发了一场关于大象是否会喝醉的长期争论。

  An elephant,a narwhal and a guinea pig walk into a bar.From there,things could get ugly.

  当大象,独角鲸和豚鼠走进酒吧。从那里开始,事情可能会变得很糟糕。

  一项有关代谢酒精的基因的最新调查

  All three might get drunk easily,according to a new survey of a gene involved in metabolizing alcohol.They’re among the creatures affected by 10 independent breakdowns of the ADH7 gene during the history of mammal evolution.Inheriting that dysfunctional gene might make it harder for their bodies to break down ethanol,says molecular anthropologist Mareike Janiak of the University of Calgary in Canada.

  根据一项有关代谢酒精的基因的最新调查,这三种动物都容易醉酒。它们是哺乳动物进化史上受到10次ADH7基因独立失效影响的动物之一。加拿大卡尔加里大学的分子人类学家Mareike Janiak说,遗传这种功能失调的基因可能会使他们的身体更难分解乙醇。

  She and colleagues didn’t look at all the genes needed to metabolize ethanol,but the failure of this important one might allow ethanol to build up more easily in these animals’bloodstreams,Janiak and colleagues report April 29 in Biology Letters.

  Janiak及其同事在4月29日的《Biology Letters》上报道,她和同事们并未研究代谢乙醇所需的所有基因,但这一重要基因的改变可能使乙醇在这些动物的血液中更容易积聚。

  The carnivorous cetaceans,grain-or leaf-eating guinea pigs and most other animals that the study identified as potentially easy drunks probably don’t binge on sugary fruit and nectar that brews ethanol.Elephants,however,will feast on fruit,and the new study reopens a long-running debate over whether elephants truly get tipsy gorging on marula fruit,a relative of mangoes.

  食肉鲸目动物、以谷物或树叶为食的豚鼠以及研究中发现的其他大多数容易醉酒的动物,可能并不会大量食用制造乙醇的含糖水果和花蜜。然而,大象将会饱餐一顿水果大餐,这项新的研究重新开始了长期争论不休的争论,即大象是否真的会醉醺醺地大吃芒果的“亲戚”——马鲁拉果。

  Descriptions of elephants behaving oddly after binging on overripe fruit go back at least to 1875,Janiak says.Later,a taste test offering the animals troughs of water spiked with ethanol found that elephants willingly drank.Afterward,they swayed more when moving and seemed more aggressive,observers reported. 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  Janiak说,有关大象吃过熟的水果后行为怪异的描述至少可以追溯到1875年。后来,对大象进行了一项味觉测试,向它们提供装有乙醇的水槽,结果发现大象很愿意喝水。观察人士说,之后,他们在移动时摇晃得更厉害,而且看起来更有攻击性。

  Yet in 2006,physiologist Steve Morris of the University of Bristol in England and colleagues attacked the notion of elephant inebriation as“a myth.”Among their arguments was a calculation that even if African elephants really were feasting on fallen,fermenting marula fruit,the animals could not physically eat the huge amount necessary at one time to get a buzz(SN:6/13/17).However,that calculation extrapolated from human physiology.The new insight that elephants’ADH7 gene doesn’t work might mean they have a lower tolerance for the tipple.

  然而在2006年,英国布里斯托尔大学的生理学家Steve Morris和他的同事攻击大象醉酒的概念是一个“神话”。他们的论点之一是,就算非洲象真的以正在发酵的马鲁拉果实为食,它们也不可能一次吃下足够多的果实(SN:6/13/17).然而,这种计算是根据人类生理学推断出来的。。新的发现表明,大象的ADH7基因不起作用,这可能意味着它们对烈酒的耐受性较低。

  It wasn’t elephants,though,but tree shrews that inspired the new work(SN:7/28/08).They look like“cute squirrels with pointed noses,”says senior author Amanda Melin,a biological anthropologist also at Calgary,and they have a prodigious tolerance for alcohol.Concentrations of ethanol that would make a human sloppy apparently don’t phase the little animals.She,Janiak and colleagues decided to survey all of the mammal genetic information that they could find to indirectly assess the variety of responses to alcohol.“We were on a patio drinking beer when we first sketched out the paper,”Janiak remembers.

