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是穿山甲传播了新冠病毒吗

  Pangolins are scaly creatures often used in traditional Chinese medicine.Credit:Frans Lanting/National Geographic

  穿山甲是传统中医常用的鳞片动物。图片来源:法兰斯兰汀(Frans Lanting)/《国家地理》

  Researchers in Guangzhou,China,have suggested that pangolins—long-snouted,ant-eating mammals often used in traditional Chinese medicine—are the probable animal source of the coronavirus outbreak that has infected more than 30,000 people and is wreaking havoc worldwide.

  中国广州的研究人员认为,在本次已感染3万多人,并在全球范围内造成严重破坏的新冠病毒爆发中,穿山甲是可能的动物来源。穿山甲是一种长嘴食蚁的哺乳动物,经常在中药中使用。

  Scientists say that the suggestion,based on a genetic analysis,seems plausible—but caution that the researchers'work is yet to be published in full.“This is an extremely interesting observation.Although we need to see more details,it does make sense as there are now some other data emerging that pangolins carry viruses that are closely related to 2019-nCoV,”says Edward Holmes,an evolutionary virologist at the University of Sydney,Australia.

  科学家们说,根据遗传分析,这种说法看来似乎合理,但注意!上述研究人员的工作尚未全部发表。澳大利亚悉尼大学的进化病毒学家爱德华霍尔姆斯(Edward Holmes)说:“这是非常有趣的观察结果。尽管我们需要看到更多细节,但这种结果确实不无道理,因为现在还出现了其他一些数据,表明穿山甲所携带的病毒与新冠病毒密切相关。”

  新冠病毒的动物来源身份是研究人员一直在努力回答的关键问题之一

  The identity of the animal source of the coronavirus,named nCoV-2019,has been one of the key questions that researchers have been racing to answer.Coronaviruses are known to circulate in mammals and birds,and scientists have already suggested that nCoV-2019 originally came from bats,a proposal based on the similarity of its genetic sequence to those of other known coronaviruses.But the virus was probably transmitted to humans by another animal.The coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome,or SARS,spread from bats to civet cats to humans.

  新冠病毒的动物来源身份是研究人员一直在努力回答的关键问题之一。已知冠状病毒会在哺乳动物和鸟类中传播,根据新冠病毒基因序列与其他已知冠状病毒的相似性,科学家们已经推测新冠病毒最初来自蝙蝠。但是这种病毒在人类中的传播很可能经由另一种动物。引起严重急性呼吸系统综合症(SARS)的冠状病毒从蝙蝠到果子狸再到人类传播。

  Now,the South China Agricultural University in Guangzhou says that two of its researchers,Shen Yongyi and Xiao Lihua,have identified the pangolin as the potential source of nCoV-2019 on the basis of a genetic comparison of coronaviruses taken from the animals and from humans infected in the outbreak and other findings.The sequences are 99%similar,the researchers reported at press conference on 7 February.
纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com


  现在,中国广州的华南农业大学表示,根据从动物和感染患者身上提取的新冠病毒的基因比较和其他研究结果,该校两名研究人员沈永义(音译)和肖丽华(音译)已经确定:穿山甲是新冠病毒的潜在来源。在2月7日的新闻发布会上,这两名研究人员报道说,这些序列有99%的相似性。

  A good candidate

  重大嫌疑动物


  Previously,researchers have noted that coronaviruses are a possible cause of death in pangolins1,and that nCoV-2019 and coronaviruses from pangolins use receptors with similar molecular structures to infect cells.

  此前,研究人员已经注意到冠状病毒可能是穿山甲1的死亡原因,并且新冠病毒和穿山甲中的冠状病毒都经由分子结构相似的受体感染细胞。

  Even before today's announcement,pangolins were a good candidate for being an intermediate species for the virus,so it's very interesting that the researchers have found such a close sequence,says David Robertson,a computational virologist at the University of Glasgow,UK.

  英国格拉斯哥大学计算病毒学家戴维·罗伯森(David Robertson)说,即使在今天宣布这一消息之前,人们已经一直怀疑穿山甲是这种病毒的中间宿主,因此这两名研究人员发现如此相近的序列非常引人兴趣。

  穿山甲是受保护的动物,但非法贩运十分普遍,它们中的一些物种受到严重威胁

  Pangolins are protected animals,but illegal trafficking is widespread,and some species are critically endangered.They are sold,controversially,for their meat and scales,and for use in traditional Chinese medicine,in which parts of the animal are used to treat ailments such as skin diseases,menstrual disorders and arthritis.Chinese law states that people selling pangolins can be punished by 10 years or more in prison.<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

  穿山甲是受保护的动物,但非法贩运十分普遍,它们中的一些物种受到严重威胁。它们以肉类和鳞片的形式出售,在中药中也有使用穿山甲治疗疾病,例如皮肤病、月经失调和关节炎,因此而备受诟病。中国法律规定,销售穿山甲的人可能面临10年或以上的徒刑。

  The coronavirus emerged in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December,and is thought to have leapt to humans at a seafood and wild-animal market,where many of the first people to become infected worked.Pangolins were not listed on an inventory of items sold at the market—although the illegality of trading pangolins could explain this omission.

  新冠病毒于去年12月份在中国武汉市出现,现在一般认为是经由一家海鲜和野生动物市场传播给人类,因为许多第一批被感染人员曾在该市场工作。虽然穿山甲未列入市场上出售的物品清单中,但穿山甲交易的非法性质可以解释未入清单的原因。

  Last month,scientists in Beijing claimed that snakes were the source of nCoV-2019,but that theory was dismissed by other researchers.

  上个月,北京的科学家们声称蛇是新冠病毒的来源,但其理论被其他研究人员驳回。

  Shen and Xiao did not immediately respond to Nature's requests for comment,but Liu Yahong,president of the South China Agricultural University,told the press conference that the results would be published soon to help efforts to control the coronavirus.

  沈和肖并未立即回应《自然》杂志的评论请求,但是华南农业大学校长刘雅红在新闻发布会上说,研究结果将很快发布,以帮助控制新冠病毒。

  Scientists hope that the paper will offer details including where the team found the pangolins with the similar virus.Arinjay Banerjee,a coronavirus researcher at McMaster University in Hamilton,Canada,says that another crucial detail is where in pangolins the researchers found the virus—for example,whether it was isolated from blood samples or rectal swabs.This will help to determine how it might have been passed to humans and how such transmission could be prevented in the future.

  科学家们希望这篇未发表论文能提供详细信息,包括研究小组在何处发现带有类似病毒的穿山甲。加拿大汉密尔顿麦克马斯特大学的冠状病毒研究人员Arinjay Banerjee说,另一个至关重要的细节是研究人员在穿山甲中的何处发现了新冠病毒——例如,是从血液样本还是从直肠拭子中分离获得。这将有助于确定向人类的传播途径以及将来如何防止这种传播。

  “I can definitely believe it could be true,”says Kristian Andersen,an immunologist and computational biologist at Scripps Research in La Jolla,California.Andersen says he has compared publicly available sequences of pangolin viruses and found that they are similar to that of nCoV-2019.“I look forward to the published report and data.”

  美国加州拉霍亚斯克里普斯研究中心的免疫学家和计算生物学家克里斯蒂安·安德森(Kristian Andersen)说“我绝对相信这存在真实可能性。”他已经对穿山甲病毒的公开序列进行了比较,发现它们与新冠病毒相似。“我期待发布的报告和数据。”
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