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普京在乌克兰家门口进行军事演习

更新时间:2014-2-28 19:17:11 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Putin Drills Ground Troops at Ukraine’s Doorstep as U.S. Warns Against Intervention
普京在乌克兰家门口进行军事演习

MOSCOW — President Vladimir V. Putin ordered a surprise exercise of ground and air forces on Ukraine’s doorstep Wednesday, intending to demonstrate his country’s military preparedness at a time of heightened tensions with Europe and the United States over the turmoil gripping Russia’s western neighbor. The Obama administration said any Russian military intervention in Ukraine would be a costly and “grave mistake.”

莫斯科——周三,俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)突然下令在邻近乌克兰的地方进行陆军和空军演习。目前,俄罗斯因其西部邻国的恶劣局势而与欧洲和美国关系趋紧,普京希望借此展示俄罗斯已经在军事方面做好了准备。奥巴马政府表示,俄罗斯军方对乌克兰局势的任何干涉都将代价惨重,而且会成为“严重错误”。

Russia’s military put tens of thousands of troops in western Russia on alert at 2 p.m. for an exercise scheduled to last until March 3. The minister of defense, Sergei K. Shoigu, also announced unspecified measures to tighten security at the headquarters of Russia’s Black Sea Fleet on Ukraine’s Crimea peninsula.

下午两点,俄罗斯军方命令俄罗斯西部的数万名士兵进入戒备状态,这些士兵的演习按计划将持续到3月3日。国防部长谢尔盖·K·绍伊古(Sergei K. Shoigu)也宣布,将采取措施加强位于乌克兰克里米亚半岛的俄罗斯黑海舰队(Russia’s Black Sea Fleet)总部的安全保障。但他没有说明具体是什么措施。

The orders came as thousands of ethnic Russians gathered outside the regional parliament in Crimea’s capital, Simferopol, to protest the political upheaval in Ukraine’s capital, Kiev, that felled the government of President Viktor F. Yanukovych over the weekend and turned him into a fugitive. Crimea was a part of Russian territory until the Soviet Union ceded it to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ukraine in 1954, and Russians there have already pleaded for the Kremlin’s intervention to protect the region and its population from Ukraine’s new leadership.

前述命令发布之时,数千俄罗斯族民众正聚集在位于克里米亚首府辛菲罗波尔的地区议会门外,对乌克兰首都基辅所发生的政治动荡表示抗议。此次动荡让乌克兰总统维克托·F·亚努科维奇(Viktor F. Yanukovych)的政府在周末倒台,并把他变成了逃犯。1954年,前苏联把克里米亚交给了乌克兰苏维埃社会主义共和国,在此之前,克里米亚一直是俄罗斯领土的一部分。那里的俄罗斯族民众已经要求克里姆林宫进行干预,保护该地区和该地区人民不受乌克兰新领导层的伤害。

“Crimea is Russian!” some of the protesters screamed as brawls erupted with rival demonstrations by Crimea’s ethnic Tatars supporting the new interim authorities.

“克里米亚是俄罗斯的!”当抗议者与支持临时新政权的克里米亚鞑靼族示威者发生冲突时,一些抗议者高喊。

While the military maneuvers were largely seen as saber-rattling and not a precursor to armed intervention, they elicited new warnings from Western governments, notably the United States, which reminded Russia of its own admonishments to the West about big-power military adventurism.

虽然人们广泛认为前述军事调遣并非武力干涉的前兆,但它们仍然引来了西方政府尤其是美国政府的新警告,这些警告让俄罗斯想起了自己对西方发出的关于强国军事冒险主义的警告。

Speaking to a small group of reporters in Washington, Secretary of State John Kerry said it was important for the Russians “to heed those warnings as they think about options in the sovereign nation of Ukraine and I don’t think there should be any doubt whatsoever that any kind of military intervention that would violate the sovereign territorial integrity of Ukraine would be a huge - a grave mistake.”