  然而,启发这项新研究的并不是大象,而是树鼩(SN:7/28/08)。卡尔加里的生物人类学家、资深作家Amanda Melin说,它们看起来就像可爱的尖鼻子松鼠,而且它们对酒精有着惊人的耐受力。乙醇的浓度会使人变得邋遢,但显然不会影响小动物。她,Janiak及其同事决定调查他们可以找到的所有哺乳动物遗传信息,以间接评估对酒精反应的多样性。Janiak回忆说:“当拟初稿时,我们正在一个露台上喝啤酒。”<-->纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com<-->

  Looking at genetic information available on 79 mammal species,researchers found that ADH7 has lost its function in 10 separate spots on the mammal family tree.These ethanol-susceptible twigs sprout quite different animals:elephants,armadillos,rhinos,degus,beavers and cattle among them.

  研究人员查看了79种哺乳动物的遗传信息,发现ADH7在哺乳动物系谱上的10个不同位置失去了功能。这些易受乙醇影响的动物非常不同:大象,犰狳,犀牛,天牛,八齿鼠和牛都在其中。

  In contrast,humans and nonhuman African primates have the reverse situation,a mutation that renders their ADH7 some 40 times more efficient at dismantling ethanol than a typical mammalian version.What gives tree shrews their drinking superpower,however,remains a mystery since they don’t have the same superefficient gene.

  相比之下,人类和非人类的非洲灵长类动物则处于相反的情况,这种突变使它们的ADH7分解乙醇的效率比典型的哺乳动物高40倍。然而,树鼩饮酒能力的来源仍然是个谜,因为它们没有相同的高效基因。

  Like humans,aye-ayes carry a gene mutation that allows them to break down ethanol some 40 times more efficiently than animals without the mutation.

  和人类一样,指猴携带有一种基因突变,使它们分解乙醇的效率比没有突变的动物高40倍左右。

  Finding the gene dysfunction in the African elephant,however,raises questions about the old inebriation arguments.A slower capacity for clearing ethanol from the body could mean that the smallish amount that an elephant gets from eating its full of fermented fruit might be enough to change their behavior after all,Melin says.

  然而,在非洲象身上发现基因功能障碍,引发了人们对古老的醉酒论的质疑。Melin说,大象清除体内乙醇的能力较慢,这意味着大象从吃发酵水果中获得的少量乙醇可能足以改变它们的行为。

  Behavioral ecologist Phyllis Lee has been watching elephants in Kenya’s Amboseli National Park since 1982 and is now director of science for Amboseli Trust for Elephants.“In my youth,we tried to brew a form of maize beer(we were desperate),and the elephants loved to drink it,”she says.She does not take sides in the myth debate,although she muses about the“huge liver”of elephants,which would have at least some detoxifying power.

  行为生态学家菲利斯·李自1982年以来一直在肯尼亚安博塞利国家公园观察大象,现在是安博塞利大象信托基金的科学主任。她说:“在我年轻的时候,我们曾尝试酿造一种玉米啤酒(当时我们绝望了),大象们喜欢喝这种啤酒。”尽管她认为大象巨大的肝脏有一定的解毒能力,但她并没有在这场辩论中表明自己的立场。

  “I never saw one that was tipsy,”Lee says,although that home brew“didn’t do much for us puny humans either.”

  Lee说,“我从来没见过一种酒是微醺的,尽管这种自制的酒对我们这些弱小的人类也没多大帮助。”
网站部分信息来源于自互联网和网友上传,只为方便大家查询浏览,请自行核对信息的真实情况,本站将不承担任何责任!

您可以还会对下面的文章感兴趣:

  • 36小时环游新加坡
  • 中国颁布新规,限制未成年人玩游戏
  • 辞掉工作、花了57天,他们找回了走失的狗
  • 改善健康也许很简单:每天少吃300卡
  • 从《老友记》到《早间新闻》,詹妮弗·安妮斯顿的新旅程
  • 最新评论

    留言与评论(共有 条评论)
       
    验证码: