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传奇的广州钢铁厂即将成为历史

更新时间:2014-2-28 19:28:34 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

As Steel Mill Closes, Guangzhou Loses a Piece of Its History
传奇的广州钢铁厂即将成为历史

Few steel mills in China have as storied a history as the Guangzhou Steel mill. Rival factions during the Cultural Revolution engaged in gun battles in and around the sprawling complex. Local residents say that young men and women hoping to flee China’s poverty and chaos in those days prepared for the all-night swim through shark-infested waters from Shenzhen to Hong Kong by practicing in the murky waters of the Pearl River next to the factory.

广州钢铁厂的历史富于传奇性,这在中国的钢铁厂中并不多见。文革期间,敌对派系在广钢庞大的厂区内和周围区域进行过枪战。当地居民说,那时希望逃离中国贫穷混乱状况的年轻男女,为了能穿过鲨鱼出没的水域,从深圳游泳一整夜到达香港,常常在广钢附近浑浊的珠江中进行练习。

Now most of the site is silent. Grass grows along the sides of broad avenues between cavernous sheds. Huge crane claws, each thick jaw the size of large refrigerator, lie abandoned on piles of dirt. Rusty, deserted towers give the site a post-apocalyptic feel, like a set for a “Mad Max” movie.

如今,这片厂区的大部分地方都一片寂静。在巨大的厂房之间,野草沿着宽阔的道路两侧生长。起重机的巨爪被遗弃在土堆上,每个抓斗都粗重如大型冰箱。废弃的高塔锈迹斑斑,令这里生出一派末世之感,好像是《疯狂的麦克斯》(Mad Max)电影里的布景。

The factory was essentially a small, semi-independent city across the river from Guangzhou, with its own apartment blocks, eateries and even a sports stadium. But a decade ago Guangzhou annexed the south bank, built a series of bridges across the river and lined the south bank with skyscraper apartment towers — except for the steel mill, where clouds of smoke long put it at or near the top of lists of the city’s biggest polluters.Then, in the summer of 2010, the Guangzhou municipal government announced that it would begin closing the mill as part of a national energy-efficiency campaign that saw older factories and power plants suddenly closed all over the country to meet national and provincial targets. A new, state-of-the-art steel mill was built at the southern end of Guangdong Province in Zhanjiang. The Guangzhou Steel site was scheduled for redevelopment, although specific plans were not disclosed.

这座厂基本上就是一个半独立的小型城市,跟广州隔江而望,它有自己的公寓楼、餐馆,甚至还有一个体育场。但是十年前,广州的开发浪潮席卷了南岸,政府修建了数座跨江大桥,南岸矗立起一栋栋摩天公寓楼,只有这座钢铁厂坚守阵地。它排放的大量烟雾,令其常年高居或者接近广州最大污染源的榜首。到了2010年夏天,广州市政府宣布将关闭这片厂区,以响应全国节能运动的号召,当时,为了达到国家和省级目标,全国各地的老旧工厂和发电厂突然纷纷关停。一座达到国际先进水平的新钢铁厂在广东南端的湛江市修建起来。广钢地块则将进行重新规划,但具体计划尚未披露。

Closing such a large operation as Guangzhou Steel, with 6,000 workers plus a large number of dependents, proved slow and politically complicated. Many of the workers had been given ownership of their factory apartments at nominal cost many years ago and found themselves with unexpectedly valuable homes when the construction of bridges across the river turned the steel mill district into a desirable living area for ever-expanding Guangzhou, which now has more than 12 million people. But many workers were still reluctant to give up jobs that they had held for decades.

广钢约有6000名工人及大量家属,事实证明,关闭这么大的工厂十分缓慢,而且受到政治因素的复杂影响。多年前,很多工人就以名义价格购买了广钢公寓的所有权;广州城区一直不断扩张,现在已经拥有逾1200万居民;当跨江大桥建成,广钢厂区成为了一个理想的居住区时,这些工人发现自家住宅的升值幅度超出意料。但很多工人仍不愿放弃自己干了几十年的工作。

These jobs tended to pay less well than those at private companies in nearby communities that are desperate for skilled blue-collar workers, who are in acutely short supply as younger Chinese increasingly go to college and refuse to consider factory work. But private-sector jobs offer few of the valuable benefits that an older state-owned enterprise like Guangzhou Steel can provide in terms of access to sports facilities and other perks.Guangzhou Steel’s furnaces were finally extinguished at the end of last September, company officials said. Workers and company officials said that more than 1,000 people still had jobs, notably in thinning thick slabs of steel into thinner rods and other shapes, but declined to provide details.

这些工作的薪资往往低于附近的私营企业,而私营企业对技术熟练的蓝领工人求贤若渴。由于中国年轻人上大学的越来越多,不愿到工厂工作的也越来越多,技术熟练的蓝领工人在中国严重供不应求。但是私营企业无法像广钢这样的老国企一样,为工人提供一些良好的福利待遇,比如体育设施的使用,以及其他好处。广钢的的管理人员说,他们的高炉最终在去年九月底停转。工人和管理人员说,有1000多人仍然在这片厂区工作,一项主要工作就是把厚钢板薄化成较细的钢管或者其他形状,但拒绝透露详细情况。

Guangzhou Steel officials also declined to say exactly how the site would be redeveloped. Peng Zhao, a company spokeswoman, said that the company planned to shift its operations to the trading of steel, aluminum and nonferrous metals as well as the management of trade exhibitions, and would continue producing high-value steel for the auto sector at another site on the city’s outskirts.

广钢的管理人员也拒绝透露这片厂区如何重新规划。该公司发言人赵鹏(音)表示,他们计划将其业务重心转移到钢铁、铝和有色金属的交易和贸易展的管理上,并会在广州郊区的另一个厂区继续为汽车行业生产价值较高的钢材。

The new factory in Zhanjiang, meanwhile, has been transferred to Baotou Steel, one of China’s largest steel companies.

与此同时,位于湛江的新工厂已被移交给了中国最大的钢铁企业之一包钢。

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