国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)在华盛顿对一些记者发表了讲话,称俄罗斯“在考虑对主权国家乌克兰采取何种行动时,应该注意这些警告,而且我认为,任何有损于乌克兰领土完整的军事干预都将是一个巨大——一个严重错误,这一点不会有任何疑问。”

Mr. Kerry did not specify what the United States was prepared to do in response to a Russian military intervention, focusing instead on what he said the Russians would sacrifice.

克里并没有具体说明美国将以何种方式回应俄罗斯的军事干预,只是着重强调俄罗斯将要付出何种代价。

“I think it would cost them hugely in the world where they are trying to assert a sort of greater legitimacy with respect to their diplomacy,” he said. “That would blow it into shreds.”

“目前,他们正在努力为本国的外交争取更大的合法性,在我看来,干预将使他们付出惨重的代价,”他说。“那种举动将把他们的努力撕得粉碎。”

But Mr. Kerry asserted that the United States did not see Ukraine a East-West battleground, saying: “This is not Rocky IV.” Mr. Kerry also said the United States was considering a $1 billion package of loan guarantees to Ukraine to help address the deepening economic crisis there, as the interim leaders scrambled on Wednesday to form a new government able to find ways out of an impending default. They chose as prime minister Arseniy P. Yatsenyuk, a veteran public official who has served as Parliament speaker, foreign minister, economics minister and acting head of the central bank.

但是,克里明确表示,美国并没有把乌克兰视为东西方对抗的战场。他说:“这不是一部《洛奇4》(Rocky IV)。”克里还说,美国正在考虑为乌克兰提供总值10亿美元(约合61亿元人民币)的贷款担保,以帮助乌克兰应对越来越严重的经济危机。周三,乌克兰的临时领导人手忙脚乱地成立了一个新政府,希望它能找到解决方案来应对迫在眉睫的违约。他们将曾担任公职多年的阿尔谢尼·P·亚采纽克(Arseniy P. Yatsenyuk)选为总理,此人曾担任议长、外交部长、经济部长及中央银行代理行长。

The leaders also announced the dissolution of the country’s widely despised riot police force, the Berkut, whose officers were blamed for shooting demonstrators last week in Kiev’s central Independence Square.

临时领导人还宣布解散在乌克兰普遍不受欢迎的防暴警察部队别尔库特(Berkut),人们认为,该部队成员应为上周在基辅市中心独立广场(Independence Square)开枪打死抗议者的事情负责。

“Berkut is gone,” the acting interior minister, Arsen Avakov, declared in a posting on Facebook.

“别尔库特已经不复存在,”代理内政部长阿尔森·阿瓦科夫(Arsen Avakov)在Facebook上的一篇帖子中宣布。

General Shoigu announced the snap exercise during a meeting of Russia’s general staff, citing the need to test the readiness of Russia’s armed forces to respond to a “crisis situation,” including a terrorist attack involving biological or chemical weapons.

在与俄罗斯总参谋部开会期间,绍伊古将军宣布了前述临时决定的演习,称必须检验俄罗斯武装力量是否有足够的准备应对“危机情况”,包括涉及生物或化学武器的恐怖主义袭击。

Senior defense and government officials later said the exercise was not related to the events in Ukraine, which officials here have watched with growing alarm, but they also said there was no reason to postpone them either, and the geopolitical message was clear.

一些高级国防官员和政府官员后来表示,演习与乌克兰发生的事情无关,但他们同时表示,没有理由推迟演习。俄罗斯的官员越来越警惕地关注着乌克兰的局势,演习包含的地缘政治讯息也很明确。

“I think it is flag waving, but it’s more than that also,” Dmitri Trenin, the director of the Moscow Carnegie Center, said after the announcement of the exercise. “It’s a message to Kiev not to impose its rule in Crimea by force.”

“我觉得这是在耀武扬威,但还不仅仅是这样,”莫斯科卡内基中心(Moscow Carnegie Center)主任德米特里·特列宁(Dmitri Trenin)在军演消息公布之后说,“这是给乌克兰的一条讯息,要求它不要用武力强行统治克里米亚。”

Mr. Trenin warned that the exercise could have the opposite effect, rallying Ukrainians against Russia if the country’s territorial integrity appeared threatened.

