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“习八条”改变中国官员铺张旧习

更新时间:2014-2-28 15:14:03 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Trappings of Power Are Scaled Back for China’s High-Rolling Elite
“习八条”改变中国官员铺张旧习

BEIJING — Life for the almighty Chinese government official has come to this: car pools, domestically made wristwatches and self-serve lunch buffets.

北京——无所不能的中国政府官员的生活变成了这样:拼车出行、戴国产腕表,吃自助午餐。

In the four months since he was anointed China’s paramount leader and tastemaker-in-chief, President Xi Jinping has imposed a form of austerity on the nation’s famously free-spending civil servants, military brass and provincial party bosses. Warning that graft and gluttony threaten to bring down the ruling Communists, Mr. Xi has ordered an end to boozy, taxpayer-financed banquets and the bribery that often takes the form of a gift-wrapped Louis Vuitton bag.

自四个月前就任中国最高领导人以来,习近平已成为“首席潮流官”,要求以肆意花销出名的中国公务员、军方大佬和省委书记们实行某种形式的节俭。他警告,腐败和公款吃喝可能会导致执政的共产党下台,并下令禁止狂欢式的公款吃喝,以及收受通常以礼盒包装的路易威登(Louis Vuitton)包为形式的贿赂。

While the power of the nation’s elite remains unchallenged, the symbols of that power are slipping from view. Gone, for now, are the freshly cut flowers and red-carpet ceremonies that used to greet visiting dignitaries. Earlier this month, military officers who arrived here for the annual National People’s Congress were instructed to share hotel rooms and bring their own toiletries.

尽管中国权贵阶层的权力仍不受挑战,但这种权力的象征正从外界视线中消失。以往用来欢迎达官贵人的鲜花和红毯仪式不见了,至少暂时如此。本月初,军官们抵达北京参加每年一度的全国人大会议时,得到的指示是共用酒店房间并自带洗漱用品。

“Car-pooling feels so good because it provides a way to bond and chat with each other while saving money and increasing efficiency,” one senior military official told the People’s Liberation Army newspaper.

据《解放军报》报道,有高级军官表示,“这种‘拼车’的感觉真好,既节约成本、提高效益,又能相互聊天、增进感情。”

Not everyone has been so embracing of the change. Last Tuesday, the country’s top disciplinary body dismissed six functionaries, including a neighborhood party chief who spent $63,000 to entertain 80 colleagues at a seaside resort, and a county official who marked the opening of new administrative offices by throwing a feast for 290 people.

不过,这项改革并没有得到所有人的大力拥护。上周二,中纪委通报了六起公务员解职事件,受惩治者包括一名花了38.8155万元带80名同事去海边度假的街道党工委书记,以及一名借搬迁之机大摆290人宴席的乡党委书记。

The crackdown appears to be real, as far as it goes, which may not be very far. After a year of scandal that led to the toppling of a member of the Politburo, Bo Xilai, and numerous reports of widespread official corruption, Mr. Xi’s highly public campaign seems aimed at curtailing the most conspicuous displays of wealth by people in power. He has done little to tackle the concentrations of money and power in China’s state-directed economy that have allowed numerous members of the Chinese elite and their extended families to amass extravagant fortunes.

这场严打行动似乎是动真格的,至少是就行动波及之处而言,虽然它的波及面可能不会太广。过去的一年出现了导致政治局委员薄熙来倒台的丑闻,关于官员普遍性腐败的报道也是层出不穷,有鉴于此,习近平高调的宣传攻势似乎意在遏制权贵阶层最显眼的炫富行为。但他却没有采取什么行动来应对中国国家指导经济体制下的钱权集中问题,正是这种经济体制使得无数中国权贵及其远亲近属聚敛了巨额的财富。

Some analysts note that even a modest first step toward reducing corruption, a proposed regulation that would require top officials to publicly disclose their personal assets, appears to be stalled, highlighting the elite’s resistance to real change.

一些分析人士指出,看样子,就连减少腐败的最温和的第一步,亦即要求高层官员公布个人财产的监管建议,也已经无疾而终,这突显了权贵对真正变革的抵制。

Wu Qiang, a political-science professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, expressed cynicism about the moderation campaign, saying it distracted attention from the kinds of political reform necessary to make government more accountable and transparent. “More than just restricting people’s eating habits, we need to restrain the party’s power, otherwise this is just political farce,” he said.

位于北京的清华大学的政治学讲师吴强表达了对本次温和反腐运动的质疑。他称,这分散了人们的注意力,会让人们忽略那种能使政府更为可靠透明的必要政治改革。“不光是限制人们的饮食习惯,还要限制党的权力,不然的话,这就只是一场政治闹剧。”

Even so, Mr. Xi has garnered attention and some praise for his eight-point guide for official conduct, which he issued in January. Mr. Xi warned that his administration would swat both “tigers and flies” in an anti-corruption drive which he said was vital for winning back public trust.

尽管如此,习近平还是因今年1月下发的官员行为的八条要求而赢得了关注和一些赞扬。习近平警告称,反腐败对赢得公众信任至关重要,他这届政府要“老虎和苍蝇”一起打。

“If we don’t redress unhealthy tendencies and allow them to develop, it will be like putting up a wall between our party and the people, and we will lose our roots, our lifeblood and our strength,” Mr. Xi said.

习近平说,“如果不坚决纠正不良风气,任其发展下去,就会像一座无形的墙把我们党和人民群众隔开,我们党就会失去根基、失去血脉、失去力量。”

Mr. Xi’s campaign even has a new catchphrase, based on his vision of gastronomic self-restraint: “Four dishes and a soup.”

习近平的反腐运动甚至还有一条基于他饮食自律观念的新口号:“四菜一汤”。

So far, most victims of the frugality drive have been purveyors of the good life: high-end caterers, abalone wholesalers, five-star hotels and makers of Yellow Pavilion cigarettes, the $300-a-carton brand coveted by up-and-coming bureaucrats.

截至目前,节俭运动的大多数受害者都是品质生活的供应商:高端宴席承办商、鲍鱼批发商、五星级饭店和生产黄鹤楼香烟的厂家。黄鹤楼香烟售价1800元人民币一条,是许多新晋官员的爱物。

The ripple effects have reached all corners of the economy. First-class airline ticket sales have dropped by a tenth in recent months, and luxury goods dealers have reported a 20 percent to 30 percent decrease in sales. Moutai, the $600-a-bottle gut-searing rice liquor that is an omnipresent intoxicant at official banquets, has seen its growth slow by more than 20 percentage points recently.

连锁效应波及到了经济的每个领域。头等舱机票销售在最近几个月中下降了一成,奢侈品销售商也称自己的销售额下降了20%到30%。烈性白酒茅台售价3700元一瓶,是官方宴会上无处不在的佳酿,其销售也在最近下降了逾20%。

The China Cuisine Association said that 60 percent of restaurants surveyed last month had experienced a drop in reservations, with government-sponsored banquets down by nearly a third compared with the same period last year. Shen Danyang, a Ministry of Commerce spokesman who in normal times champions consumer spending, seemed to relish this particular slowdown. During a news conference last month, he noted that sales of shark fins had dropped more than 70 percent, and sales of edible swallow nests, the main ingredient of a $100-a-bowl delicacy, were down 40 percent.

中国烹饪协会指出,在上月接受调查的饭店中有60%遇上了预订下降的情况,和去年同期相比,政府买单的宴会也减少了将近三分之一。商务部发言人沈丹阳通常支持消费性开支,但却似乎很享受目前的消费下降趋势。他在上月的新闻发布会上指出,鱼翅的销售额降低了逾70%,燕窝的销售额也降低了40%。燕窝是一道单价600元的佳肴的主要食材。

To ensure compliance, government investigators have descended on restaurants to comb through receipts in search of large tabs suggesting abusive spending. “Even the big bosses are staying away from fancy restaurants and switching their expensive European wristwatches for Chinese brands until things calm down,” said one administrator from China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

为了确保人们遵守规定,政府调查人员下到饭店审查收据,寻找那些能说明浪费挥霍的大额账单。“连那些大领导都不来豪华饭店吃喝了,还把手腕上的欧洲名表换成了中国的本土品牌,等风头过了再说,”中国西南云南省的一名官员说。

Those who sell cigarette and alcohol say the drop in business has been painful. “I don’t know how much longer I can survive,” said Li Liuyuan, the owner of a liquor store who is going to give over half his business space to a fruit salesman.

烟酒销售商表示,生意下跌让他们处境艰难。“我不知道还能撑多久,”酒铺老板李留元(音译)说,他打算把半个铺面租给一个水果贩子。

Not surprisingly, the campaign is winning high marks from a citizenry long disgusted by the outlandish spending and other acts of arrogance. “It awakens the faith of the masses,” said Wang Yukai, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Governance.

不足为奇的是,节约行动赢得了民众的高度评价,因为中国民众早就对官方的挥霍无度和其他傲慢行为心怀不满。“行动唤醒了群众心中的信念,”国家行政学院的教授王玉凯说。

In the meantime, restaurants like Xiang E Qing, a chain once popular with government employees, have been left to figure out a way to survive.

与此同时,像“湘鄂情”这样的餐馆只能重新摸索生存之道。“湘鄂情”是一家连锁餐馆,曾经深受政府工作人员欢迎。

At the headquarters for China’s armed police, where two branches of the restaurant face each another across a courtyard packed with government-issued Audis, business was down by a third, officials said. The drop in revenue prompted the company to mothball one of the two restaurants, cut prices on some dishes and start offering half-size dishes to demonstrate the company’s dedication to Mr. Xi’s moderation credo.

在中国武警招待所,“湘鄂情”开着两家面对面的分店,两家分店中间是一个停满奥迪公车的院子。饭店管理人员称,生意下降了三分之一。收入下跌导致湘鄂情公司暂时关闭了其中的一家分店,降低了一些菜品的价格,并开始出售份量减半的菜肴,以此表示该公司对习近平节约信条的遵从。

To drive home the point, L.E.D. screens at the entrances to the restaurant’s 35 private dining rooms admonish patrons to “Order according to your needs.”

为了充分强调这一点,该店35间包房门口的液晶屏幕都向顾客发出了劝告,请他们“按需点菜”。

Waiters, whose salaries are partly based on commissions, have seen their salaries drop by a third, forcing many to quit. But many remaining employees say they support the new frugality. “I’d rather see our tax dollars being spent on the poor than paying for government banqueting,” Cui Fei, 24, said, standing in a nearly empty dining room one recent afternoon.

由于饭店服务员的工资有一部分是来自提成,他们的工资也下降了三分之一,很多人被迫离开。不过,很多留下来的员工都表示自己支持新的节约政策。“我情愿看到纳税人的钱被花在穷人身上,而不是为政府宴会买单,”不久前的一天下午,24岁的崔飞(音译)在人影寥寥的饭厅里接受采访时说。

Those on the receiving end of socially obligated self-indulgence are also feeling some relief. One entrepreneur, who dines almost nightly with government officials and business associates and did not want to be identified as a result, said such invitations have dropped by half. “The nightly drinking takes a serious toll,” he said, expressing no regret at forgoing the mandated Maotai toasts.

那些因社交需求而不得不纵情酒食的人也松了一口气。一名企业家几乎每晚都要和政府官员及商业伙伴吃喝,这也是他不愿具名的原因。他说,这样的饭局邀请下降了一半。“夜夜喝酒带来了严重损害,”他说。现在他不用被迫喝下茅台,对此他表示毫无遗憾。

But old ways die hard.

然而,积习难改。

In its investigation into continued abuses, the state-run Xinhua news agency decried “double-dealing officials who chant frugality slogans but secretly hold extravagant banquets.” Xinhua also discovered a new catchphrase popular among government officials: “Eat quietly, take gently and play secretly.”

在对继续存在的浪费行为进行调查时,官方媒体新华社谴责那些“喊着节约口号却私自豪华设宴的双面官员”。新华社还揭发了政府官员中流行的新口号,“悄悄地吃、轻轻地拿、偷偷地玩。”

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