特列宁警告称演习可能会起反作用,如果乌克兰的领土完整看上去受到了威胁,乌克兰人可能会团结起来对抗俄罗斯。

Russia has refused so far to recognize the legitimacy of the new political powers in Ukraine’s parliament, and denounced their actions since Mr. Yanukovych’s flight as inflammatory and divisive, including what the Foreign Ministry described on Wednesday as discrimination toward Russian Orthodox believers. Two days earlier Prime Minister Dmitri A. Medvedev said the turmoil posed “a real threat to our interests and to our citizens’ lives and health.”

截至目前,俄罗斯一直拒绝承认乌克兰议会新获得的政治权力的合法性,还谴责议会在亚努科维奇乘飞机逃离基辅后采取的行动是具有煽动性的分裂活动,其中包括俄罗斯外交部周三所说的对俄罗斯族东正教信徒的歧视。两天前,俄罗斯总理德米特里·A·梅德韦杰夫(Dmitri A. Medvedev)说,乌克兰骚乱“实实在在地威胁到了我们的利益以及我国公民的生命安全”。

The Crimea has been a particular focus of concern among Russian lawmakers, many of whom share the sentiment that the region is culturally and historically Russian, not Ukrainian. The Black Sea Fleet maintains its headquarters in the port of Sevastopol under a lease that Mr. Yanukovych’s government extended until 2042 after a riotous debate in Ukraine’s parliament in 2010.

克里米亚一直是俄罗斯议员特别关注的一个焦点,许多议员认为,不管是从文化还是历史方面来说,该地区都属于俄罗斯,而非乌克兰。黑海舰队依然将总部设在租来的塞瓦斯托波尔港。2010年,乌克兰议会爆发了一场激烈的大辩论,在此之后,亚努科维奇政府将港口租期延长到了2042年。

Mr. Yanukovych, the object of a nationwide manhunt in Ukraine, had been believed to be in hiding in Crimea after he bolted from Kiev on Saturday. Two Russian news agencies, citing unidentified sources, reported Wednesday night that he had arrived in Moscow. Other officials dismissed the reports.

周六逃离基辅后,在乌克兰全国遭到通缉的亚努科维奇据信一直藏身于克里米亚。周三晚上,两家俄罗斯新闻机构援引匿名人士的消息报道称,亚努科维奇已抵达莫斯科。其他一些官员否认了这些报道。

Russia’s military exercise will involve nearly 150,000 troops, including the entire Western Military District, one of four across the country, as well as hundreds of tanks and artillery batteries, and dozens of aircraft and ships, the deputy defense minister, Anatoly I. Antonov, said, according to Interfax.

据国际文传电讯社(Interfax)报道,俄罗斯国防部副部长阿纳托利·I·安东诺夫(Anatoly I. Antonov)表示,参加演习的将有近15万军队,其中包括俄罗斯四大军区之一的西部军区(Western Military District)的所有兵力,此外还有数百辆坦克和数百个炮台,数十架飞机和数十艘船。

Mr. Antonov informed the military attachés of several nations of the exercise, including the United States, as required by an agreement negotiated in 2011 and known as the Vienna Document.

按照2011年通过谈判达成的一项协议的要求,安东诺夫向包括美国在内的多个国家的使馆武官通报了军演一事。相关协议名为《维也纳文件》(Vienna Document)。

Aleksandr Golts, an independent military analyst in Moscow, said that the exercise theoretically could — and he emphasized the word “theoretically” — disguise a more general mobilization of Russia’s military in case a conflict erupted over Ukraine.

莫斯科的独立军事分析人士亚历山大·戈尔茨(Aleksandr Golts)表示,此次军演在理论上可以——他强调了“理论上”这个词——作为幌子,用以掩盖俄罗斯军方在乌克兰爆发冲突时将要进行的更大范围的动员。

“In my view it’s very bad, even if there are no plans to use the military, that maneuvers are being held with the goal of testing the nerves of others,” he said. “That these maneuvers will increase the tenseness of this situation — that is not even a question.”

“在我看来,这件事情很糟糕,即便他们并不打算动用军力,此次演习也带有考验他人神经的目的,”他说,“这些演习会导致紧张局势升级——这一点绝无疑问。”

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